- Kanagawa Prefecture
Infobox Prefecture Japan
Name = Kanagawa
JapaneseName = 神奈川県
Rōmaji = Kanagawa-ken
Symbol = PrefSymbol-Kanagawa.png
Region = Kantō
TotalArea = 2,415.42
AreaRank = 43rd
PCWater = 2.3
PopDate = September 1, 2007
Population = 8,898,195
PopRank = 2nd
Density = 3,683
Districts = 6
Municipalities = 34
ISOCode = JP-14
Flower = Golden-rayed
Website = [http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/menu/page/english.html www.pref.kanagawa.jp/ menu/english.htm]
Shigefumi Matsuzawanihongo|Kanagawa Prefecture|神奈川県|Kanagawa-ken is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō regionof Honshū, Japan. The capital is Yokohama. Kanagawa is part of the Greater Tokyo Area.
There are some archaeological sites of
Jōmon period(around 400 BC). About 3000 years ago, Mount Hakonemade volcanic explosion and Lake Ashion the western area of this prefecture.
Yamato Dynastyruled this area from 5th century. In the ancient era, plains and damps were widely spread with few inhabitants.
Kamakura in central Sagami was the capital of Japan during the
Edo period, the western part of Sagami Province was governed by the daimyo of Odawara Castle, while the eastern part was directly governed by the Tokugawa Shogunatein Edo( Tokyo).
Commodore Matthew Perry landed in Kanagawa in 1853 and 1854, and signed the
Convention of Kanagawato force open Japanese ports to the United States. Yokohama, the largest deep-water port in Tokyo Bay, was opened to foreign traders in 1859 after several more years of foreign pressure, and eventually developed into the largest trading port in Japan. Nearby Yokosuka, closer to the mouth of Tokyo Bay, developed as a naval port and now serves as headquarters for the U.S. 7th Fleetand the fleet operations of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. After Meiji Period, many foreigners visited lived in Yokohama City, and visited Hakone. Meiji Government developed the first railways in Japan, from Shinbashi (in Tokyo) to Yokohama in 1872.
The epicenter of the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923 was deep beneath
Izu ŌshimaIsland in Sagami Bay. It devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. [Hammer, Joshua. (2006). [http://books.google.com/books?id=6O8VyhDbUPgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=yokohama+burning&sig=rbgbEDXJV5fht4wdSD1HBoAMANg#PPA278,M1 "Yokohama Burning: the Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II," p. 278] .] The sea receded as much a quarter of a mile from the shore at Manazaru Point, and then rushed back towards the shore in a great wall of water which swamped Mitsuishi-shima. [Hammer, [http://books.google.com/books?id=6O8VyhDbUPgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=yokohama+burning&sig=rbgbEDXJV5fht4wdSD1HBoAMANg#PPA114,M1 pp. 114] -115.] At Kamakura, the total death toll from earthquake, tsunami, and fire exceeded 2,000 victims. [Hammer, [http://books.google.com/books?id=6O8VyhDbUPgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=yokohama+burning&sig=rbgbEDXJV5fht4wdSD1HBoAMANg#PPA115,M1 pp. 115] -116.] At Odawara, ninety percent of the buildings collapsed immediately, and subsequent fires burned the rubble along with anything else left standing. [Hammer, [http://books.google.com/books?id=6O8VyhDbUPgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=yokohama+burning&sig=rbgbEDXJV5fht4wdSD1HBoAMANg#PPA113,M1 p. 113.] ]
Yokohama, Kawasaki and other major cities were heavily damaged by the U.S. bombing in 1945. The number of casualties was more than several thousand. After the War, landed in this prefecture, before moving to other areas, many U.S. troops and the general
Douglas MacArthur, the chief commander of Supreme Commander of the Allied Powersfor the Occupation of Japan. Because of this history, U.S. military bases still remain in Kanagawa - Camp Zama(Army), Yokosuka Naval Base, Naval Air Station Atsugi(Navy).
After the War, Kanagawa Prefecture faced rapid urbanization and increasing populations, as a part of Tokyo Greater Zone. 8,944 thousand peoples live here in 2008 [http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/tokei/tokei/204/jinko.html] , and Kanagawa becomes the second largest inhabited prefecture in Japan from 2006 (at 1945, it was only 1,865 thousand, and the rank was 15th.).
Kanagawa Prefecture is a relatively small prefecture located at the southeastern corner of the
Kantō Plain[ [http://www.jiban.co.jp/jibankaisetu/todohuken/kanagawa/jiban_kanagawa.htm] ] wedged between Tokyoon the north, the foothills of Mount Fujion the northwest, and the Sagami Bay[ [http://www.jiban.co.jp/jibankaisetu/todohuken/kanagawa/jiban_kanagawa.htm] ] and Tokyo Bayon the south and east. The eastern side of the prefecture is relatively flat and heavily urbanized, including the large port cities of Yokohamaand Kawasaki, but becomes more relaxed to the southeast, near the Miura Peninsula, where the ancient city of Kamakura draws tourists to its temples and shrines. The western part, bordered by Yamanashi Prefectureand Shizuoka Prefectureon the west, [ [http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/osirase/kankyokeikaku/heatisland/H17HeatIsland2-1.pdf] ] is more mountainous and includes resort areas like Odawara and Hakone. The area, stretching 80 km from west to east and 60 km from north to south, contains a 2,400 sq km of land, accounting for 0.64 % of the total land area of Japan. [ [http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/osirase/kankyokeikaku/heatisland/H17HeatIsland2-1.pdf] ]
Topographically, the prefecture consists of three distinct areas. The mountainous western region features the
Tanzawa Mountain Rangeand Hakone Volcano; the hilly western region is characterized by the Tama Hillsand Miura Peninsula; and the central region, which surrounds the Tama Hills and Miura Peninsula, is comprised by flat stream terraces and lowlands around major rivers including the Sagami River, Sakai River, Tsurumi River, and Tama River. [ [http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/osirase/kankyokeikaku/heatisland/H17HeatIsland2-1.pdf] ]
Tama Riverforms much of the boundary between Kanagawa and Tokyo. The Sagami Riverflows through the middle of the prefecture. In the western region, the Sakawa Riverruns through a small lowland, the Sakawa Lowland, between Hakone Volcano to the west and the Ōiso Hills to the east and flows into Sagami Bay. [ [http://www.jiban.co.jp/jibankaisetu/todohuken/kanagawa/jiban_kanagawa.htm] ]
Tanzawa Mountain Range, part of the Kantō Mountain Range, contains Mount Hiru(1,673 m), the highest peak in the prefecture. Other mountains measure similar mid-range heights: Mount Hinokiboramaru(1,601 m), Mount Tanzawa, (1567 m), Mount Ōmuro(1588 m), Mount Himetsugi(1,433 m), and Mount Usu(1,460 m). The mountain range lowers its height southward leading to Hadano Basinto the Ōiso Hills. At the eastern foothills of the mountain range lies the Isehara Plateauand across the Sagami River the Sagami Plateau. [ [ http://www.jiban.co.jp/jibankaisetu/todohuken/kanagawa/jiban_kanagawa.htm] ]
Nineteen cities are located in Kanagawa Prefecture:
Towns and villages
Kanagawa's transport network is heavily intertwined with that of Tokyo ("see:
Transportation in Greater Tokyo"). Most air travel to Kanagawa goes through Tokyo International Airportor Narita International Airport. Shin-Yokohama and Odawara stations on the Tōkaidō Shinkansenare located in the prefecture, providing high-speed rail service to Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and other major cities.
East Japan Railway Company
Tōkaidō Main Line
Chūō Main Line
Central Japan Railway Company
Kanagawa Prefectural Board of Educationmanages and oversees individual municipal school districts. The board of education also directly operates most of the public high schools in the prefecture.
*One of the most famous
Ukiyo-epaintings is " The Great Wave off Kanagawa" by Hokusai.
*Kamakura city, known for its historical buildings, is a favored location used in many "
manga" (comic) or " anime" (animation).
The sports teams listed below are based in Kanagawa.
Football (mainly Soccer) and Athletics
Nissan Stadium(International Stadium of Yokohama) - in Yokohama, the final venue of 2002 FIFA World Cupand FIFA Club World Cupin 2005-2007
*Nippatsu Mitsuzawa Stadium (
Mitsuzawa Stadium) - in Yokohama, only for football
Todoroki Athletics Stadium- in Kawasaki, the final venue of 2007 IFAF World Cup(American football).
Hiratsuka Athletics Stadium
Yokohama Stadium- for baseball and American football
Kawasaki Stadium- former homeground of Taiyo Whales (now Yokohama BayStars) and Lotte Orions (now Chiba Lotte Marines).
Yokohama Arena- also for music concert
Yokohama Cultural Gymnasium- a volleyball venue of 1964 Summer Olympicsin Tokyo
Todoroki Arena- in Kawasaki
EnoshimaYacht Course - used for 1964 Summer Olympics.
Hakone EkidenCourse - from Tokyo to Hakone, 108.0km, mostly on Japan National Route 1and Route 15. Runners run on the divided route for ten parts on January 2 (to Hakone) and January 3 (to Tokyo) every year.
Lake Sagami- hosted canoeing and rowing for the 1964 Summer Olympics.
Kawasaki Frontale(Kawasaki) - Todoroki Athletics
Yokohama F. Marinos(Yokohama, Yokosuka) - Nissan Stadium
Yokohama F.C.(Yokohama) - Mitsuzawa Ballpark
Shonan Bellmare(Hiratsuka, Odawara and some cities and towns in central and western area of Kanagawa) - Hiratsuka Athletic Stadium (football) and Odawara Arena (futsal)
Yokohama BayStars(Yokohama) - Yokohama Stadium, and Yokosuka Stadium (for its farm team, "Shonan Searex").
NEC Red Rockets(Kawasaki) - Todoroki Arena
The city of Kamakura is famous as the location of many Buddhist
temples and Shinto shrines. Yokohama Chinatownis the largest Chinatown in Japan (larger than Chinatowns in both Kobeand Nagasaki) and it is one of the largest in the world.
* Hammer, Joshua. (2006). [http://books.google.com/books?id=6O8VyhDbUPgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Tokyo+1923&lr=&source=gbs_summary_r "Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II."] New York:
Simon & Schuster. 10-ISBN 0-743-26465-7; 13-ISBN 978-0-743-26465-5 (cloth)
* [http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/menu/page/english.html Official Kanagawa Prefecture homepage]
* [http://greatpowers1.googlepages.com/home Official Kanagawa Living homepage]
* [http://www.kanagawa-kankou.or.jp/index-e.html KANAGAWA NOW JAPAN] Kanagawa Prefectural Tourist Association website (English)
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