Geology of Georgia (U.S. state)


Geology of Georgia (U.S. state)

The Geology of Georgia consists of four distinct geologic regions, beginning in the northwest corner of the state and moving through the state to the southeast: the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, and the Coastal Plain. [http://www.gly.uga.edu/GAGeology.html#VR "The Geology of Georgia"] , University of Georgia Department of Geology (accessed October 25, 2006)]

Ridge And Valley

The Valley and Ridge geologic region only passes through the extreme northwest corner of Georgia. During the middle Ordovician Period (about 440,480 million years ago), the tectonic plate carrying this area collided with another plate, leading to the creation of a new subduction zone and the beginning of the Appalachians [ [http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/parks/province/appalach.html "Geologic Provinces of the United States: Appalachian Highlands Province"] , a USGS publication (accessed October 25, 2006)] As a result of this and later orogenies, alternating beds of hard and soft Paleozoic sedimentary rocks were folded, looking much like the wrinkles one would find in a kicked floor rug. [ [http://tapestry.usgs.gov/features/06valleyridge.html "A Tapestry of Time and Terrain: Appalachian Valley and Ridge"] , a USGS mapping project (accessed October 25, 2006)] In Georgia, the Valley and Ridge includes limestone, sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rocks, which have yielded construction-grade limestone, barite, ochre and small amounts of coal. The extent of the Valley and Ridge is bound by the Carters Dam Fault in the east and the Emerson Fault in the south. [http://home.att.net/~cochrans/gageol01.htm "Georgia Geology"] by Chuck Cochran (accessed October 25, 2006)]

Blue Ridge

The Blue Ridge geologic region forms the North Georgia mountains. In this region, the highest points in Georgia are found, including Brasstown Bald. The Blue Ridge consists of metamorphic rocks, either metamorphosed equivalents of sedimentary rocks or igneous rocks, and the region includes the metavolcanic rocks of the Georgia Gold Belt. The region also includes igneous intrusions of granite and diabase. From the discovery of gold in the Georgia Gold Belt in 1828, enough gold was mined in the area to cause a branch mint of the United States Mint to be located in Dahlonega, Georgia. Marble and talc are other resources produced in the Blue Ridge in Georgia.

Piedmont

The Piedmont geologic region is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks resulting from ancient (300 to 600 million year old) sediments that were subjected to high temperatures and pressures and re-exposed about 250 to 300 million years ago. [ [http://ga.water.usgs.gov/olympics/piedmont.geol.html "Georgia Piedmont"] , a USGS document (accessed October 25, 2006)] Rocks typical of the region include schist, amphibolite, gneiss, migmatite, and granite. This region is more hilly than mountainous and is marked by lower elevations than the Blue Ridge. Nevertheless, the Piedmont is home to prominent features like Stone Mountain and the Brevard Fault zone, an ancient fault zone that last moved about 185 million years ago. [ [http://home.att.net/~cochrans/brevrd01.htm "Brevard Fault Zone"] by Chuck Cochran (accessed October 25, 2006)]

Coastal Plain

The Coastal Plain in Georgia is part of a geologic region that extends from New Jersey to Texas and consists of sedimentary rocks deposited in the Late Cretaceous to Holocene periods. [ [http://tapestry.usgs.gov/features/13coastalplain.html "A Tapestry of Time and Terrain: The Coastal Plain"] , a USGS mapping project (accessed October 25, 2006)] It is divided from the Piedmont by the Fall Line, which passes through Georgia from Augusta, Georgia in the east, then southwestward to Macon, Georgia, then to Columbus, Georgia and finally westward to Montgomery, Alabama. The rocks in this region are from the Late Cretaceous to Holocene periods, with some marine and terrestrial fossils and rare fragments of dinosaurs. The main mineral resource of the Coastal Plain in Georgia is kaolin.

References

ee also

*Basic geologic features of each state
*Geology of the Appalachians

United States topic
title = Geology of the United States by political division
prefix = Geology of


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