- Gordon Kahl
Raised on a North Dakota farm, Kahl was a highly decorated turret gunner during World War II. After the war, "he had a 400-acre (1.6 km2) farm near Heaton, Wells County, North Dakota, [but] bounced around the Texas oilfields in later life as a mechanic and general worker."
In 1967, Kahl wrote a letter to the Internal Revenue Service stating that he would no longer pay taxes to the, in his words, "Synagogue of Satan under the 2nd plank of the Communist Manifesto." During the 1970s, Kahl organized the first Texas chapter of the Posse Comitatus, although he later left the group and was not a member at the time of the 1983 shootouts. In 1976 he appeared on a Texas television program stating that the income tax was illegal and encouraging others not to pay their income taxes. A 1991 movie based on these events was called In the Line of Duty: Manhunt in the Dakotas (aka Midnight Murders, and in Holland as In the Line of Duty: The Twilight Murders), starring actor Rod Steiger. The events also inspired the making of the documentary film Death & Taxes, which was released in 1993.
Criminal conviction and prison
On November 16, 1976, Kahl was charged with willful failure to file Federal income tax returns for the years 1973 and 1974, under 26 U.S.C. § 7203. He was found guilty, and was sentenced to two years in prison and a fine of $2,000. Kahl served eight months in prison in 1977. One year of the sentence was suspended, as was the fine, and the court placed Kahl on a five year probation. Kahl appealed his conviction, but the conviction was affirmed in 1978 by the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, after Kahl's release from prison on probation.
Activity after prison
Following his parole from prison, Kahl became active in the "township" movement, an early version of the "sovereign citizenship" belief which later became well known because of the Montana Freemen standoff. This movement sought to form parallel courts and governments purportedly based on English Common Law, and to withdraw recognition of the U.S. federal government. Township movement supporters as well as the Posse Comitatus attempted to organize among farmers in the American Midwest during the early 1980s farm crisis.
Shootout near Medina, North Dakota
On February 13, 1983, U.S. Marshals attempted to arrest Kahl as he was leaving a meeting of township supporters in Medina, North Dakota for violating his parole. In the car with Kahl were his wife Joan, his son Yori, and three others who had been at the meeting. According to Scott Faul's testimony, both Gordon Kahl and Yori Kahl were armed with Ruger Mini-14 rifles. The conflict began when federal marshals created a road block a few miles north of Medina. During the ensuing shootout, U.S. Marshal Kenneth Muir and Deputy Marshal Bob Cheshire were killed. Kahl then took the vehicle of a Medina law enforcement officer and fled to Arkansas.
Smithville, Arkansas shootings
A tip was received by authorities from the youngest daughter of the property owner's land that Leonard Ginter and his wife Norma Ginter lived on. Kahl hid in their earth-bermed passive solar home in Smithville, Arkansas. Another shootout ensued on June 3, 1983, in which Kahl and Lawrence County Sheriff Gene Matthews died. Despite Federal Marshalls and FBI SWAT teams firing thousands of bullets into the home before setting it alight, Kahl was killed by a single .41 Magnum bullet fired by Sheriff Gene Matthews, who died on an operating table critically wounded by a bullet from Kahl's Mini-14.
Edwin C. Udey, Arthur H. Russell, Leonard Ginter, and Norma Ginter, were indicted for harboring and concealing a fugitive, and for conspiracy to do the same. They were convicted of all the charges. The convictions were upheld on appeal. Leonard was convicted and sentenced to a federal prison, while Norma's sentence was suspended. Leonard was released in February 1987.
Leonard and Norma Ginter were each additionally charged with the capital murder of Sheriff Gene Matthews in relation to the federal harboring trial in state court. The capital murder charge was later dropped.
Yori Kahl and Scott Faul received prison sentences on charges in connection with the Medina shootout. Joan Kahl was acquitted. Yori Kahl is imprisoned at the United States Penitentiary at Terre Haute, Indiana, and is scheduled for release on February 12, 2023. Scott Faul is imprisoned at the Federal Correctional Institution at Sandstone, Minnesota, and is scheduled for release on February 14, 2023.
- ^ a b Tony Spilde, Changing lives in 30 seconds, Bismarck Tribune
- ^ a b Don L. Richards, Death and Taxes New York FLP News, No. 6, April 1984
- ^ Wayne King, A Farmer's Fatal Obsession With Jews and Taxes The New York Times, August 21 1990
- ^ Ghosts Of North Dakota
- ^ Internet Movie Database: In the Line of Duty: Manhunt in the Dakotas
- ^ Death & Taxes
- ^ United States v. Kahl, 583 F.2d 1351, 78-2 U.S. Tax Cas. (CCH) paragr. 9842 (5th Cir. 1978), at .
- ^ Shootout in a Sleepy Hamlet TIME, June 13 1983
- ^ Doug Ketcham & Associates, Fargo (701) 237-0275
- ^ Officials Remember Medina Shootout 25 Years Ago Today KFYR-TV, Bismarck, N.D., February 13 2008
- ^ "Wickstrom says Kahl's death will stimulate Posse's growth". The Milwaukee Sentinel: p. 12 (part 2). 6 June 1983. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=QIFQAAAAIBAJ&pg=6980%2C1056754.
- ^ Shootout in a Sleepy Hamlet TIME, June 13 1983
- ^ Wayne King (21 August 1990). "Books of The Times; A Farmer's Fatal Obsession With Jews and Taxes". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/08/21/books/books-of-the-times-a-farmer-s-fatal-obsession-with-jews-and-taxes.html.
- ^ United States v. Udey 748 F.2d 1231 (8th Cir. 1984)
- ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons, United States Department of Justice, Leonard G. Ginter, prisoner number 03063-010
- ^ UPI, AROUND THE NATION; Bail Denied for Couple Accused in Fugitive Case New York Times, June 7 1983
- ^ Ginter v. Stallcup 869 F.2d 384 (8th Cir. 1989)
- ^ Profile: Joan Kahl History Commons
- ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons, United States Department of Justice, Yori Von Kahl, prisoner number 04565-059
- ^ Federal Bureau of Prisons, United States Department of Justice, Scott Faul, prisoner number 04564-059
- Corcoran, James: Bitter Harvest (1990) (ISBN 0-14-009874-7)
- Graf, Darrell and Steve Schnabel: It's All About Power (1999) (ISBN 0-942323-31-9)
- Turner, Capstan and A.J. Lowery: There Was a Man (1986) (ISBN 0-9614465-0-1)
- Death & Taxes (1993 film documentary)
- Anti-Defamation League briefing paper on the Sovereign Citizen Movement
- Minns, Michael Louis: The Underground Lawyer (1989) (ISBN 0-929801-01-6)
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