Simhah ben Samuel of Vitry


Simhah ben Samuel of Vitry

Simhah ben Samuel of Vitry, (died 1105), (Hebrew: שמחה בן שמואל מויטרי) was a French Talmudist of the 11th and 12th centuries, pupil of Rashi, and the compiler of the Vitry Machzor.

Contents

The Vitry Machzor

The Vitry Machzor contains decisions and rules concerning religious practise, besides responsa by Rashi and other authorities, both contemporary and earlier. The work is cited as early as the 12th century in R. Jacob Tam's Sefer ha-Yashar (No. 620) as having been compiled by Simchah; and the sources from which the compiler took his material – the Seder Rav Amram, the Halakot Gedolot, and others—also are mentioned. R. Isaac the Elder, a grandson of Simchah, also refers (responsum No. 835, in Mordekai, on M. Ḳ.) to the Vitry Machzor compiled by his grandfather. Various additions were afterward made to this machzor, a large proportion of which, designated by the letter ת (= "tosafot"), are by R. Isaac ben Dorbolo (Durbal). The latter often appends his name to such additions; and in one place he says plainly: "These explanations were added by me, Isaac b. Dorbolo; but the following is from the Machzor of R. Simchah of Vitry himself". [1] Other additions are by Abraham ben Nathan Yarhi, author of Ha-Manhig, and are designated by the letters אב"ן, his initials.

Extant manuscripts of the Machzor

Three manuscripts of the Vitry Machzor are extant, the oldest of which, according to Abraham Berliner in his additions to Hurwitz's introduction to the Vitry Machzor (p. 172), is that in Reggio. It contains the Vitry Machzor proper without any additions. A second manuscript, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Neubauer, Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS. No. 1100), is said to have marginal annotations by Eleazar ben Judah, author of the Sefer ha-Rokeach (Michael, Or ha-Chayim. No. 1214). The third manuscript is in the British Museum (Cod. Add. Nos. 27,200 and 27,201), and contains still other additions; this manuscript served as basis for S. Hurwitz's edition of the Vitry Machzor published by the Meḳiẓe Nirdamim Society (Berlin, 1893). The edition is very faulty, as the editor used no critical judgment in his work; instead of the original treatises it contains some from the Sefer ha-Terumah of Baruch ben Isaac and from the Eshkol of Ravad. [2]

Additions to the Machzor proper

The Vitry Machzor contains many prayers and liturgical poems (piyyutim), which are distributed throughout the work. Besides these scattered poems the British Museum manuscript has (pp. 239-260) a collection of piyyutim which was published by Brody under the title Ḳonṭres ha-Piyyutim. (Berlin, 1894). In the published edition of this Machzor there is also a commentary on the Pesach Haggadah, which, however, does not agree with that by R. Simchah b. Samuel of Vitry printed at Vilna in 1886. The latter commentary, which agrees with the one cited by Abudraham as being found in the Vitry Machzor, was taken from a manuscript of that machzor—probably from the parchment copy owned by the Vilna Gaon [3], although no particular manuscript is mentioned in the Vilna edition itself.

There is also in the published edition of the Vitry Machzor a commentary on the Pirke Avot. This commentary is found in the British Museum manuscript, but in neither of the others. It is really a commentary by Jacob ben Samson, the pupil of Rashi (concerning whom comp. Schechter, Einleitung zu Abot des R. Natan, p. ix.), amplified in the present Machzor. Many midrashic sayings, which are cited as such in the Vitry Machzor, have been preserved in that work alone. Thus the passage cited (p. 332) from the Midrash Tehillim is no longer found in the present midrash of that name. Likewise there are found in the Vitry Machzor citations from the Jerusalem Talmud which are lacking in the existing editions of the latter.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Vitry Machzor, p. 244
  2. ^ Vitry Machzor, pp. 752 et seq.
  3. ^ Rav Pe'alim, p. 19

Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography

This article incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, a publication now in the public domain.

  • S. Hurwitz, Einleitung und Register zum Machzor Vitry, with additions by A. Berliner, Berlin, 1896-1897;
  • A. Epstein, in Monatsschrift, 1897, pp. 306-307;
  • idem, in R. E. J. 1897, pp. 308-313;
  • Michael, Or ha-Ḥayyim, No. 1214.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Simhah ben Samuel of Vitry — (d. 1105)    French scholar. He was a pupil of Rashi. He compiled the Mahzor Vitry, which is regarded as an author itative source for the prayerbook, synagogue customs and the hymnology of medieval French Jewry …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Simha ben Samuel de Vitry — Simha ben Samuel de Vitry, (mort en 1105) était un talmudiste du XIe siècle, élève de Rachi et compilateur du plus vieux Mahzor encore conservé aujourd hui, le Mahzor Vitry. Sources (en) Wilhelm Bacher et Jacob Zallel Lauterbach,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Isaac ben Samuel — the Elder of Dampierre (Hebrew: יצחק הזקן בן שמואל) , known as the or Ri (ר י הזקן) was a French tosafist and Biblical commentator. He flourished at Ramerupt and Dampierre in the twelfth century. Biography On his father s side Isaac was a… …   Wikipedia

  • Meir ben Samuel — Meïr ben Samuel, also known by the Hebrew acronym RaM for Rabbi Meir, was a French rabbi and tosafist, who was born in about 1060 in Ramerupt, and died after 1135. His father was an eminent scholar. Meïr received his education in the Talmudical… …   Wikipedia

  • ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF DAMPIERRE — (usually referred to by the initial letters of his name as Ri (initials of R abbi I saac) or Ri the Elder, or Ri of Dampierre, d. c. 1185), one of the most important of the tosafists and leading authority of Franco German Jewry in the second half …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Joseph ben Samuel Bonfils — (lived in the middle of the eleventh century) was a French rabbi, Talmudist, Bible commentator, and payyeṭan . Of his life nothing is known but that he came from Narbonne, and was rabbi of Limoges in the province of Anjou [See Jacob Tam s Sefer… …   Wikipedia

  • Vitry — is part of the name of several communes in France:* Vitry aux Loges, in the Loiret département * Vitry en Artois, in the Pas de Calais département * Vitry en Charollais, in the Saône et Loire département * Vitry en Montagne, in the Haute Marne… …   Wikipedia

  • MAḤZOR VITRY — MAḤZOR VITRY, halakhic liturgical composition by Simḥah b. Samuel of Vitry, a small town in the department of Marne, France. Simḥah was an outstanding pupil, or even a colleague, of Rashi and apparently died during his teacher s lifetime (i.e.,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Histoire Des Juifs En France — Les Juifs et le judaïsme Généralités Qui est Juif ? · Terminologie · Conversion Judaïsme : Principes de foi Noms de Dieu dans le judaïsme Tanakh (Bible hébraïque) : Torah · …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Histoire des Juifs de France — Histoire des Juifs en France Les Juifs et le judaïsme Généralités Qui est Juif ? · Terminologie · Conversion Judaïsme : Principes de foi Noms de Dieu dans le judaïsme Tanakh (Bible hébraïque) : Torah · …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.