- Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carrier
The "Admiral Kuznetsov" class aircraft carriers (also known as Project 1143.5, the "Brezhnev" class, or the "Kreml" class" [http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/review/1998/summer/art7su98.htm The Self-Designing High-Reliability Organization: Aircraft Carrier Flight Operations at Sea] ." Rochlin, G. I.; La Porte, T. R.; Roberts, K. H. Footnote 39. "
Naval War College Review". Autumn, 1987, Vol. LI, No. 3.] ) has only one functional unit, "Admiral Kuznetsov". The only other ship in her class, "Varyag", was never commissioned and was sold to China.
While designated an
aircraft carrierby the West, the design of the "Admiral Kuznetsov" class implies a mission different from that of either the United States Navy’s carriers or those of the French Navy. The term used by her builders to describe the Russian ships is "tyazholiy avianesushchiy kreyser" (TAKR or TAVKR) - “heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser” - intended to support and defend strategic missile-carrying submarines, surface ships, and maritime missile-carrying aircraft of the Russian fleet. This designation allows the Soviet/ Russian Navyto circumvent the refusal by Turkeyto let aircraft carriers pass the Dardanellesand the Bosphorusbetween the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Fixed-wing aircraft on "Admiral Kuznetsov" are essentially constrained to
air superiorityoperations. The carrier also carries numerous helicopters for anti-submarine warfare(ASW) operations, as well as anti-ship missiles.
Hull and flight deck
The hull design derived from the 1982 "Kiev Class","Kuznetsov Class (Type 1143.5) Heavy Aircraft Carrying Cruiser, Russia", [http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/kuznetsov/ Naval-technology.com] , SPG Media PLC] , but is larger. The flight deck, with an area of 14,700 m², is of a conventional angled-deck configuration, but fitted with a 12° ski jump instead of bow catapults, resulting in a configuration similar to the current British "Invincible" class carriers. Fact|date=October 2008 The shape of the deck is loosely similar to the US ships' counterparts. "Admiral Kuznetsov" has a
STOBARconfiguration; the flight deck is equipped with arrester wires but has no catapults. Without catapults, "Admiral Kuznetsov" cannot launch strike aircraft with heavy loads. Fact|date=October 2008 Su-33 fighters with maximum payload can take off through the landing deck.Clarifyme|date=October 2008Fact|date=June 2008 Two starboard aircraft elevators, ahead and abaft the island, carry aircraft back and forth between the hangar deck and the flight deck.
In the original project specifications, the ship could carry up to 26 fixed-wing aircraft, and up to 24 helicopters.
At presently configured, the ship can support twelve Su-33 'Flanker-D' and five Su-25UTG 'Frogfoot' fixed-wing aircraftOnly ten production aircraft of this model Su-33 were built, with five allocated to Russia and five to Ukraine when the USSR dissolved. The Russian Navy then requested ten more trainers from Sukhoi, but it is unclear if any Su-25UBPs were ever actually delivered.Fact|date=February 2007] .
Unlike Western aircraft carriers which carry little organic armament, "Admiral Kuznetsov" has twelve launchers for SS-N-19 "Shipwreck" anti-ship surface-to-surface missiles. This surface-to-surface armament is required because the ship's air strike power is limited by the lack of catapults.
For long-range air defense, the ship carries 24 vertical launchers for SA-N-9 "Gauntlet"
surface-to-air missiles(SAMs) with 192 missiles,
For close-range air defense, the ship carries eight
Kashtan Close-in weapon system(CIWS) mounts. Each mount has two launchers for SA-N-11 SAMs, twin GSh-30 30mm rotary cannons, and a radar/optronic director. The ship also carries six AK-63030mm rotary cannons in single mounts.
For defense against underwater attack, the ship carries the UDAV-1 ASW rocket launcher.
The ship has D/
E bandair and surface target acquisition radar, F bandsurface search radar, G/ H bandflight control radar, I bandnavigation radar, and four K bandfire-control radars for the Kashtan CIWS.
The ship has hull-mounted medium- and low-frequency search and attack
sonar. The ASW helicopters have surface search radar, dipping sonar, sonobuoys, and magnetic anomaly detectors.
Propulsion and performance
Initially Western analysts anticipated that "Admiral Kuznetsov" would have a Combined Nuclear And Steam (CONAS) propulsion plant similar to the "Kirov" class
battlecruisers and the SSV-33 command ship. However, "Admiral Kuznetsov" as completed was conventionally powered by eight gas-fired boilers and four steam turbines, each producing 50,000 hp (37 MW), driving four shafts with fixed-pitch propellers. Her maximum speed is 29 knots (54 km/h), and her range at maximum speed is 3,800 miles (6,100 km). At 18 knots (33 km/h), her maximum range is 8,500 miles (13,700 km).
List of ships
"Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov" was built at Nikolayev South Shipyard in
Ukraine. She was launched in 1985 and became fully operational in 1995. The vessel was briefly named " Kremlin", " Tblisi", and " Leonid Brezhnev". In the autumn of 2000, "Admiral Kuznetsov" went to sea for rescue and salvage operations for the submarine "Kursk".
Although technical and financial problems have limited operations, it is expected that "Admiral Kuznetsov" will remain in service until at least 2025-2035.Fact|date=February 2008
"Varyag", briefly named "Riga", was also built Nikolayev South Shipyard. The vessel was launched in 1988, but was never commissioned. She was given to Ukraine, and eventually sold by
Ukraineto China, under the condition that she would never be refitted for combat.
However, in 2004, "Varyag" was repainted in the colors of China's
People's Liberation Army Navy(PLAN), and a non-skid surface was applied to her deck. In October 2006, Russia agreed to sell China up to 50 of the Su-33 fighters which Russia operates from "Admiral Kuznestov" for $2.5 billion. PLAN has also sought to purchase Ka-31 AEW helicopters, and designed prop-driven AEW aircraft similar to the American E-2 Hawkeye. This suggests that the vessel will eventually become China's first aircraft carrier." [http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/2004/Winter/art6-w04.htm China's Aircraft Carrier Ambitions: Seeking Truth from Rumors] ." Storey, I.; Ji, Y. " Naval War College Review". Winter 2004, Vol. 57, No. 1.]
* Designer: Nevskoye Planning and Design Bureau
* Builder: Nikolayev South
* Displacement: 43 000 t light, 53 000-55 000 t standard, 66 600-67 500 t full load
* Length: 300 m (984 ft) overall, 270 m (886 ft) at waterline
* Beam: 73 m (240 ft) overall, 38 m (125 ft) waterline
* Draft: 11 m (36 ft)
** 12 × SS-N-19 'Shipwreck' SSM launchers
** 24 x SA-N-9 'Gauntlet' SAM launchers with 8 missiles each
** 8 x "Kashtan" air defense modules, each with
*** 2 x SA-N-11 'Grison' SAM launchers with 4 missiles each
*** CADS-1 CIWS (2 × GSh-30 30mm rotary cannon)
** 6 x AK-630 30mm rotary cannon, 6,000 round/min/mount, 24,000 rounds
** 2 x RBU-12000 UDAV-1 antisubmarine rocket launchers (60 rockets)
** 12 Su-33]
** 4 Ka-27LD
** 18 Ka-27PLO
** 2 Ka-27S
* Propulsion: Steam turbines, 8 boilers, 4 shafts, 200,000 hp (149 MW)
** 2 × 50,000 hp (37 MW) turbines
** 8 boilers
** 4 fixed pitch props
** 9 × 1500 kW turbogenerators
** 6 × 1500 kW diesel generators
* Range: 3850 nautical miles (7 100 km) at 32 knot (59 km/h); endurance: 45 days
* Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h)
* Complement: 1960 + 626 air group + 40 flag, 3857 rooms
#Ten production aircraft were built, with five each going to the Russian Republic and the Ukraine after the fall of the USSR. The Russian Navy then requested ten more trainers from Sukhoi, but it is unclear if any Su-25UBPs were ever actually delivered.
List of aircraft carriers
List of aircraft carriers of Russia and the Soviet Union
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/1143_5.htm Article on GlobalSecurity.org about the Kreml class aircraft carrier] .
* " [http://www.webcom.com/~amraam/rcar.html A Brief Look at Russian Aircraft Carrier Development] ," Robin J. Lee.
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