company_name = Pfizer, Inc.
company_type = Public (
NYSE: [http://www.nyse.com/about/listed/lcddata.html?ticker=PFE PFE] )
company_slogan = Working for a healthier world
foundation = Brooklyn, NY, USA (1849)
location = flagicon|USA
New York City, NY, USA
Jeff Kindler, CEO David Shedlarz, VC Ian Read, Pres. of Pharma. Martin Mackay, Pres. of R&D
num_employees = 86,600 (2008)cite web |url=http://zenobank.com/index.php?symbol=PFE&page=quotesearch |title=Company Profile for Pfizer Inc (PFE) |accessdate=2008-10-01]
products = Accupril
See complete products listing.
homepage = [http://www.pfizer.com/ www.pfizer.com]
revenue = profit$48.418 billion USD (2007)
net_income = profit$8.144 billion USD (2007) [cite web|url=http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/01/23/ap4565943.html|title=Pfizer 4Q Profit Falls but Beats View|accessdate=2008-02-14]
Pfizer Incorporated (nyse|PFE) is a major
pharmaceutical company, which ranks number one in the world in sales [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceutical] . The company is based in New York City, and its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut. It produces the number-one selling drug Lipitor ( atorvastatin, used to lower blood cholesterol); the neuropathic pain/fibromyalgia drug Lyrica ( pregabalin); the oral antifungal medication Diflucan ( fluconazole), the long-acting antibiotic Zithromax ( azithromycin), the well-known erectile dysfunction drug Viagra( sildenafilcitrate), and the anti inflammatory Celebrex ( celecoxib) (also known as Celebra in some countries outside USAand Canada, mainly in South America).
shareswere made a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Averageon April 8, 2004.
Spending $7.65 billion in research & development (R&D) in 2006, Pfizer has the industry's largest pharmaceutical R&D organization: Pfizer Global Research and Development.
Pfizer is named after
German-Americancousins Charles Pfizerand Charles Erhardtwho launched their chemicals business Charles Pfizer and Companyfrom a building at the intersection of Harrison Avenue and Bartlett StreetKenneth T. Jackson: "The Encyclopedia of New York City": The New York Historical Society; Yale University Press; 1995. P. 895.] in Williamsburg, Brooklynin 1849. There, they produced an antiparasitic called santonin. This was an immediate success, although it was the production of citric acidthat really kick-started Pfizer's growth in the 1880s. Pfizer continued to buy property to expand its lab and factory on the block bounded by Bartlett Street; Harrison Avenue; Gerry Street; and Flushing Avenue. That facility is still utilized for backshop purposes. Pfizer established its original administrative headquarters at 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan.
By 1910, sales totaled nearly $3 million, and Pfizer became established as an expert in fermentation technology. These skills were applied to the mass production of
penicillinduring World War II, in response to an appeal from the U.S. government. The antibiotic was urgently needed to treat injured Allied soldiers, and it soon became known as "the miracle drug". In fact, most of the penicillin that went ashore with the troops on D-Daywas made by Pfizer.
By the 1950s, Pfizer was established in Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Iran, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
During the 1980s and 1990s Pfizer underwent a period of growth sustained by the discovery and marketing of multiple successful drugs (
Zoloft, Lipitor, Norvasc, Zithromax, Aricept, Diflucan, Viagra).
2005, Pfizer was among 53 entities that contributed the maximum of $250,000 to the second inauguration of President George W. Bush. [cite news |first=Jim |last=Drinkard |title=Donors get good seats, great access this week |url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2005-01-16-inauguration-donors_x.htm |publisher=USA Today |date=2005-01-17 |accessdate=2008-05-25 ] [cite news |title=Financing the inauguration |url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2005-01-16-inaugural-donors_x.htm |publisher=USA Today |date= |accessdate=2008-05-25 ] [cite news |title=Some question inaugural's multi-million price tag |url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2005-01-14-price_x.htm |publisher=USA Today |date=2005-01-14 |accessdate=2008-05-25 ]
Current members of the
board of directorsof Pfizer are: Michael S. Brown, M. Anthony Burns, Robert Burt, Don Cornwell, William H. Gray, Constance Horner, William Howell, Stanley Ikenberry, Jeff Kindler(chairman), George Lorch, Dana Mead, Ruth J. Simmons, and William Steere.
* Chief Executive Officer (
CEO): Jeff Kindler
* Vice Chairman:
David L. Shedlarz
* President of Worldwide Pharmaceutical Operations:
* President of Global R&D:
* 2007 Pharmacist of the Year:
Mike Militello, Pharm.D., BCPS
Pfizer is organized into four divisions: Human Health ($44.28B in 2005 sales), Consumer Healthcare ($3.87B in 2005 sales), Animal Health ($2.2B in 2005 sales), and Corporate Groups (which includes legal, finance, and HR). On June 26, 2006, Pfizer announced that it would sell its Consumer Healthcare unit (famous for well-known brands like
Listerine, Nicorette, Visine, Sudafedand Neosporin) to Johnson & Johnsonfor $16.6B. [cite web|url=http://www.newsmax.com/money/archives/articles/2006/6/26/082230.cfm|date=June 26, 2006|title=Johnson & Johnson to Buy Pfizer Unit|accessdate=2007-07-19|publisher=MoneyNews.com]
Merger and acquisition activity
Pfizer was relatively conservative with regard to mega-mergers through stock-for-stock transactions through most of its history until 2000. In that year, William Steere retired from the company and was succeeded by
Henry McKinnell. As can be noted with any stock analysis tool, Pfizer's per share price (adjusted for splits) went from about $50 to $30 from 1999 to 2006 during McKinnell's tenure. With roughly 7 billion shares outstanding, this reflects a loss in value of $140 billion under McKinnell's leadership pursuing a strategy of growth via stock for stock acquisition. Many industry analysts, however, criticize McKinnell for diluting shareholder value with these expensive stock-for-stock acquisitions that obviously paid a premium for the underlying value of the acquired company. Furthermore, internal contributions to the pipeline did not replace declining value nor did these M&A activities. McKinnell received record compensation which he staunchly defended against critics.
Warner-Lambert / Parke-Davis / Agouron
In 2000, Pfizer merged with Warner-Lambert and acquired full rights to Lipitor (
atorvastatin), the blockbuster statinpreviously jointly marketed by Warner-Lambert and Pfizer. Warner-Lambert was based in Morris Plains, New Jersey, where former headquarters became a major base of operations for Pfizer. The majority of the facility, and Pfizer's consumer healthcare department, was sold to Johnson and Johnsonin 2006 for $16.6 billion dollars.
Parke-Davis was acquired by Warner-Lambert in 1970, which in turn was merged into Pfizer in 2000. The headquarters of Parke-Davis was sold several years ago. The Parke-Davis research facilities in Ann Arbor, Michigan are planned to close in 2008.
Agouron Pharmaceuticals was acquired by Warner Lambert in 1999 and is now a subsidiary of Pfizer. Nelfinavir (Viracept), an antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was developed by Agouron Pharmaceuticals as part of a joint venture with Japan Tobacco, Inc.
Pharmacia / Upjohn / Searle
Searle was founded in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1888. The founder was Gideon Daniel Searle. In 1908, the company was incorporated in Chicago. In 1941, the company established headquarters in Skokie, Illinois. It was acquired by the
Monsantocompany, headquartered in St. Louis, in 1985.
UpjohnCompany was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michiganby Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michiganmedical school. The company was originally formed to make friable pills, which were specifically designed to be easily digested.
In 1995, Upjohn merged with
Pharmacia, to form Pharmacia & Upjohn. Pharmaciawas created in April 2000 through the merger of Pharmacia & Upjohn with the Monsanto Company and its G.D. Searle unit. The merged company was based in Peapack, New Jersey. The agricultural division was spun off from Pharmacia, as Monsanto, in preparation for the close of the acquisition by Pfizer.
In 2002, Pfizer merged with Pharmacia, a competitor, to become the largest pharmaceutical company in the world. The merger was again driven in part by the desire to acquire full rights to a blockbuster product, this time Celebrex (
celecoxib), the COX-2 selective inhibitorpreviously jointly marketed by Searle (acquired by Pharmacia) and Pfizer. In the ensuing years, Pfizer commenced with a massive restructuring resulting in numerous site closures and loss of jobs including: Terre Haute, IN; Holland, MI; Groton, CT; Brooklyn, NY; Sandwich, UK and Puerto Rico.
In 2008, Pfizer announced 275 job cuts at the Kalamazoo manufacturing facility. Kalamazoo was previously the world headquarters for the UpJohn Company.
SUGEN, customarily written with capital letters, was founded in 1991 in Redwood City,
California, as a partnership between the laboratories of Joseph Schlessingerat New York University Medical School and Axel Ullrichat the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, with Steven Evans-Frekeas a third co-founder. The name, SUGEN, comes from combining the first "S" in Schlessinger followed by the "U" in Ullrich with "GEN", which is a commonly used suffix for biotech companies (short for "GENetics"). The focus of the enterprise was to develop drugs targeting intracellular signaling pathways to treat cancer. Specifically, the company sought to discover competitive ATP small-molecule kinase inhibitors which would block common cancer pathways. Pharmaciaacquired SUGEN in 1999, which merged with the pharmaceutical division of , Italy.
Pfizer manufactures pharmaceutical medications and has an annual product marketing budget of $3 billion, which was the fourth-largest in the U.S. as of 2003. Pfizer employs 38,000 sales representatives worldwide. [cite web|url=http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_09/b3922004_mz001.htm|date=February 28, 2005|title=Pfizer Facts|accessdate=2006-05-15|publisher=Businessweek.com]
In 2004, Pfizer’s Zoloft sales totaled $3.15 billion, contributing to 6.5% of Pfizer’s total revenue for 2004 and making it one of 19 drugs that generated more than $2 billion in revenues in the United States. [ [http://www.sciencemag.org/ Sciencemag.org] ] In 2005, Zoloft sales totaled $3.5 billion, helping to make Pfizer one of the biggest drug makers in the world with approximately $51.3 billion in revenue for 2005. In 2005 Pfizer Inc. spent $7.4 billion on research and development, making Pfizer Global Research and Development the largest pharmaceutical research and development organization. [ [http://www.pfizer.com Pfizer homepage] ] [ [http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,14173,1601858,00.html Guardian report] ]
September 24, 2007, Pfizer Inc. announced that the European Commissionapproved Celsentri ( generic name, maraviroc and as Selzentryin the United States). Industry expertsdid forecastannual Celsentri salesof $500 million by 2011. [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/governmentFilingsNews/idUSL2354082520070924 Reuters, Europe gives final approval to Pfizer HIV drug] ]
Development of Torcetrapib
torcetrapib, a drug that increases production of HDL, or "good cholesterol", which reduces LDL thought to be correlated to heart disease, was cancelled on Saturday, December 2nd, 2006. The reason being that during a clinical trial test that involved 15,000 patients, more patients than expected died as a result of taking the medicine. A 60% increase in deaths was observed among patients taking torcetrapib and Lipitor versus taking Lipitor alone; there was no suggestion that the results called into question the safety of Lipitor. Pfizer has lost nearly $1 billion in investments on the failed drug, and December has seen the stocks and market value of the company plummet. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/05/health/05pfizer.html?_r=1&oref=slogin New York Times report] ] cite news
first=Alex |last=Berenson |authorlink=
title=Pfizer Ends Studies on Drug for Heart Diseas
The New York Times
December 3, 2006|accessdate=2006-12-03] [cite news
author=Theresa Agovino (Associated Press) |title=Pfizer ends cholesterol drug development
publisher=Yahoo! News |date=
December 3, 2006|accessdate=2006-12-03 "Each study arm (torcetrapib + Lipitor vs. Lipitor alone) had 7500 patients enrolled; 51 deaths were observed in the Lipitor alone arm, while 82 deaths occurred in the torcetrapib + Lipitor arm."]
The following is a list of key prescription pharmaceutical products. The names shown are all registered trademarks of Pfizer Inc. [cite web|url=http://www.pfizer.com/do/index.html|publisher=Pfizer Inc|title=Prescription Pharmaceuticals and Consumer Health Care (Over-the-Counter) Products by Pfizer|accessdate=2005-03-27]
* Spiriva HandiHaler
* Xanax XR
Animal health brands
The following is a partial list of Animal Health brands manufactured by Pfizer:
Legislation and litigation
Pfizer is party to a number of suits stemming from companies it has acquired or merged with, including
asbestoslitigation as well as litigation stemming from its medicinalproducts.
Pfizer's interest in obtaining property in
New London, Connecticutfor expanded facilities led to the Kelo v. New Londoncase before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Pfizer acquired Quigley in 1968, and the division sold
asbestos-containing insulation products until the early 1970s. Asbestos victims and Pfizer have been negotiating a settlement deal which calls for Pfizer to pay $430 million to 80 percent of existing plaintiffs. It will also place an additional $535 million into an asbestos settlement trust that will compensate future plaintiffs as well as the remaining 20 percent of current plaintiffs with claims against Pfizer and Quigley. The compensation deal is worth $965 million all up.Of that $535 million, $405 million is in a 40-year note from Pfizer, while $100 million will come from insurance policies.
Bjork-Shiley heart valve
Pfizer purchased Shiley in 1979 at the onset of its Convexo-Concave valve ordeal, involving the
Bjork-Shiley heart valve. Approximately 500 people died when defective valves failed and, in 1994, the United Statesruled against Pfizer for ~$200 million.
Tort Reform Legislation Contributions
Pfizer proposed a ban on all
lawsuits against manufacturers of body implantparts which was proposed in the United States Congressas part of tort reformlegislation.
Off-label promotional practices
Access to pharmaceutical industry documents has revealed marketing strategies used to promote Neurontin for off-label use. [cite journal |author=Michael A. Steinman, MD; Lisa A. Bero, PhD; Mary-Margaret Chren, MD; and C. Seth Landefeld, MD |year=2006 |title=Narrative Review: The Promotion of Gabapentin: An Analysis of Internal Industry Documents |journal=Annals of Internal Medicine |volume=145 |issue=4 |pages=284–293 |url=http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/abstract/145/4/284 |accessdate=2006-08-14 | pmid = 16908919 ] In 1993, the US
Food and Drug Administration(FDA) approved gabapentin(Neurontin, Pfizer) only for treatment of seizures. Warner-Lambert, which merged with Pfizer in 2000, used activities not usually associated with sales promotion, including continuing medical educationand research, sponsored articles about the drug for the medical literature, and alleged suppression of unfavorable study results, to promote gabapentin. Within 5 years the drug was being widely used for the off-labeltreatment of pain and psychiatric conditions. In 2004, Warner-Lambert admitted to charges that it violated FDA regulations by promoting the drug for pain, psychiatric conditions, migraine, and other unapproved uses, and paid $430 million to resolve criminal and civil health care liability charges. [cite journal |author=Jane E. Henney, MD |year=2006 |title=Editorial: Safeguarding Patient Welfare: Who's In Charge? |journal=Annals of Internal Medicine |volume=145 |issue=4 |pages=305–307 |url=http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/145/4/305?etoc |accessdate=2006-08-14 | pmid = 16908923 ] [US Department of Justice Press Release: [http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2004/May/04_civ_322.htm Warner-Lambert to pay $430 million to resolve criminal and civil health care liability charges] Retrieved 14 August 2006]
In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria. Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to assist in treating the affected population. An experimental drug, Trovafloxacin, was administered to approximately 100 infected children, while an additional 100 children were treated with Ceftriaxone. Five children receiving Trovafloxacin and six receiving traditional antibiotics died. In 2001, families of the children, as well as the governments of Kano and Nigeria, filed lawsuits regarding the treatment [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1517171.stm BBC News | BUSINESS | Nigerians sue Pfizer over test deaths ] ] . According to the lawsuits, Pfizer administered the experimental drug (marketed as Trovan) without parental consent. The lawsuits also accuse Pfizer of using the outbreak to perform unapproved human testing, as well as allegedly under-dosing a control group being treated with traditional antibiotics in order to skew the results of the trial in favor of Trovan. Pfizer denied these claims, and subsequently produced an approval letter for testing from the Nigerian Ethics Committee; the Nigerian government claims it is a fake. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/06/AR2006050601338.html Panel Faults Pfizer in '96 Clinical Trial In Nigeria - washingtonpost.com ] ]
In 2007, Pfizer published a Statement of Defense letter. [http://www.pfizer.com/files/news/trovan_statement_defense_summary.pdf] The letter makes several claims which deserve mention:
;18 million in Nigerian Naira (NGN) in donations.The figure in NGN is approximately $216,000 in 1996 US dollars (USD). [ [http://www.oanda.com/convert/fxhistory FXHistory - Historical Currency Exchange Rates ] ]
;The drug's oral form was presented as safer and easier to administer.The more likely reason for Pfizer's insistence on the oral form is the result of testing trovafloxacin intravenously in 1995, which found that the drug precipitated in saline, making it ineffective in patients receiving IV fluids. This is inferred from an FDA communication [http://www.fda.gov/CDER/warn/dec98/020760_war_ltr.pdf] to ex-CEO William C. Steere, regarding Trovan's compatibility with saline etc., which was omitted from Trovan's labeling until January 1999.
;The administration of Trovan saved lives.According to the figures given by their own defense, 94.4% of patients receiving Trovan survived, while only 89.3% of untreated Nigerians survived. This is not a statistically significant difference, i.e. the success of the drug was negligible and possibly circumstantial.
;No unusual side effects, unrelated to meningitis, were observed after 4 weeks."'In June 1999, the FDA released a public health statement warning against the use of Trovan except in life-or-death situations, due to high risk of liver failure. In some cases, liver damage occurred after only two days of treatment. [ [http://www.fda.gov/cder/news/trovan/default.htm Trovan Information ] ]
Research and development
Pfizer's human research and development organization is headquartered in New London, CT while their animal health research and development organization is headquartered in Kalamazoo,
Michigan. The company has R&D labs in the following locations:
England; Nagoya, Japan;
In 2004, Pfizer invested $7.68 billion in research and development, the largest investment in R&D by private biomedical research organization.
In 2007, Pfizer announced plans to close or sell on the Loughbeg API facility, located at Loughbeg, Ringaskiddy Co.Cork Ireland by mid to end of 2008
In 2007, Pfizer announced plans to completely close the Ann Arbor, Nagoya and Amboise Research facilities by the end of 2008, eliminating 2,160 jobs and idling the $300-million dollar Michigan facility, which had seen millions of dollars of expansion in recent years. [ [http://www.mlive.com/business/kzgazette/index.ssf?/base/business-3/116957280214420.xml&coll=7 Pfizer's cuts blindside Ann Arbor workers] , Kalamazoo Gazette, Sunday, January 23, 2007.]
On June 18th, 2007 Pfizer announced it will move the
Sandwich, EnglandAnimal Health Research (VMRD) division to Kalamazoo, Michigan. [http://www.wwmt.com/news/kalamazoo_36503___article.html/research_pfizer.html]
According to the EPA, Pfizer is among the top ten companies in America with the most numerous emissions sources. [http://www.kld.com/newsletter/Newsline/0705Newsline/0705KLDResearch.html What's Happening at KLD ] ] Also, the EPA ranked them among the top ten companies in America with the highest volume of emissions sources. Their 70-acre plant in New London, Connecticut, is home to a 20-acre landfill and two wastewater lagoons, adding to pollution in the area. [ [http://yosemite.epa.gov/R1/npl_pad.nsf/31c4fec03a0762d285256bb80076489c/4114c04f6accd97685256b4200605b03!OpenDocument Find New England Sites - PFIZER, INC ] ] According to the EPA, Pfizer is a main threat to the health of the residents and the environment of the New London area because of its toxic emissions into the air and water. [http://www.toxicsaction.org/dirtydozen_conn2002.htm Toxics Action Center - Media Release ] ] The EPA has cited Pfizer on multiple occasions for illegal discharges into the Thames River and for hazardous waste violations on site. In addition, in June 2002, Pfizer was responsible for a chemical explosion that injured seven people and caused the evacuation of over 100 homes in the surrounding area. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/23/AR2006052301305_pf.html The tempest - washingtonpost.com] ]
Pfizer has also provided funding to the controversial
Competitive Enterprise Institutewho have been criticized for releasing misleading advertisements claiming that global warming is not a problem.
Employment & Diversity
Pfizer received a 100% rating on the
Corporate Equality Indexreleased by the Human Rights Campaignstarting in 2004, the third year of the report. In 2007, Pfizer's Canadian division was named one of Canada's Top 100 Employers, as published in Maclean'smagazine, the only research-based pharmaceutical company to receive this honor. [cite web|url=http://www.eluta.ca/einfo?en=Pfizer+Canada+Inc.&ri=6a24852a7f1d493ca1615bbec1e4e6aa&rk=2530d7bedc69eed8a38cea9bbe668b30|title=Reasons for Selection, 2007 Canada's Top 100 Employers]
Pfizer has been involved in controversies over the medicine Diflucan (generic name fluconazole). In 1998, a campaign by Thai public health groups led to the elimination of the Pfizer monopoly on selling fluconazole in Thailand, and the price of the antifungal drug decreased from 200 baht to 6.5 baht in nine months, vastly expanding access to the medicine for AIDS patients. Faced with pressure for compulsory licenses to the Pfizer patent on this drug, Pfizer later established a program for limited access to the medicine in Africa. [cite web|url=http://ww4.aegis.org/news/re/2001/RE010226.html|title=S.Africa okays Pfizer AIDS drug distribution|publisher=Reuters NewMedia|date=
February 21 2001|first=Emelia|last=Sithole|accessdate=2006-05-15] "In the United States, 46 percent of all new HIV/AIDS cases occur in the South. From 2003–2006 the Pfizer Foundation has funded 23 innovative HIV/AIDS prevention programs and strengthened the capacity of community-based organizations to reach and serve their communities." [cite web|url=http://www.pfizer.com/pfizer/subsites/philanthropy/caring/global.health.hiv.southern.jsp|title=Global HIV/AIDS Partnerships: Southern HIV/AIDS Prevention Initiative|publisher=Pfizer|accessdate=2006-05-15] Since 2003, Pfizer has committed a $3 Million grant toward supporting the Southern HIV/AIDS Prevention Initiative.
However, there are criticisms of the way Pfizer is testing its AIDS drug. "The European AIDS Treatment Group (EATG), collection of activists from 31 European Countries, [cite web|url=http://www.eatg.org/|title=European AIDS Treatment Group|accessdate=2006-05-15] said the design of the trial for Pfizer's CCR5 inhibitor
Maraviroc(previously known as UK-427,857) is putting people with HIV infection at unnecessary risk of developing AIDS." [cite web|url=http://www.aidsmeds.com/news/20050412ethc002.html|title=Activists attack ethics of Pfizer AIDS drug trial|year=2005-04-12|accessdate=2006-05-15|first=Ben|last=Hirschler |publisher=AIDS Meds.com]
June 20 2007Maraviroc received an approvable letter from the FDA advisory board. The letter was a product of expedited review of the novel HIV compound.
In 2001, Pfizer asked the U.S. government to pressure the Brazilian government against issuing compulsory licenses for the patents on the AIDS drug nelfinavir.
AIDS Drugs Manufactured by Pfizer
Notes and references
* “Nigeria: Court Adjourns Killer Drug Case Against Pfizer”. All Africa Global Media. 3 October 2007. http://allafrica.com/stories/200710031150.html
* “Value of Black Bodies”. BlackWomb: History, Culture, and Power. 6 June, 2007. http://blackwomb.blogspot.com/2007/06/value-of-black-bodies.html
* “Double Standards in Nigerian Health”. The American. 26 June 2007. http://www.american.com/archive/2007/june-0607/double-standards-in-nigerian-health/
* “Nigeria Sues Pfizer Over Child Drug Trial”. West Africa Review. 10 June 2007. http://www.loccidental.net/english/spip.php?article292
* “Pfizer Faces $8.5 Billion Suit Over Nigeria Drug Trial”. Yahoo News. 24 October 207. http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20070930/bs_nm/pfizer_nigeria_dc;_ylt=A9G_R3Hh_f9GI7QAUgCyBhIF
* “Pfizer Statement Concerning 1996 Nigerian Clinical Study” Pfizer. http://www.pfizer.co.za/RunTime/POPContentRun.aspx?pageidref=1874
* [http://www.pfizer.co.uk/ Pfizer Company Website] - UK corporate site
* [http://www.pfizer.com/ Pfizer Company Website] - U.S. corporate site
** [http://www.pfizer.com/do/index.html Full product list]
** [http://www.pfizer.com/are/mn_investors.cfm Investor relations]
** [http://www.pfizer.com/are/mn_investors_corporate.cfm Corporate governance]
** [http://www.pfizer.com/subsites/philanthropy/index.html Philanthropy] info.
* [http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/11/11175.html Yahoo! - Pfizer Inc Company Profile]
* [http://www.omcea.be/article-31,63546,Bugs,and,Drugs.html Bugs and Drugs] - article by Gunjan Sinha
* [http://spicyedition.com/archive/news/pfizer_offers_discounts_for_the_uninsured.html Boston Globe] "Pfizer Offers Discounts for the Uninsured"
* [http://www.law.com/jsp/article.jsp?id=1094073250053 Pfizer Settlement Clears Asbestos Litigation] Law.com
* [http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com Pfizer's savings program for people without prescription drug coverage] Pfizer Helpful Answers
* [http://mediaroom.pfizer.com/index.php?s=press_releases&item=141 Pfizer 4Q06 Earnings Press Release]
* Barry Yeoman, [http://www.barryyeoman.com/articles/courtroom.html Putting Science in the Dock] , The Nation
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