Candida (genus)


Candida (genus)

Taxobox
name = "Candida"



image_width = 320px
regnum = Fungi
phylum = Ascomycota
subphylum = Saccharomycotina
classis = Saccharomycetes
ordo = Saccharomycetales
familia = Saccharomycetaceae
genus = "Candida"
genus_authority = Berkh., 1923
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision ="C. albicans"
"C. ascalaphidarum "C. amphixiae"
"C. antarctica"
"C. atlantica "C. atmosphaerica"
"C. blattae" "C. carpophila" "C. cerambycidarum"
"C. chauliodes"
"C. corydali" "C. dosseyi" "C. dubliniensis"
"C. ergatensis" "C. fructus"
"C. glabrata"
"C. fermentati "C. guilliermondii"
"C. haemulonii"
"C. insectamens"
"C. insectorum"
"C. intermedia"
"C. jeffresii" "C. kefyr"
"C. krusei"
"C. lusitaniae"
"C. lyxosophila" "C. maltosa" "C. membranifaciens"
"C. milleri"
"C. oleophila"
"C. oregonensis"
"C. parapsilosis"
"C. quercitrusa" "C. sake"
"C. shehatea" "C. temnochilae"
"C. tenuis"
"C. tropicalis"
"C. tsuchiyae"
"C. sinolaborantium" "C. sojae" "C. viswanathii
"C. utilis"

"Candida" is a genus of yeasts. Many species of this genus are endosymbionts of animal hosts including humans. While usually living as commensals, some "Candida" species have the potential to cause disease. Clinically, the most significant member of the genus is "Candida albicans", which can cause infections (called candidiasis or thrush) in humans and other animals, especially in immunocompromised patients.cite book | author = Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) | title = Sherris Medical Microbiology | edition = 4th ed. | publisher = McGraw Hill | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 0838585299 ] Many "Candida" species are members of gut flora in animals, including "C. albicans" in mammalian hosts, whereas others live as endosymbionts in insect hosts.cite journal |author=Nguyen NH, Suh SO, Blackwell M|title=Five novel Candida species in insect-associated yeast clades isolated fromNeuroptera and other insects |journal=Mycologia|volume=99 |issue=6 |pages=842–858 |year=2007|doi=10.3852/mycologia.99.6.842] cite journal |author=Suh SO, Nguyen NH, Blackwell M |title=Yeasts isolated from plant-associated beetles and other insects: seven novel Candida species near Candida albicans |journal=FEMS Yeast Res|volume=8 |issue=1 |pages=88–102 |year=2008|pmid=17986254]

The last decade has seen the sustained medical importance of opportunistic infections due to different "Candida" species mainly due to the worldwide increase in the number of immunocompromised patients, who are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections.cite book | author = dEnfert C; Hube B (editors) | title = Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2007 | id = ISBN 9781904455134 ] Meanwhile, the genome sequence of several "Candida" species has been completed, enabling the detailed investigation of some aspects of their biology with the aid of post-genomic approaches. The basic knowledge gained from these investigations of pathogenic "Candida", and related yeasts, can translate into innovations in the development of novel antifungal therapies, original approaches for targeted immuno-interventions, or highly sensitive diagnosis of fungal infections.cite book | author = dEnfert C; Hube B (editors) | title = Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2007 | id = ISBN 9781904455134 ]

Candida antarctica is a source of industrially relevant lipases.

Laboratory characteristics

Grown in the laboratory, "Candida" appears as large, round, white or cream ("albicans" is from Latin meaning 'whitish') colonies on agar plates.cite web | title=Candida species | work=DoctorFungus.org | url=http://www.doctorfungus.org/thefungi/Candida_spp.htm | accessdate=2007-02-09]

Clinical characteristics

Some "Candida" species are responsible for superficial infections such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (vaginal Candidiasis). In otherwise healthy individuals, these infections can be cured with antifungal medications. However, persistent and deep-seated yeast infections can be lethal in, e.g., AIDS patients.

"Candida" are also responsible for a number of life-threatening opportunistic infections in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised persons - including patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs), cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and organ transplant patients.cite book | author = Enfert C, Hube B (editors) | title = Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2007 | isbn = 9781904455134 ]

Another common "Candida" infection is oral candidiasis caused by acrylic dentures, especially in elderly denture wearers.cite journal |author=Darwazeh A, Lamey P, Samaranayake L, MacFarlane T, Fisher B, Macrury S, MacCuish A |title=The relationship between colonisation, secretor status and in-vitro adhesion of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells from diabetics |journal=J Med Microbiol |volume=33 |issue=1 |pages=43–9 |year=1990 |pmid=2231671] Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by "C. albicans" may result from taking antacids or antihyperacidity drugs. This colonization may interfere with absorption of Coenzyme Q10.cite journal |author=Krone C, Elmer G, Ely J, Fudenberg H, Thoreson J |title=Does gastrointestinal "Candida albicans" prevent ubiquinone absorption? |journal=Med Hypotheses |volume=57 |issue=5 |pages=570–2 |year=2001 |pmid=11735312 |doi=10.1054/mehy.2001.1410]

pecies

Among "Candida" species, "C. albicans", which is normal constituent of the human flora, a commensal of the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, is responsible for the majority of "Candida" bloodstream infections (candidemia). Yet, there is an increasing incidence of infections caused by "C. glabrata", which could be because it is frequently less susceptible to the currently used azole antifungals. Other medically important "Candida" species include "C. parapsilosis", "C. tropicalis", and "C. dubliniensis".

Other "Candida" species, such as "C. oleophila" have been used as biological control agents in fruit.cite journal | authorlink = El-Neshawy, S.M. | title = Efficacy of "Candida oleophila" strain 128 in preventing "Penicillium Expansum" infection in apricot fruit | journal = Acta Hort. | publisher = ISHS | volume = 485 | pages = 141–148 | year = 1999 | url=http://www.actahort.org/books/485/485_18.htm]

Other

Alternative medicine practitioners use the term "Candida" to refer to a complex with broad spectrum of symptoms, the majority of which center around gastrointestinal distress, rashes, sore gums and other miscellaneous symptoms. Candida is accorded responsibility for symptoms as specific as hayfever, as vague as "foggy brain" and as common as weight gain or flatulence. These symptoms are attributed by alternative medicine practitioners to the "overgrowth" of intestinal candida albicans, which they claim leads to the spread of the yeast to other parts of the body via the bloodstream.

Use of the term Candida by alternative medicine practitioners to describe this complex and its unassociated use in biomedicine to refer to the fungus that causes vaginal yeast infections and thrush can be confusing for patients. No studies have proved that having intestinal candidiasis causes any symptoms of illness. [cite journal | title = Mayoclinic.com | url=http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/candida-cleanse/AN01679]

To treat what they refer to as Candida, alternative medicine practitioners will often recommend avoiding antibiotics, birth control, and foods that are high in sugar or yeast, ostensibly to "eliminate excess yeast" in the body. However, there is no evidence that these "candida cleanse" treatments treat intestinal candidiasis effectively. [cite journal | title = Factsmart.org | url=http://www.factsmart.org/candida/can.htm] [cite journal | title = HealthnVitality.com | url=http://www.healthnvitality.com/candida-and-candidiasis.htm] [cite journal | title = Mayoclinic.com | url=http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/candida-cleanse/AN01679]

References


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