Arikara


Arikara

Arikara (also Sahnish, Arikaree, Ree) refers to a group of Native Americans that speak a Caddoan language. They were a semi-nomadic group that lived on the Great Plains of the United States of America for several hundred years. They lived primarily in earth lodges, used tipis while traveling from their villages, and were an agricultural society. Their primary crop was corn (or maize), and it was such an important aspect of their society that it was often referred to as "Mother Corn." Fact|date=July 2008

The Arikara moved from South Dakota into North Dakota, now on the Fort Berthold reservation.

Their population was decimated by smallpox in the late 1830s, and due to their reduced numbers, they started to work closer to the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes who lived in the same area. Today the three tribes are still closely associated and are known as the Three Affiliated Tribes.

During the Black Hills War, Arikaras served as scouts for Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer on the Little Bighorn Campaign.

Arikara is now spoken in North Dakota by a very few elders. Less than 5 speakers remain, in the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in North Dakota. Arikara is very close to the Pawnee language, but they are not mutually intelligible.

Arikara Economy

The Arikara were among the first people to successfully move to the Dakota Missouri River area and utilize the bison as a food source, probably around 1150 AD. They did not live in tipis, except in certain circumstances. They originated in what is now central Missouri, and were essentially a Woodlands culture. They were hunters of the lowland river fauna, but their economy centered around hunting, gathering, fishing,and especially horticulture. During the move to the Dakotas, the Arikara brought this economic preference with them, focusing on the river bottoms for sustenance. In addition to their horticultural practices in the river bottoms, they became successful bison hunters. As with many Plains bison hunters, they hunted by several means. One technique was the use of a funnel-shaped triangular fence into which the herd or portions of it were herded into an ever smaller area, allowing the animals to be killed by bow or spear. The Arikara also drove the animals over jumps, panicking the herd to run over a cliff. They also set fire to the prairie grasses, creating a new crop of succulent shoots that could be detected by the bison for miles. Once the herd gathered, warriors in wolf skins would crawl among the herd and take an animal. Upon the introduction of the horse by the Spanish, many Arikara adopted a more equestrian form of bison-hunting, or a horse culture.

ee also

* Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation
* Arikara War
* Native American tribes in Nebraska

Bibliography

* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Mithun, Marianne. (1999). "The languages of Native North America". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Arikara — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Arikara Delegación mandan y arikara (1874) Población total unos 2.000 en 1990 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Arikara —   [ə rikərə], Indianergruppe (etwa 1 900 A.) am oberen Missouri. Die Arikara sprechen eine Sprache der Caddo Sprachfamilie. Sie bewohnten palisadengeschützte Erdhausdörfer und leben in der 1880 gegründeten Fort Berthold Reservation mit den Mandan …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Arikara — ☆ Arikara [ə rē′kə rə, ə rē′rik′ərə ] n. [Fr Aricara < Pawnee arikará·ruʾ, elk, lit., horns; explained as an allusion to a hairstyle formerly worn by male members of this people] 1. a member of a North American Indian people living along the… …   English World dictionary

  • Arikara — /euh rik euhr euh/, n., pl. Arikaras, (esp. collectively) Arikara for 1. 1. a member of a group of North American Indians of Pawnee origin who now inhabit the Dakota region. 2. the Caddoan language spoken by the Arikara. * * * ▪ people also… …   Universalium

  • Arikara — Wohngebiet Ehemaliges Stammesgebiet der Arikaree und heutige Reservation in North Dakota. Systematik Kulturareal …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Arikara — noun (plural Arikara) Etymology: probably from a Pawnee name for an Arikara band Date: 1811 1. a member of an American Indian people of the Missouri River valley in North Dakota 2. the language of the Arikara …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Arikara — noun 1. a member of the Caddo people who formerly lived in the Dakotas west of the Missouri river • Syn: ↑Aricara • Hypernyms: ↑Caddo 2. the Caddoan language spoken by the Arikara • Syn: ↑Aricara • Hypernyms: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Arikara — Sahnish Arikara …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Arikara — A•rik•a•ra [[t]əˈrɪk ər ə[/t]] n. pl. ras, (esp. collectively) ra. 1) peo a member of an American Indian people of North Dakota 2) peo the Caddoan language of the Arikara, closely related to Pawnee …   From formal English to slang

  • Arikara — ISO 639 3 Code : ari ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3


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