Toby Riddle

Toby Riddle

Toby "Winema" Riddle (1848-1920) was a Modoc interpreter who helped with negotiations between the Native American Modoc tribe and the United States Army during the Modoc War (also called the Lava Beds War).

Riddle was a cousin of Kintpuash, the leader of the Modoc tribe at the time of the Modoc War, and was married to Frank Riddle, a white settler, who had emigrated from Kentucky to California during the California Gold Rush. Riddle served as a translator and shuttle diplomat between General Edward Canby and Kintpuash, during negotiations to end the wars. After she learned of a Modoc plot to assassinate Canby, Riddle warned the American general that the plot was set during a meeting at the Lava Beds, but he disregarded her advice, and was killed.

Frank, Toby and their son lived thereafter near the Klamath Reservation, where their progeny live today.Fact|date=June 2007

Several regional landmarks are named "Winema" after Riddle, including the Winema National Forest.


* Bales, Rebecca [ Winema and the Modoc War: One Woman's Struggle for Peace] "Prologue Magazine" National Archives 2005

External links

* [ The National Archives: Winema and the Modoc War: One Woman's Struggle for Peace]

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