Graptolite


Graptolite

Taxobox
name = Graptolites
fossil_range = fossil range|510|350Mid Cambrian to Lower Carboniferous


image_width = 260px
image_caption = Fossil graptolite "Tetragraptus fruticosus" from the Ordovician of Australia
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Hemichordata
classis = Graptolithina
phylum_authority =
subdivision_ranks = Orders
subdivision =
*Dendroidea
*Tuboidea
*Camaroidea
*Crustoidea
*Stolonoidea
*Graptoloidea
*Dithecoidea
Graptolites (Graptolithina) are fossil colonial animals known chiefly from the Upper Cambrian through the Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian). A possible early graptolite, "Chaunograptus", is known from the Middle Cambrian.

The name graptolite comes from the Greek "graptos", meaning "written", and "lithos", meaning "rock", as many graptolite fossils resemble hieroglyphs written on the rock. Linnaeus originally regarded them as 'pictures resembling fossils rather than true fossils', though later workers supposed them to be related to the hydrozoans. More recent work places them near the pterobranchs, possibly withincite book |author=Fortey, Richard A. |title=Life: a natural history of the first four billion years of life on earth |publisher=Alfred A. Knopf |location=New York |year=1998 |pages= 129 |isbn=0-375-40119-9 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=] .

Taxonomy

The name originates from the genus "Graptolithus", which was used by Linneus in 1735 for inorganic mineralizations and crustations which resembled actual fossils. In 1768, in the 12th volume of Systema Naturae, he included "G. sagittarius" and "G. scalaris", respectively a possible plant fossil and a possible graptolite. His 1751 "Skånska Resa", he included a figure of a "fossil or graptolite of a strange kind" currently thought to be a type of "Climacograptus" (a genus of biserial graptolites). Later workers used the name to refer to a specific group of organisms. "Graptolithus" was officially abandoned in 1954 by the ICZN, partly because of its original purpose as a grouping for inorganic mimicries of fossils. (Bulman, 1970: V 6)

Since the 1970s, as a result of advances in electron microscopy, graptolites have generally been thought to be most closely allied to the pterobranchs, a rare group of modern marine animals belonging to the phylum Hemichordata (hemichordates). Comparisons are drawn with the modern hemichordates "Cephalodiscus" and "Rhabdopleura".cite book |author=Fortey, Richard A. |title=Life: a natural history of the first four billion years of life on earth |publisher=Alfred A. Knopf |location=New York |year=1998 |pages=129-134 |isbn=0-375-40119-9 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=] "Cephalodiscus" numbers about 18 species, and was first discovered in 1882 .

Graptolites as zone fossils

Graptolites are common fossils and have a worldwide distribution. The preservation, quantity and gradual change over a geologic time scale of graptolites allows the fossils to be used to date strata of rocks throughout the world. They are important index fossils for dating Palaeozoic rocks as they evolved rapidly with time and formed many different species. British geologists can divide the rocks of the Ordovician and Silurian periods into graptolite biozones; these are generally less than one million years in duration. A world-wide ice age at the end of the Ordovician eliminated the majority of the then-living graptolite; species present during the Silurian period were the result of diversification from only a one or two species that survived the Ordovician glaciation.

Graptolites are also used to estimate water depth and temperature during the graptolites lifetimes.

Morphology

Each graptolite colony is known as a rhabdosome and has a variable number of branches (called stipes) originating from an initial individual (called a sicula). Each subsequent individual (zooid) was housed within a tubular or cup-like structure (called a theca). In some colonies, there are two sizes of theca, and it has been suggested that this difference was due to sexual dimorphism.Fact|date=May 2007The number of branches and the arrangement of the thecae are important features in the identification of graptolite fossils.

Most of the dendritic or many-branched types are classified as dendroid graptolites (order Dendroidea). They appear earlier in the fossil record (in the Cambrian period), and were generally benthic animals (attached to the sea-floor by a root-like base). Graptolites with relatively few branches were derived from the dendroid graptolites at the beginning of the Ordovician period. This latter type (order Graptoloidea) were pelagic, drifting freely on the surface of ancient seas or attached to floating seaweed by means of a slender thread. They were a successful and prolific group, being the most important animal members of the plankton until they died out in the early part of the Devonian period. The dendroid graptolites survived until the Carboniferous period.

Preservation

Graptolite fossils are often found in shales and mud rocks where sea-bed fossils are rare, this type of rock having formed from sediment deposited in relatively deep water that had poor bottom circulation, was deficient in oxygen, and had no scavengers. The dead planktonic graptolites, having sunk to the sea-floor, would eventually become entombed in the sediment and are thus well preserved.

Graptolites are also found in limestones and cherts, but generally these rocks were deposited in conditions which were more favorable for bottom-dwelling life, including scavengers, and undoubtedly most graptolite remains deposited here were generally eaten by other animals.

Graptolite fossils are often found flattened along the bedding plane of the rocks in which they occur, though may be found in three dimensions when they are infilled by iron pyrite. They vary in shape, but are most commonly dendritic or branching (such as "Dictoyonema"), saw-blade like, or "tuning fork" shaped (such as "Didymograptus murchisoni"). Their remains may be mistaken for fossil plants by the casual observer.

Graptolites are normally preserved as a black carbonized film on the rock's surface or as light grey clay films in tectonically distorted rocks. They may be sometimes difficult to see, but by slanting the specimen to the light they reveal themselves as a shiny marking. Pyritized graptolite fossils are also found.

A well known locality for graptolite fossils in Britain is Abereiddy Bay, Dyfed, Wales where they occur in rocks from the Ordovician period.

Footnotes

References

Bulman, 1970. "In" Teichert, C. (ed.). "Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part V. Graptolithina , with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia." (2nd Edition). Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas, xxxii + 163 pp.
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaroslav_Kraft Jaroslav Kraft, Czech palaeontologist and a specialist in dendroid graptolites]

External links

*Classification of the Cephalodiscoidea (Graptolithoidea) - [http://pterobranchia.graptolite.net/Cephalodiscoidea.html Graptolite.net - "Cephalodiscus"]
*BIG G - The British & Irish Graptolite Group - [http://www.graptolites.co.uk/ British and Irish Graptolite Group (BIG-G)]
*Graptolite Mudrocks - [http://www.le.ac.uk/geology/aap8/index.htm The palaeoecology and palaeoenvironment of graptolitic mudrocks]
* [http://www.earth.rochester.edu/ees207/Graptolites/caplangrap1.html Written by Josh Caplan for Professor Bill Chaisson's Invertebrate Paleontology course in December 2000.]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Graptolite — Grap to*lite, n. [NL, Graptolithus, from Gr. ? is engraved, written (gra fein to write) + ? stone.] (Paleon.) One of numerous species of slender and delicate fossils, of the genus {Graptolites} and allied genera, found in the Silurian rocks. They …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • graptolite — ● graptolite nom masculin (grec graptos, gravé) Stomocordé colonial fossile, présent dans les terrains cambriens et siluriens. (Les graptolites, organismes marins coloniaux stolonifères, forment une classe, proche de celle des ptérobranches.) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • graptolite — 1838, from Mod.L. graptolithus, lit. written stone, from Gk. graptos engraved, written, painted (verbal adj. of graphein; see GRAPHY (Cf. graphy)) + lithos stone. So called because the fossils resemble writing …   Etymology dictionary

  • graptolite — graptolitic /grap teuh lit ik/, adj. /grap teuh luyt /, n. any colonial animal of the extinct class Graptolithina, most common in the Ordovician and Silurian Periods, thought to be related to the pterobranchs. [1830 40; < Gk graptó(s) painted,… …   Universalium

  • Graptolite — Graptolite …   Wikipédia en Français

  • graptolite — noun Etymology: Greek graptos painted (from graphein to write, paint) + English lite more at carve Date: 1841 any of an extinct class (Graptolithina) of hemichordate colonial marine animals of the Paleozoic era with zooids contained in conical… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • graptolite — n. [Gr. graptos, painted; lithos, stone] A fossil group of pelagic, colonial animals with chitinous exoskeletons, consisting of simple or branched stems (rhabdosomes) toothed along one or both edges …   Dictionary of invertebrate zoology

  • graptolite — noun Any of a group of extinct aquatic colonial invertebrates, of the class Graptolithina, from the Cambrian and Carboniferous periods …   Wiktionary

  • graptolite — ► adjetivo/ sustantivo masculino ZOOLOGÍA Perteneciente a un grupo de organismos fósiles marinos de la era paleozoica, que vivían en colonias …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • graptolite — grap·to·lì·te s.m. TS paleont. fossile del Siluriano della classe dei Graptoliti | pl. con iniz. maiusc., classe del phylum degli Emicordati, rappresentata da forme coloniali che mostrano affinità con gli Idrozoi e con i Briozoi, dalla dubbia… …   Dizionario italiano