- Red Terror
The Red Terror in
Soviet Russiawas the campaign of mass arrests and executions conducted by the Bolshevikgovernment. In Soviet historiography, the Red Terror is described as officially announced on September 2, 1918by Yakov Sverdlovand ended in about October 1918. However many historians, beginning with Sergei Melgunov, apply this term to repressions for the whole period of the Russian Civil War, 1918-1922. Serge Petrovich Melgunov, "Red Terror in Russia", Hyperion Pr (1975), ISBN 0-883-55187-X] The mass repressions were conducted without judicial process by the state securityorganization, Cheka.
The term "Red Terror" was originally [ Jan ten Brink (1899) English translation by J. Hedeman [http://books.google.com/books?id=m7QEAAAAYAAJ&dq=robespierre+%22red+terror%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=XeBLxKxvPY&sig=8ZNFDmwk4sQ9wlVYtz2zyB0sLjw "Robespierre and the Red Terror"] , reprinted in 2004, ISBN 1402138296] used to describe the last six weeks of the "
Reign of Terror" of the French Revolution, ending on July 28, 1794(execution of Robespierre), to distinguish it from the subsequent period of the White Terror [ [http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist7.html French Revolution] ] (historically this period has been known as the Great Terror (French: la Grande Terreur)).
Purpose of the Soviet Red Terror
The Red Terror was claimed to be introduced in reply to White Terror. The stated purpose of this campaign was struggle with
counter-revolutionariesconsidered to be enemies of the people. Many Russian communists openly proclaimed that Red Terror was needed for extermination of entire social groups or former " ruling classes". Lenin planned the terror in advance. In 1908 he had written of "real, nation-wide terror, which reinvigorates the country". [ Robert Conquest"Reflections on a Ravaged Century" (2000) ISBN 0-393-04818-7, page 98] Communist leader Grigory Zinovievdeclared in September 1918: :"To overcome of our enemies we must have our own socialist militarism. We must carry along with us 90 million out of the 100 million of Soviet Russia's population. As for the rest, we have nothing to say to them. They must be annihilated." [George Leggett. "The Cheka: Lenin's Political Police" Oxford University Press, 1986. ISBN 0198228627 page 114]
For many people the major evidence of their guilt was their social status rather than actual deeds.
Martin Latsis, chief of the Ukrainian Cheka, explained in newspaper "Red Terror"::"Do not look in the file of incriminating evidence to see whether or not the accused rose up against the Soviets with arms or words. Ask him instead to which class he belongs, what is his background, his education, his profession. These are the questions that will determine the fate of the accused. That is the meaning and essence of the Red Terror." Yevgenia Albatsand Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. "The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia - Past, Present, and Future", 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5.]
The campaign of mass repressions was officially initiated as retribution for the assassination of
Petrograd Chekaleader Moisei Uritsky, and attempted assassination of Vladimir Leninby Fanya Kaplanon August 30, 1918. While recovering from his wounds, Lenin instructed: "It is necessary - secretly and "urgently" to prepare the terror" Christopher Andrewand Vasili Mitrokhin(2000). The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West. Gardners Books. ISBN 0-14-028487-7, page 34.] Even before the assassinations, Lenin was sending telegrams to "to introduce mass terror" in Nizhny Novgorodin response to a suspected civilian uprising there, and "crush" landowners in Penzawho protested, sometimes violently, to requisition of their grain by military detachments: :"Comrades!... You must make example of these people. (1) Hang (I mean hang publicly, so that people see it) at least 100 kulaks, rich bastards, and known bloodsuckers. (2) Publish their names. (3) Seize all their grain. (4) Single out the hostages per my instructions in yesterday's telegram."
Five hundred "representatives of overthrown classes" were executed immediately after assassination of Uritsky
Edvard Radzinsky" Stalin: The First In-depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives", Anchor, (1997) ISBN 0-385-47954-9, pages 152-155] . The first official announcement of Red Terror, published in "Izvestiya", "Appeal to the Working Class" on September 3 1918called for the workers to "crush the hydra of counterrevolutionwith massive terror! ... anyone who dares to spread the slightest rumor against the Soviet regime will be arrested immediately and sent to concentration camp" . This was followed by the decree "On Red Terror", issued September 5 1918by the Cheka. On 15 October, checkist Gleb Bokiy, summing up the officially ended Red Terror, reported that in Petrograd800 alleged enemies had been shot and another 6,229 imprisoned. Casualties in the first two months were between 10,000 and 15,000 based on lists of summarily executed people published in newspaper " ChekaWeekly" and other official press .
16 March 1919, all military detachments of Cheka were combined in a single body, the Troops for the Internal Defense of the Republic which numbered 200,000 in 1921. These troops policed labor camps, ran the Gulagsystem, conducted requisitions of food, put down peasant rebellions, riots by workers, and mutinies in the Red Army, which was plagued by desertions Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, "The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression", Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7 ]
Repressions against peasants
Internal Troopsof Cheka and the Red Army practiced the terror tactics of taking and executing numerous hostages, often in connection with desertions of forcefully mobilized peasants. It is believed that more than 3 million deserters escaped from the Red Armyin 1919 and 1920. Around 500,000 deserters were arrested in 1919 and close to 800,000 in 1920 by Cheka troops and special divisions created to combat desertions. Thousands of deserters were killed, and their families were often taken hostage. According to Lenin's instructions, :"After the expiration of the seven-day deadline for deserters to turn themselves in, punishment must be increased for these incorrigible traitors to the cause of the people. Families and anyone found to be assisting them in any way whatsoever are to be considered as hostages and treated accordingly."
In September 1918, only in twelve provinces of Russia, 48,735 deserters and 7,325 bandits were arrested, 1,826 were killed and 2,230 were executed. A typical report from a Cheka department stated::"
YaroslavlProvince, 23 June 1919. The uprising of deserters in the Petropavlovskaya "volost" has been put down. The families of the deserters have been taken as hostages. When we started to shoot one person from each family, the Greens began to come out of the woods and surrender. Thirty-four deserters were shot as an example"."
During the suppression of the
Tambov Rebellion, estimates suggest that around 100,000 peasant rebels and their families were imprisoned or deported and perhaps 15,000 executed. [Robert Gellately. "Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe." Knopf, 2007. ISBN 1400040051 page 75]
This campaign marked the beginning of the
Gulag, and some scholars have estimated that 70,000 were imprisoned by September, 1921.
Repressions against Russian industrial workers
On 16 March 1919, Cheka stormed the Putilov factory. More than 900 workers who went to a strike were arrested. More than 200 of them were executed without trial during next few days. Numerous strikes took place in the spring of 1919 in cities of
Tula, Orel, Tver, Ivanovo, and Astrakhan. The starving workers sought to obtain food rations matching those of Red Army soldiers. They also demanded the elimination of privileges for Communists, freedom of press, and free elections. All strikes were mercilessly suppressed by Cheka using arrests and executions. ["Black Book", pages 86-87]
In the city of Astrakhan, the strikers and Red Army soldiers who joined them were loaded onto barges and then thrown by the hundreds into the
Volgawith stones around their necks. Between 2,000 and 4,000 were shot or drowned from 12 to 14 of March 1919. In addition, the repression also claimed the lives of some 600 to 1,000 bourgeoisie. Recently published archival documents indicate this was the largest of workers by the Bolsheviks before the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion. ["Black Book", page 88]
However, strikes continued. On January 1920, Lenin sent a telegram to a city of
Izhevsktelling that "I am surprised that ... you are not immediately executing large numbers of strikers for the crime of sabotage." [ "Black Book", page 90.] On 6 June 1920, female workers in Tulawho refused to work on Sunday were arrested and sent to labor camps. The refusal to work during the weekend was claimed to be a "counter-revolutionary conspiracy formeted by Polish spies".
Atrocities of the Red Terror
At these times, there were numerous reports that Cheka interrogators employed
tortures of "scarcely believable barbarity". Allegedly, people were tied to planks and slowly fed into furnaces; the skin was peeled off victims' hands to produce "gloves"; naked people were rolled around in barrels studded with nails; "in Kiev, cages of rats were fixed to prisoners' bodies and heated until the rats gnawed their way into the victims' intestines." ["The KGB in Europe", page 38.]
Edvard Radzinsky, "it became a common practice to take a husband hostage and wait for his wife to come and purchase his life with her body". The Pyatigorsk Chekaorganized a "day of Red Terror" to execute 300 people in one day. They ordered local Communist Party organizations to draw up execution lists. According to one of chekists, "this rather unsatisfactory method led to a great deal of private settling of old scores... In Kislovodsk, for lack of a better idea, it was decided to kill people who were in the hospital".
Members of the clergy were subjected to particularly brutal abuse. According to documents cited by the late Alexander Yakovlev, then head of the Presidential Committee for the Rehabilitation of Victims of Political Repression, priests, monks and nuns were crucified, thrown into cauldrons of boiling tar, scalped, strangled, given Communion with melted lead and drowned in holes in the ice.
Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. "A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia." Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0300087608 [http://books.google.com/books?id=ChRk43tVxTwC&pg=PA156&lpg=PA156&dq=yakovlev+crucified&source=web&ots=ICKDgb9JAk&sig=gFYkPqJP9tewjmH3VL7b7ODHe5w page 156] ] An estimated 3,000 were put to death in 1918 alone.
Interpretations by historians
Some historians believe that Red Terror was necessary for Bolsheviks to stay in power because they had no popular support.
Richard PipesCommunism: A History (2001) ISBN 0-812-96864-6, pages 39.] Bolsheviks only got a quarter of the vote at the height of their popularity in the elections. Massive strikes by Russian workers were "mercilessly" suppressed during the Red Terror. Robert Conquestconcluded that Robert Conquest"Reflections on a Ravaged Century" (2000) ISBN 0-393-04818-7, page 101 ] "unprecedented terrormust seem necessary to ideologically motivated attempts to transform society massively and speedily, against its natural possibilities." Richard Pipessaid that despotism and violence were the intrinsic properties of every Communist regime in the world. Richard Pipes"Communism: A History" (2001) ISBN 0-812-96864-6, pages 39.] He also argued that Communist terror follows from Marxismteaching that considers human lives as expendable material for construction of the brighter future society. He cited Marx who once wrote that "The present generation resembles the Jews whom Moses led through the wilderness. It must not only conquer a new world, it must also "perish" in order to make a room for the people who are fit for a new world". Richard PipesCommunism: A History (2001) ISBN 0-812-96864-6, pages 74-75.] Edvard Radzinskynoted that Joseph Stalinhimself wrote a " nota bene" "Terror is the quickest way to new society" beside the following passage in a book by Marx: "There is only one way to shorten and ease the convulsions of the old society and the bloody birth pangs of the new - revolutionary terror".
Karl Kautskyrecognized that the Red Terror represented a variety of terrorism, because it was indiscriminate, intended to frighten the civilian population, and included taking and executing hostages. He said: "Among the phenomena for which Bolshevism has been responsible, Terrorism, which begins with the abolition of every form of freedom of the Press, and ends in a system of wholesale execution, is certainly the most striking and the most repellent of all". [ Karl Kautsky, [http://marxists.org/archive/kautsky/1919/terrcomm/ch08b.htm#s6 "Terrorism and Communism"] Chapter VIII, The Communists at Work, The Terror]
Other Marxists, such as Alan Woods maintain that the Bolsheviks were able to carry out the campaign of Red Terror precisely because they had wholehearted support of the lower classes, especially in Petrograd and Moscow - otherwise the Bolshevik regime would not have survived.Fact|date=August 2008
Historical significance of the Red Terror
Red Terror was significant as the first of numerous Communist terror campaigns which followed in Russia and many other countres. [cite book|last=Andrew |first=Christopher|coauthors=Vasili Mitrokhin|title=The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World|publisher=Basic Books|year=2005|id=ISBN 0-465-00311-7 ] . It also unleashed
Russian Civil Waraccording to historian Richard Pipes. Menshevik Julius Martovwrote about Red Terror:
:"The beast has licked hot human blood. The man-killing machine is brought into motion... But blood breeds blood... We witness the growth of the bitterness of the civil war, the growing bestiality of men engaged in it." [ "The Black book of Communism", page 736] .
The term Red Terror came to refer to other campaigns of violence carried out by communist or communist-affiliated groups. Often, such acts were carried out in response to (and/or followed by) similar measures taken by the anti-communist side in the conflict. See "
Examples of the usage of the term "Red Terrors" include
Red Terror (Hungary)The executions of 590 people accused of involvement in the counterrevolutionary "coup" against the Hungarian Soviet Republicon June 24, 1919.
Red Terror (Spain)during the Spanish Civil War.
Red Terror (Ethiopia)during Mengistu Haile Mariam's rule.
Mao Zedongwrote: "Red terror ought to be our reply to these counter-revolutionaries. We must, especially in the war zones and in the border areas, deal immediately, swiftly with every kind of counter-revolutionary activity" - Mao [Denis Twitchett, John K. Fairbank "The Cambridge history of China",ISBN 0521243386 [http://books.google.com/books?id=Fxs3ROaIhPMC&pg=PA177&dq=%22red+terror%22+china&sig=y-rytUNykvrz5yEhHX9TnRjLnJg p. 177] ]
Nandigram violencein Nandigram, West Bengalin November 2007 was called "Red Terror" by critics of the actions by the local administration alluding at the Communist Party of India ruling in West Bengal. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7114827.stm BBC Article] ] The situation was described as one of "Red Terror" by media.cite web |title=Red terror continues Nandigram's bylanes|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Red_terror_continues_Nandigrams_bylanes/articleshow/2541772.cms]
Lenin's Hanging Order
Mass graves in the Soviet Union
References and further reading
* Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Panne, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stephane Courtois, "Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression",
Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7. Chapter 4: "The Red Terror"
* George Leggett, "The Cheka: Lenin’s Political Police."
Oxford University Press, 1987, ISBN 0198228627
* Melgounov, Sergey Petrovich (1925) "The Red Terror in Russia." London & Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd.
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSterror.htm Red Terror] Spartacus Schoolnet collection of primary source extracts relating to the Red Terror
* [http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1920/terrcomm/index.htm Terrorism or Communism] book by
Leon Trotskyon the use of Red Terror.
* [http://www.marxists.org/archive/martov/1918/07/death-penalty.htm Down with the Death Penalty!] by Yuliy Osipovich Martov, June/July 1918
* [http://www.paulbogdanor.com/redterror.pdf The Record of the Red Terror] by
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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