Gatley


Gatley

infobox UK place
map_type= Greater Manchester
country = England
official_name= Gatley
latitude= 53.3945
longitude= -2.2469
os_grid_reference=
population= approx. 9,000
metropolitan_borough= Stockport
metropolitan_county= Greater Manchester
region= North West England
post_town= CHEADLE
postcode_district = SK8
postcode_area= SK
dial_code= 0161
constituency_westminster= Cheadle
london_distance=
static_

static_image_caption=

Gatley is a suburban area of the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, in Greater Manchester, England. The area borders onto Cheadle and the City of Manchester.

History

Toponymy

In 1290, Gatley was known as "Gateclyve", which in Old English means "a place where goats are kept".Fact|date=October 2008

Early history

Until the 20th century, most Gatley residents either worked in the material trades or were farmers. An open field system existed around Gatley in the late 17th century, but the practice of common farming seems to have fallen into disuse when William Tatton allowed tenants to buy their own land.Arrowsmith, Peter "Stockport, A History", published 1997, ISBN 0 905164 99 7]

Gatley Carrs was the lower, marshy ground running down to the River Mersey and West to Northenden.Before 1700 is was a place for ozier beds which local people had used for basket making or for wattles for cottages or fencing.

In 1800, Mr Worthington of Sharston Hall planted 1000 poplars in Gatley Carrs.Shercliff, W.H. "Wythenshawe volume 1: to 1926", published 1974, ISBN 0 85972 008 x] . In the mid 19th century, Gatley Carrs was described as "a scene of such singular and romantic beauty, and so thoroughly unique in its composition, that we know nothing in the neighbourhood to liken it to" Grindon, Leo H. "Country Rambles and Manchester Walks and Wild Flowers, published 1882] .

Over the years Gatley Carrs has shrunk to a fraction of its former size. In the second half of the 18th century, the Carrs was largely enclosed and partially drained to form farmed meadows. The Stockport to Altrincham railway line cut across it in 1864, running East-West. In 1934 house building began on "High Terrace" of the Mersey (the development behind the Horse and Farrier pub, running down to the railway line) and also about that time Cheadle and Gatley UDC purchased 19 acres to use as a refuse tip. Tree planting commenced due to complaints of smells and rats. There was loss of original field pattern because of extensive refuse tipping.

Carr woodland was developed on what had been carr meadows. There was a major system of land drains identified on the 1934 map including a sluice and non-return outfall gate to protect Gatley Carr from flooding when the Mersey burst its banks.

In the mid 1960s land restoration took place, although the Carr was only covered with soil to a depth varying between 2 inches and 6 inches. Gatley Carrs then fell to the management of the Mersey Valley Countryside Wardens until it was handed to Stockport MBC in the late 1990s.Research by Gatley Carrs Conservation Group] .

Industrial history

Button making appears to have been a significant local trade in the 17th and 18th centuries. A "button man" (merchant selling buttons) is recorded in Gatley in the 1660s. This continued in the 18th century with three button men being mentioned in Gatley between 1735 and 1779.Arrowsmith, Peter "Stockport, A History", published 1997, ISBN 0 905164 99 7]

People living around Gatley Green were mostly hand loom weavers and became more dependent on textile manufacture.Shercliff, W.H. "Wythenshawe volume 1: to 1926", published 1974, ISBN 0 85972 008 x] Their cottages had cellars for storage and well-lit upper rooms for the looms.Deakin, Derick "Wythenshawe: The story of a garden city", published 1989, ISBN 0 85033 699 6]

About 1750, William Roscoe from Bolton built a factory near Gatley Hall. (This shouldn't be confused in scale with the cotton mills such as those at Styal: it appears to have been a place for hand weaving and was later converted into a farmhouse, so it was a very modest affair). Up to at least 1841, John Alcock was a textile manufacturer in Gatley, using the Roscoe factory for at least part of the period.Shercliff, W.H. "Wythenshawe volume 1: to 1926", published 1974, ISBN 0 85972 008 x]

The spread of machinery in industrial manufacturers during the 19th century appears to have killed off industry in Gatley, before which it was a "very busy and important place, as a centre for weaving, spinning, shoemaking and fustian cutting". Handloom weaving may have survived in the area to as late as the 1880s (Melson's Directory of Cheadle, Northenden and Baguley, 1887.Shercliff, W.H. "Wythenshawe volume 1: to 1926", published 1974, ISBN 0 85972 008 x] )

Halls and Houses

In 1714, Stone Pale Hall was reconstructed in Gatley.Shercliff, W.H. "Wythenshawe volume 1: to 1926", published 1974, ISBN 0 85972 008 xg]

Gatley Hall and Gatley Hill House may both have been built in the mid-eighteenth century by local cotton manufacturers. The mansion High Grove House was built for a member of a wealthy hatting family of Yorkshire and Manchester.Arrowsmith, Peter "Stockport, A History", published 1997, ISBN 0 905164 99 7]

Conflict

In the English Civil War (1642–51) the Tatton family, along with the local rectors and most tenants, were Royalists. Wythenshawe Hall was kept in a state of defence from 1642, with Parliamentary forces nearby in Handforth and Duckinfield. Wythenshawe Hall was taken by the Parliamentarian forces on 25 February 1644.Shercliff, W.H. "Wythenshawe volume 1: to 1926", published 1974, ISBN 0 85972 008 x] Three Gatley men were in the garrison defending the hall: Ralphe Savage, Robert Torkinton and John Blomiley.Moss, F, "Chronicles of Cheadle". First published 1894. republished by E.J. Morton, 1970, SBN 901598-11-9]

On 30 November 1745, about 55 Jacobite troops from Bonnie Prince Charlie's army crossed Gatley Ford and Gatley Carrs on their way to Cheadle and Stockport; the bulk of the army crossed the Mersey at Cheadle and Stockport that night and the following day. Having reached Derby but no further, the Jacobite troops were back in Stockport in the second week of December on their way back north.Arrowsmith, Peter "Stockport, A History", published 1997, ISBN 0 905164 99 7]

Gatley residents joined the Luddite riots in 1818, but without any great distinction. They drilled in Gatley Carrs before marching to Stockport to take arms from the soldiers, but returned without actually attempting to do so. In the following summer, 1819, soldiers formed square in front of the Horse and Farrier public house in Gatley with the aim of arresting the Luddite ringleaders. Several ran away and hid (one, Isaac Legh, in the chimney of Stone Pale House, two others in the Carrs).Moss, F, "Chronicles of Cheadle". First published 1894. republished by E.J. Morton, 1970, SBN 901598-11-9]

Religion and churches

A nonconformist meeting house registered in Etchells in 1722 may have been a house in Gatley. In 1777, the Gatley Congregational Church was founded and an independent chapel was built in Old Hall Road, Gatley, following the spread of evangelicalism to nonconformist groups. A full time minister was employed by the nonconformists for the first time.Arrowsmith, Peter "Stockport, A History", published 1997, ISBN 0 905164 99 7] The present church is on Elm Road.

The first nonconfirmist minister was the Rev. Jeremiah Pendlebury, succeeded by his assistant, the Rev. Samuel Turner, in 1788. By 1860 the church congregation had fallen to eight people. Improvements made with help from the North Cheshire Rural Mission increased the congregation to 60.

Prior to 1875, Gatley's parish church was the Church of St. Thomas, four miles away in Stockport. The people of Gatley rarely saw their parish priest, though they still had to pay their tithes.

The new church, St. James', was built of local handmade bricks and consecrated on Tuesday 6 December 1881. The Rev. Percy M. Herford was the first Vicar of St. James' Church. In 1888 the Rev. P. M. Herford left and was replaced by the Rev. John Bruster, who remained Vicar for 40 years, retiring in 1928.

The vicarage was completed in 1894, following a donation towards it of £100 from Mr W. Heald of Parrswood in 1889.Shercliff, W.H. "Wythenshawe volume 1: to 1926", published 1974, ISBN 0 85972 008 x]

ite of Gatley Medical Centre

The site currently occupied by Gatley Medical Centre on Old Hall Road has long been at the heart of Gatley.

In the late 16th century the Etchells court was held on this site (probably in an inn). The Old Court House was subsequentally built there. It may have once been part of the village archery range. In 1777 it became the site of Gatley's first church of any kind: the Congregational Chapel, and was previously a schoolroom. The grassed area next to the modern surgery was used as a graveyard for many years.

So on that one site Gatley has seen inn, court, school, church, graveyard, archery range and medical centre.

Geography

Gatley is approximately three miles (5 km) from Manchester Airport, and seven miles (11 km) from Manchester city centre. It is separated from its slightly larger neighbour, Cheadle, by the A34 and from Didsbury in Manchester by the River Mersey.

To the south, Gatley meets Heald Green, with Grasmere Road and Yew Tree Grove marking the southern boundary. To the west it meets the Manchester Wythenshawe district, with roads just to the west of Park Road and Styal Road (e.g. Charnville Road and Malverne Avenue) being the last in Gatley.

Gatley is 40-60 metres above sea level.

Governance

Prior to 1086, Gatley was probably unpopulated and was part of Etchells (meaning "extra cleared land"). After 1086, the area was split between two landowners and for a period Gatley Brook (the old hundred boundary) formed the boundary. The halves were, at various times, held by the Stokeports and the Ardernes, then later by the Stanleys until, in 1508, the heir John Stanley was killed by a tennis ball. With no rightful claimants, the land went to the crown and, in 1556 Etchells was sold to William Tatton. By the 1560s, the Tattons, who also owned Northenden and other local land, became full lords of the manor and held court over the area.Deakin, Derick "Wythenshawe: The story of a garden city", published 1989, ISBN 0 85033 699 6]

The township of Stockport Etchells, covering Gatley and much of the area now in Heald Green (the area being based on previous ecclesiastical parishes) gained administrative responsibilities in the 16th century, as the old powers of the lord of the manor waned, and manoral rule became more by consent and custom. In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Stockport Etchells and Northen Etchells were frequently administered together as Etchells.

The local court leets and court barons moved, for a time from the late 16th century, to a building that later became known as the Old Court House in Gatley Deakin, Derick "Wythenshawe: The story of a garden city", published 1989, ISBN 0 85033 699 6] (though it was probably an inn at the time).Shercliff, W.H. "Wythenshawe volume 1: to 1926", published 1974, ISBN 0 85972 008 x]

The townships of Stockport Etchells, Cheadle Moseley and Cheadle Bulkeley were merged into the Cheadle and Gatley Urban District in 1894. From 1894 until 1974, Gatley was a part of the urban district of Cheadle and Gatley, within the historic county boundaries of Cheshire.

In 1933-4, both Manchester and Stockport wanted to annex the Cheadle and Gatley Urban District. An opinion poll of nearly 10,000 residents recorded near-unanimous support for continuing independence.

In 1936 the boundaries of the Cheadle and Gatley Urban District saw minor changes due to the abolition of Handforth Urban District.

In 1974 the Urban Districts in Stockport were abolished and Cheadle and Gatley Urban District became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport in Greater Manchester. Gatley is part of the Cheadle and Gatley borough ward and the Cheadle parliamentary constituency.Arrowsmith, Peter "Stockport, A History", published 1997, ISBN 0 905164 99 7]

Demography

The current population of Gatley is approximately 9,000.

Historical population changes

The religious diversity in Gatley and Cheadle is not too far from the country as a whole. Most notable is the relatively high Jewish population, over ten times higher than the English and Stockport averages. This is reflected in the existence of Gatley's orthodox synagogue, the Menorah reform synagogue in neighbouring Sharston and the North Cheshire Jewish Primary School in Heald Green.

The Muslim population is higher than the average across England and similar to neighbouring Didsbury.

The data in the table refers to the Cheadle and Gatley ward. The data comes from the 2001 UK census, when the ward name was Cheadle and the ward encompassed the whole of Gatley and a large part of Cheadle village. Gatley has never been an administrative district in its own right and no data for Gatley alone exists.

Ethnicity

The data in the table refers to the Cheadle and Gatley ward. The data comes from the 2001 UK census, when the ward name was Cheadle and the ward encompassed the whole of Gatley and a large part of Cheadle village. Gatley has never been an administrative district in its own right and no data for Gatley alone exists.

These census figures predate the recent expansion of the European Union into Eastern Europe so may have changed significantly since 2001.

Economy

Gatley's primary commercial area covers Church Road, Stonepail Road, Gatley Road, Northenden Road and Old Hall Road. Here there are over 40 shops plus 10 take-aways, 8 hairdressers, 4 beauty salons, 4 restaurants, 4 pubs, 3 cafes, 2 banks and significant office space and additional units.

Gatley has three areas of local shops on Pendlebury Road, Foxland Road and Silverdale Road, each with between two and six commercial premises.

Gatley has five pubs. In the village centre there are the Horse and Farrier (for which there are references as early as 1827, though the current building is 20th century), the Prince of Wales (nicknamed "the Mop"), Gothic and the Red Lion. The High Grove pub on Silverdale Road is the fifth.

Landmarks

Gatley’s war memorial is situated on Gatley Green, though the original World War I memorial is the clock tower at the junction of Altrincham Road and Church Road.

There is also what remains of the Tatton Cinema, originally built in the 1930s, but now only the front facade still stands. The cinema closed in early 2001 due to the increase in multiplex cinemas, particularly the nearby Parrs Wood Cinema complex which lies 2 miles away.

Transport

The River Mersey wasn't bridged in this area until 1745 (and then not continuously as three bridges collapsed over the years) so travelling to Didsbury meant fording the Mersey or crossing in a boat. Until the railway in 1864, the road from Didsbury to Gatley (and then onto Styal) forded the Mersey and came through Gatley Carrs. The "Gatley Ford" was near Didsbury's Millgate Lane, suggesting the river was forded somewhere near the current M60/M56 motorway junctionMoss, F, "Chronicles of Cheadle". First published 1894. republished by E.J. Morton, 1970, SBN 901598-11-9] .

Turnpikes opened across Stockport from 1725, with the road through Gatley being amongst the last, in 1820.

This was the main road through Cheadle, Gatley, Altrincham and Northwich. By July 1822, the fast coach along the road from Stockport to Liverpool via Warrington made it possible to spend six hours in Liverpool and return on the same day.

Gatley had no public transport until 1896, when a postmaster started a cab service. In 1898 Mr Potts began to operate a service to Stockport with a single (horse drawn) omnibus, continuing until the arrival of the electric tram in 1904

Electric trams began to run in Stockport in 1902, with the service to Gatley (terminating at the Horse and Farrier) opening in March 1904. In Gatley, trams were replaced by buses in 1931. The trams were not wholly reliable: broken rear axles were common and the trams often disengaged from the electric cable.

The LWNR station at Cheadle allowed travel via Edgeley to Manchester, but closed as early as 1917 due to competition with the electric tram between Gatley and Stockport

LWNR opened the "Styal Line" in 1909 including Gatley and Heald Green stations.

The M56 and M63 were opened in 1974, bypassing Gatley and joining with each other at Kingsway (Kingsway having been extended south across the River Mersey in 1959) Arrowsmith, Peter "Stockport, A History", published 1997, ISBN 0 905164 99 7] .

Culture

Gatley Festival

Gatley Festival is a celebration of village life and is held on the first Sunday in July each year.It is believed to have started in the early 1930s as the Gatley Rose Queen Parade. The current festival format of a large parade and then a funfair and stalls was started around 1986 and was originally in Gatley Park before moving to much larger fields behind Gatley Hill house.Gatley still has a traditional Rose Queen crowned as the center piece of Gatley festival as well as a fun filled day for the whole village on Scholes Fields. [http://www.gatleyfestival.org]

Music festival

Gatley Music Festival is a non-profit organisation bringing high quality live music to the village of Gatley, while at the same time raising money for local charities. It presents a week of live music every year during March, with something for every age and taste, including classical, jazz, brass, choral and the very best of local indie, acoustic and rock. It has its roots in "Music at St James", set up in 1989 by the Rev Brian Lee, curate of St James in Gatley, and Len Mather. The success of those concerts inspired the establishment in 2005 of a festival of music which was so well received that it is now an annual music festival for a rapidly growing regular audience. [http://www.gatleymusicfestival.co.uk]

Playing fields

Gatley has its own playing fields. At the far end of the village, just before the boundary with Manchester, is Gatley Hill House which opens up into the William Scholes Playing Fields. These were part of a sport stadium and playing fields, built in the early 1960s with money from the William Scholes Foundation. Scholes was a Gatley estate agent and resident who died in 1927. The track opened on May 19, 1962 and was the first home of Cheadle and Gatley AC, before it merged with Stretford AC in 1966.

Currently, the fields are the natural home for many Gatley events – from the Gatley Festival to Sport Relief – and are used every weekend by local teams for cricket in the summer and football in the winter and every week by local running clubs.

Gatley Carrs Nature Reserve

Gatley Carrs is a small nature reserve nestling at the north west corner of the village (bounded to the north and west by the M60, M56 and Stockport-Altrincham railway line). The Carrs is managed by the Gatley Carrs Conservation Group [http://www.gatleycarrs.org.uk/] .

Walter Stansby Memorial Park

Walter Stansby Memorial Park is a small area running between Church Road and Northenden Road, near to the Recreation Ground.

References

External links

* [http://www.gatley.org.uk Gatley.net community website]
* [http://www.gatleyfestival.org Gatley festival website]
* [http://www.gatleymusicfestival.co.uk Gatley music festival]
* [http://members.aol.com/John1Hartley/html/GATMEM.htm Gatley war memorial information]
* [http://www.bazlaz.co.uk/eric7.doc Memoir of Gatley]


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