- Francis William Aston
name = Francis William Aston
image_size = 180px
September 1 1877
death_date = death date and age|1945|11|20|1877|9|1
University of Cambridge
University of Birmingham University of Cambridge
J. J. Thomson
known_for = Mass spectrograph
Whole Number Rule
Nobel Prize for Chemistry(1922)
Francis William Aston (
September 1 1877– November 20 1945) was a British chemistand physicistwho won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule." [cite web | url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1922/ | title=The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922 | accessdate=2008-04-14 | publisher=Nobel Foundation ] cite journal | title=Francis Aston and the mass spectrograph | journal= Dalton Transactions| date=1998 | first=Gordon | last=Squires | coauthors= | volume= | issue= | pages=3893–3900 | doi= 10.1039/a804629h | url=http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/DT/article.asp?doi=a804629h | accessdate=2007-12-06 ]
Francis Aston was born in Harborne, now part of Greater Birmingham, on September 1, 1877. He was the third child and second son of William Aston and Fanny Charlotte Hollis. He was educated at the Harborne Vicarage School and later Malvern College in Worcestershire where he was a boarder. In 1893 Francis William Aston began his university studies at
Mason College(later part of the University of Birmingham) where he was taught physics by John Henry Poyntingand chemistry by Frankland and Tilden. From 1896 on he conducted additional research on organic chemistryin a private laboratory at his father’s house. In 1898 he started as a student of Frankland financed by a Forster Scholarship; his work concerned optical properties of tartaric acidcompounds. He started to work on fermentation chemistry at the school of brewing in Birmingham and was employed by W. Butler & Co. Brewery in 1900. This period of employment ended in 1903 when he returned to the University of Birmingham under Poynting as an Associate.
With a scholarship from the
University of Birminghamhe pursued research in physics following the discovery of X-raysand radioactivityin the mid-1890s. Aston studied the current through an electronic discharge tube(a gas-filled tube with electrodes under high vacuum). The research, conducted with self-made discharge tubes, led him to investigate the volume of the Crookes dark spacenow known as Aston dark space. [cite journal | title=Experiments on a New Cathode Dark Space in Helium and Hydrogen | author=Francis William Aston | journal=Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A | volume=80 | issue=535 | pages=45–49 | year=1907 | url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0950-1207%2819071209%2980%3A535%3C45%3AEOANCD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1] [cite journal | title=Experiments on the Length of the Cathode Dark Space with Varying Current Densities and Pressures in Different Gases | author= Francis William Aston | journal=Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series | volume=79 | issue=528 | pages=80–95 | year=1907 | url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0950-1207%2819070424%2979%3A528%3C80%3AEOTLOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z] [cite journal | title=The Distribution of Electric Force in the Crookes Dark Space | author=Francis William Aston | journal=Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A | volume=84 | issue=573 | pages=526–535 | year=1911 | url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0950-1207%2819110126%2984%3A573%3C526%3ATDOEFI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N]
After the death of his father, and a trip around the world in 1908, he was appointed lecturer at the University of Birmingham in 1909 but moved to the
Cavendish Laboratoryin Cambridgeon the invitation of J. J. Thomsonin 1910.
Joseph John Thomson revealed the nature of the
cathode rays and the discovered the electron and he was now doing research on the positively charged "Kanalstrahlen" discovered by Eugen Goldsteinin 1886. The method of deflecting particles in the "Kanalstrahlen" by magnetic fields, discovered by Wilhelm Wienin 1908, and electric fields were used to separate the different ions by their charge and mass. The first sector field mass spectrometer was the result of these experiments. The ions followed a parabolic flight path and were recorded on photographic plates from which their exact mass could be determined by the mass spectrometer.
It was speculations about isotopy that directly gave rise to the building of a mass spectrometer capable of separating the isotopes of the chemical elements. Aston initially worked on the identification of
isotopes of the element neonand later chlorine and mercury. First World War stalled and delayed his research on providing experimental proof for the existence of isotopes by mass spectroscopy and during the war Aston worked at the Royal Airforce Establishment in Farnborough as a Technical Assistant working on aeronautical coatings.
After the war he returned to research at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, and completed building his first mass spectrograph (now mass spectrometer) that he reported on 1919. Subsequent improvements in the instrument led to the development of a second and third instrument of improved mass resolving power and mass accuracy. These instruments employing electromagnetic focusing allowed him to identify 212 naturally occurring isotopes. In 1921, F. W. Aston became a fellow of the
Royal Societyand received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry the following year.
His work on isotopes also led to his formulation of the
Whole Number Rulewhich states that "the mass of the oxygen isotope being defined, all the other isotopes have masses that are very nearly whole numbers," a rule that was used extensively in the development of nuclear energy. The exact mass of many isotopes was measured leading to the result that hydrogen has a 1% higher mass than expected by the average mass of the other elements. Aston speculated about the subatomic energy and the use of it in 1936.
Aston was a skilled
photographerand interested in astronomy. He joined several expeditions to study solar eclipses to Benkoeben in 1925, Sumatrain 1932; Memphri in Canada1936 and Kamishri in Japan. He also planned to attend expeditions to South Africain 1940 and Brazilin 1945 in later life. Aston died in Cambridge on November 20, 1945,
In his private life he was a sportsman,
cross-country skiingand skatingin winter time, during his regular visits to Switzerlandand Norway, deprived of this winter sports during First World War he started climbing. Between the ages of 20 and 25 he spent a large scale of his spare time cycling. The new invention of motorized vehicles he constructed a combustion engineof his own in 1902 and participated in the Gordon Bennett Racein Ireland in 1903. Not content with these sports he also engaged in swimming, golf, especially with Rutherfordand other colleges in Cambridge, [cite journal | title=Cavendish's Crocodile and Dark Horse - The Lives of Rutherford and Aston in Parallel | author= KM Downard| journal=Mass Spectrometry Reviews | volume=26 | issue=5 | pages=713–723 | year=2007 | url= | doi=10.1002/mas.20145] tennis, winning some prizes at open tournaments in England Walesand Irelandand learning surfing in Honululuin 1909. Coming from a musical family he was capable to play piano, violineand celloat a level that he regularly was played in the concerts at Cambridge. He visited many places around the globe on extensive travel tours starting from 1908 when he visited and ending with a trip to Australiaand New Zealandin 1938-1939. [cite journal | title=Francis William Aston. 1877-1945 | author= George de Hevesy| journal=Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society | volume=5 | issue=16 | pages=634–650 | year=1948 | url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1479-571X%28194805%295%3A16%3C634%3AFWA1%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H ] [cite journal | title=Francis William Aston - the man behind the mass spectrograph | author= KM Downard| journal=European Journal of Mass Spectrometry | volume=13 | issue=3 | pages=177–190 | year=2007 | url= | doi=10.1255/ejms.878]
"Isotopes" (publ. in 1922) and "Mass-spectra- and Isotopes" (publ. in 1933) are his most well-known publications.
lunar craterAston was named in his honour.
* [http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people/Aston,+Francis+W. Annotated bibliography for Francis Aston from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues]
* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1922/aston-bio.html Aston biography from Nobel Prize site]
* [http://www-outreach.phy.cam.ac.uk/camphy/physicists/physicists_aston.htm Aston biography from Cambridge]
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