ABC Television


ABC Television

ABC Television is a service of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation launched in 1956. As a public broadcaster, the ABC provides two main channels within Australia as well a partially advertising-funded satellite channel overseas.

History

The history of the ABC's television operations can be traced back to 1953, when the federal "Television Act" was passed, providing the initial regulatory framework for both the ABC and commercial television networks. cite web
title = About the ABC - The 50s - The Postwar Years
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://www.abc.net.au/corp/history/hist4.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] cite web |title=AusTVHistory: Australian Broadcasting Corporation 1950s-1960s |url=http://host.virtualreality.pk/suspended.page/ |publisher=AusTVHistory |author=Brooklyn Ross-Hulands |accessdate=2007-10-04 ] Over the next three years, planning for the introduction of a national television service was put in place - land for studios and transmitters in Sydney and Melbourne was acquired, and overseas tutors were brought to Australia to assist with training. Commercial station TCN-9 Sydney was the first to broadcast in Australia, soon followed by the ABC's own ABN-2 Sydney and later ABV-2 in Melbourne. Six stations, three in Melbourne and three in Sydney, were in operation in time to cover the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne. The ABC's first television broadcast was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November, at the Gore Hill studios in Sydney, followed two weeks later by transmission in Melbourne.

Although radio programs could be broadcast nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not put in place until the early 1960s. This meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. A purpose-built television studio was built in Sydney, and opened on 29 January 1958 - replacing temporary sound studios used since the ABC's television services launched in 1956. In the same year, technical equipment was also moved to permanent locations, while main transmitters were introduced to Melbourne and Sydney in 1957 and 1958, respectively.citation |title=Twenty-Sixth Annual report of the Australian Broadcasting Commission |year=1958 ]

Direct relays between Sydney and Melbourne, as well as Canberra, were also established in 1961, replacing temporary microwave relays as a means of simultaneously airing programs across multiple stations.cite web
title = About the ABC - The 60s and 70s
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://www.abc.net.au/corp/history/hist5.htm
] Videotape equipment, allowing the sharing of footage with much greater ease and speed, was installed in each state capital by 1962.

ABQ-2 Brisbane was the third ABC TV station to launch and was followed a year later by counterparts in Perth, Hobart, and Adelaide. ABC-3 Canberra opened a year later, with ABD-6 Darwin finally completing the ABC's coverage of every state in 1971.

Teletext services were introduced to ABC-TV in 1983 to allow hearing impaired viewers access to closed captions.cite book |last=Inglis |first=Kenneth Stanley |title=Whose ABC? The Australian Broadcasting Corporation 1983-2006 |year=2006 |publisher=Black Inc. |location=Melbourne, Victoria |isbn=1-86395-189-X ] International television service Australia Television International was established in 1993. cite web
title = About the ABC - The 90s
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://www.abc.net.au/corp/history/hist7.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] Australia Television was sold to the Seven Network in 1998, however the service continued to show content from ABC News up until its closure in 2001.

The ABC's television operations joined its radio and online divisions at the Corporation's Ultimo headquarters in 2000. cite web
title = About the ABC - 2000s - A New Century
publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation
url = http://www.abc.net.au/corp/history/hist8.htm
accessdate = 2007-10-01
] In 2002, the ABC launched ABC Asia Pacific - the replacement for the defunct Australia Television channel operated previously by the Seven Network. Much like its predecessor, and companion radio network Radio Australia, the service provided a mix of programming targeted at audiences throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Funding cuts in 2003, meanwhile, led to the closure of Fly and the ABC Kid's Channel.

ABC2, a second attempt at a digital-only television channel, launched on 7 March 2005. Unlike its predecessors the new service was not dependent on government funding, instead running on a budget of $3 million per year. Minister for Communications Helen Coonan inaugurated the channel at Parliament House three days later. [ cite web
url = http://www.dba.org.au/index.asp?sectionID=74&newsID=641&display=news
title = ABC2 launched at Parliament House
accessdate = 2007-03-31
date = 2005-03-11
work = ABC New Media & Digital Services
publisher = dba.org.au
] Genre restrictions limiting the types of programming the channel could carry were lifted in October, 2006 - ABC2 was henceforth able to carry programming classified as comedy, drama, national news, sport and entertainment. [ cite web
url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2006/oct/18/business.pressandpublishing
title = Australia opens up media investment
accessdate = 2007-03-31
date = 2006-10-18
work = MediaGuardian.co.uk
publisher = guardian.co.uk
]

In the lead up to the 2007 federal election, the Australian Government endorsed a proposal submitted to the Australian Communications and Media Authority by the ABC to launch a second digital channel targeted at children.cite news
title = Free kids' TV channel is as easy as ABC3
publisher = The Age
date = 2007-09-23
url = http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/free-kids-tv-channel-is-as-easy-as-abc3/2007/09/22/1189881837000.html
accessdate = 2008-09-01
] The new channel, titled ABC3 would aim to provide at least 50% Australian-made content.cite news
title = Kids to get own channel
publisher = The Sydney Morning Herald
date = 2007-09-23
url = http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/kids-to-get-own-channel/2007/09/22/1189881838186.html
accessdate = 2008-09-01
]

At midday on 8 February 2008, ABC TV was rebranded as ABC1, complementing the existing ABC2 digital-only channel launched on 7 March 2005.cite news | title = ABC promises more content choice | publisher = The Australian | date = 2008-02-06 | url = http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23171159-12377,00.html | accessdate = 2008-02-06 ] [cite news | last = Welch | first = Dylan | title = ABC squiggle to stay | publisher = Brisbane Times | date = 30 January 2008 | url = http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/articles/2008/01/30/1201369172600.html | accessdate = 2008-01-30 ]

ervices

Australia

Within Australia, the ABC operates two channels. ABC1, the Corporation's original television service, receives the bulk of funding for television and shows first-run comedy, drama, documentaries, and news and current affairs. In each state and territory a local news bulletin is shown at 7.00pm nightly.

ABC2, launched in 2005, is a digital-only channel that shows repeated programs from ABC1, as well as some original content including news programs, children's shows, animation, and music shows. ABC HD, a high-definition simulcast of ABC1 New South Wales, is also available in most areas.

Although the ABC's headquarters in Sydney serve as a base for program distribution nationally, ABC Television network is comprised of eight state- and territory-based stations, each based in their respective state capital:
*ABN (Sydney, New South Wales)
*ABV (Melbourne, Victoria)
*ABQ (Brisbane, Queensland)

*ABS (Adelaide, South Australia)
*ABW (Perth, Western Australia)
*ABT (Hobart, Tasmania)
*ABC (Canberra, Australian Capital Territory)
*ABD (Darwin, Northern Territory)

Overseas

The Australia Network is an international satellite television service operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, funded by advertising and grants from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Aimed at the Asia-Pacific region, the service broadcasts a mixture of English language programming, including general entertainment, sport, and current affairs.

Other

Between 2001 and 2003, the ABC operated two separate digital channels. The ABC Kids Channel and Fly TV, opened soon after the launch of digital terrestrial television in Australia, showed programs focussed mainly at children and teenagers. The two channels closed in 2003 when the ABC was unable to secure government funding.

The Australian government announced a proposal in September, 2007 to launch a new digital-only children's channel, to be named ABC3.cite news
title = Free kids' TV channel is as easy as ABC3
publisher = The Age
date = 2007-09-23
url = http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/free-kids-tv-channel-is-as-easy-as-abc3/2007/09/22/1189881837000.html
accessdate = 2008-09-01
] The proposal indicated that the channel would be aimed at children below the age of 15 years, with 50% of its programming derived from Australian sources. Unlike its predecessor, the ABC Kids Channel, ABC3 would run from 6am to 9pm each day, and feature drama, comedy, animation and music. The proposal received support from the Australian Liberal Party during its election campaign however it is not known whether the incumbent Labor government supports the proposal. Recently on digital recorders, the ABC3 channel will appear though it is only a simulcast of ABC1 for the moment. [cite news |title=The state of Children's television |url=http://www.abc.net.au/rn/mediareport/stories/2007/2108989.htm |date=2007-12-06 |accessdate=2008-09-01 |publisher=Radio National ] In the future, ABC3 may broadcast alternative content, though further details on its programming are unknown. [cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/reception/digital/faqs.htm |title=Frequently Asked Questions about Digital TV - ABC Reception Advice |publisher=Abc.net.au |date= |accessdate=2008-09-01]

References

External links

* [http://www.abc.net.au/tv/ Official Site]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/corp/ Corporate Site]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/ Australian Broadcasting Corporation]


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