- Sunni view of Yazid I
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Sunniand Yazid I
There is no Sunni consensus on the nature of Husayn's opposition to Yazid's rule and Yazid's culpability in Husayn's death. Some scholars have claimed that Husayn opposed Yazid's ascension to the Caliphate but did not actively revolt against him, and that Husayn's killing was ordered not by Yazid but by the Umayyad governor of Iraq,
Ubaidallah ibn ZiyadFact|date=January 2007. Others have refrained from taking a position on the matter, claiming that although Husayn's death was a tragic and unfortunate event, the evidence on exactly how it occurred and who bears responsibility is too inconclusive to merit judgment. Among the Sunni view of Yazid I include:
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari records under the year A.H. 49 (February 9, 669-January 1, 670) during the reign of Muawiya I, a number of forces, including one under Yazid struck at Constantinople. This First Arab siege of Constantinople was a naval assault lasting through the years 670-677. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari was also among the notables accompanying Yazid. This journey marks an important event in the life of young Yazid (27 at that time), as he became one promised paradise according to one Hadith.
They relate that 'Umair bin Al-Aswad Al-Anasi told him that he went to 'Ubada bin As-Samit while he was staying in his house at the sea-shore of Him with (his wife) Um Haram. 'Umair said. Um Haram informed us that she heard Muhammad saying, "Paradise is granted to the first batch of my followers who will undertake a naval expedition." Um Haram added, I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Will I be amongst them?' He replied, 'You are amongst them.' Muhammad then said, 'The first army amongst' my followers who will invade Caesar's City will not be forgiven their sins.' I asked, 'Will I be one of them, O Allah's Apostle?' He replied in the negative." Volume 4, Book 52, Number 175 Narrated Khalid bin Madan
Imaam Muhammad Gazzalee(d.505H) said he was a muslim with a correct aqeedah and a complete muslim and it is not permissible in the sharee’ah to curse and abuse him. (see Ahyaa al-Uloom (3/108), Wafyaat al-A’yaan (1/328), Miratul-Janaan (3/176), al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/173), Hayaat al-Haiwaan (2/176), Sawaa’iq al-Meharqah (pg.222), Dhuu al-Ma’alee (pg.49), Sharh Fiqhul-Akbar (pg.87), Nibraas (pg.551), Shadhraat adh-Dhahab Fee Akhbaar Minal Madhab (1/69), Tafseer Rooh al-Ma’anee (13/73), Fataawa Azeezee (1/100), Fataawa Abdul-Hayy (1/60), Aqaa’id al-Islaam (pg.223).
Mulla Alee Qaaree said, “The majority of the Scholars have prohibited cursing Yazeed and Hajjaaj.” (Mirqaat Sharh Mishkaat (4/52). Sunni view of Yazid
What follows is a list of some of the scholars who held various opinions about Yazeed ibn Mua’wiyyah.which nulifies the shia claim that all sunni scholars curse Yazid
1. Imaam Qaadhee Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabee Maalikee (d.543H) He did not hold permissible the cursing and abusing of Yazeed nor declaring him to be a disbeliever. He said, “If it is said justice and knowledge are from the conditions of Khilaafah and Yazeed neither had justice or knowledge, then we will say what is the thing by which he have to come to know Yazeed had no justice or knowledge.” (al-Awaasim Minal Qawaasim (pg.222) He also said, “Where are those historians who wrote against Yazeed in mentioning alcohol and open sinning, do they not have any shame?” (al-Awaasim Minal Qawaasim (pg.222)
2. Shaikh Abdul-Mugeeth Hanbalee (d.583H) He was not in favour of cursing Yazeed nor declaring him to be a disbeliever, rather he authored a biography of Yazeed with the title of, “Fadhal Yazeed.” “and his (Abdul-Mugeeth’s) book ‘Fadhal Yazeed bin Mu’awiyyah’, in it he has mentioned strange incidences.” (Hidaayatul A’aarifeen Asmaa al-Mu’allifeen Wa Athaar Musannifeen (5/623), al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/328). Haafidh Ibn Katheer said about him, “He was from the righteous Hanbalee’s who the common folk referred to.” (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/328). Imaam Ibn al-Jawzee said, “I hope from Allaah that me and Abdul-Mugeeth will be together in Paradise. Muhib ud deen Abul-Baqaa said from this we find (ibn al-Jawzee) knew Abdul-Mugeeth was from the righteous worshippers of Allaah and may he have mercy on both of them.” (Dhail Tabaqaat Hanabillah (1/356) of Ibn Rajab.)
3. Allaamah Abul-Khair Qazwainee. (d.590H) Imaam Ibn Katheer said, “After he left Qazwain he went to Baghdaad where he became a teacher in Madrassah Nizaamiyyah and he would admonish and deliver lectures to the people. So on the day of Ashoorah he sat on the minbar to admonish the people, it was said to him to curse Yazeed bin Mu’awiyyah. He replied, “He was but an Imaam Mujtahid.” (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (9/13), Risaalah al-Mustarfah Lee-Bayaan Mashoor Kitaab as-Sunnah al-Musharfah (pg.132).
4. Allaamah Ibn as-Saalah (d.646H) He was also not in favour of cursing Yazeed or saying he was a disbeliever. Ibn Hajr Makkee writes, “Ibn Salaah who is from our jurists and scholars of hadeeth, I have seen in his Fataawa that when he was asked concerning the individual who would only curse Yazeed because he ordered the death of Hussain. Then in answer to this he said, according to us Yazeed ordering the death of Hussain is not correct and cursing and abusing Yazeed is not the sign of a believer…..” (as-Sawaa’iq al-Meharqah (pg.222).
5. Shaikh ul-Islaam Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) He was neither in favour of cursing Yazeed nor declaring him to be a disbeliever. He says, “And the people who curse Yazeed and other such people like him then it is UPON them to bring evidence, Firstly: that he (Yazeed) was an open sinner and an oppressor and therefore prove he really was an open sinner and an oppressor. As allowing them to be cursed also needs to be proven that he continued this open sinning and oppression to the end up until his death. Secondly: Then after this they must prove that it is permissible to curse specific people like Yazeed.” He goes onto say, “and the verse, “May the Curse of Allaah be upon the oppressors.” Is a general verse like the verses concerning punishment.” He goes onto say, “And the hadeeth of Bukhaari states the first army to wage Jihaad against Constantinople is forgiven and the first army to do Jihaad against Constantinople, their Ameer was Yazeed ibn Mu’waiyyah and the word army entails a specific number and every member of this army is included in this forgiveness………..” (Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah Fee Naqdh Kalaam ash-Shee’ah Wal-Qadariyyah (2/252), al-Muntaqa Minhaaj al-Ei’tidaal Fee Naqdh Kalaam ar-Rafdh Wal-Ei’tizaal (pg.290).
6. Haafidh Imaam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d.751H). Haafidh Ibn Qayyim writes in his book al-Manaar al-Muneef, “ALL the narration’s that mention the censure of Yazeed bin Mu’awiyyah are lies.” The he goes onto say on the same page, “ALL the narration’s that mention the censure of Mu’awiyyah are lies.” (al-Manaar al-Muneef Fis-Saheeh Wadh-Dha’eef (pg.220).
7. Haafidh Imaam Ibn Katheer (d.774H) After mentioning the position of al-Haraasee (of the permissibility of cursing) he mentions his statements and says, “Imaam Ghazzalee has opposed the attribution of open sinning and tyranny to Yazeed and has prohibited from abusing Yazeed because he was a muslim and it is not established he expressed happiness or joy on the death of Hussain….” (al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/173).
8. Haafidh Ibn Rajab (d.795H) Haafidh Ibn Rajab also did not hold the opinion of cursing and declaring Yazeed to be a disbeliever. On the contrary he refute the allegation on Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal that he cursed Yazeed. So he writes in clear words, “The statement of Imaam Ahmad only establishes cursing on all of the oppressors and there is no clarification or specification for the permissibility of cursing Yazeed only.” (Dhail Tabaqaat Hanabillah (2/356).
9. Mulla Alee Qaaree (d1014H). Mulla Alee Qaaree said, “The majority of the Scholars have prohibited cursing Yazeed and Hajjaaj.” (Mirqaat Sharh Mishkaat (4/52).
10.Ibn kathir in his famous book Albidaywanihaya quotes Mohammad bin Hanfia Hussain brother ,that yazid was a pious person and he denied the acusation against him.
Those holding a negative view state that the
Hanafis, Hanbalis and Shafi'is deemed it permissible to curse Yazid. They also accuse him of homosexuality, pedophilia, zoophiliaand incestwith his mother sisters and daughters. He is further accused of being a drunkard that had abandoned the daily prayer and being personally responsible for killing Husayn ibn Ali, the rapeand pillageof Meccaand Medinaand setting the Kaabaon fire. Further, he is accused of the killing of large number of Sahaba who were on the Muslim side during the Battle of Badras revenge for his non-Muslim Meccan relatives who were killed in battle by Muslims.
PresentScholar|Ibn Kathir|14th|Sunni|Shafi'i writes:
cquote|bgcolor=#F0FFF0|Muslim was ordered to ransack Medina for three days. Yazeed committed a major sin. Sahaba and their children were slaughtered openly; other heinous acts were also perpetuated. We have already mentioned that he had Ibn Ziyad kill the grandson of Rasulullah (s) Husayn and his companions. In those three days in Madina, it is difficult to mention the type of acts that were carried out. By doing this act Yazeed wanted to secure his governance, in the same way Allah (swt) broke the neck of every Pharoah, the true King (swt) also broke the neck of Yazeed."
"Rasulullah (s) said whoever perpetuated injustice and frightened the residents of Medina, the curse (la'nat) of Allah (swt), His Angels and all people is on such a person
Al Bidayah wa al-NihayahVolume 8 page 222 [http://www.alsunnah.ca/yazid.html] ]
Ali ibn al-Athir
The Complete History (book)Volume 3 page 450 [http://www.alsunnah.ca/yazid.html] ] :
transmitted ["Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala" Volume 4 pages 37-38 [http://www.alsunnah.ca/yazid.html] ] :
Ibn Jauzi in Wafa al-Wafa
Ibn Hajar al-Haytami
PresentScholar|Ibn Hajar al-Haytami|16th|Sunni|Shafi'i calls Yazeed one of the most debased men in history.
cquote|bgcolor=#F0FFF0|One group have deemed Yazeed to be a
kaafir, another has stated he was a Muslimbut a fasiq(transgressor), a fajir(one that commits debauchery) and a drunkard. There is consensus over his fisq (transgression). One party of Ulemahave stated that you can curse him by name, this includes individuals such as Ibn Jauzi and Ahmad. One group made up of individuals such as Ibn Jauzi deem Yazeed a kaafir, others say he was not a kaafir but rather this is a matter that has caused a difference of opinion.
The majority of Ahl'ul Sunnah all agree that he was a fasiq (transgressor), a fajir (one that commits debauchery) and a drunkard. Waqidi had recorded a narration 'Verily we opposed Yazeed fearing Allah (swt) would reign stones down on us, Yazeed considered
nikah(marriage) with mothers and sisters to be permissible and drank alcohol".
"Dhahabi narrates that when
Abdullah bin Kuzaireturned from Damascushe stated that Yazeed performs zinawith his mother, sister and daughters. We had better start a movement to oppose Yazeed otherwise stones may reign down on us [ Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah[http://www.alsunnah.ca/yazid.html] ]
hah Abdul Aziz
PresentScholar|Shah Abdul Aziz|19th|Sunni|Hanafi states:
PresentScholar|Ibn Taymiya|14th|Sunni|Hanbali|Salafi writes:
PresentScholar|Ibn Khaldun|14th|Sunni writes:
PresentScholar|Abu al-Fida|14th|Sunni writes:
Qadi Thanaullah Panipati
PresentScholar|Qadi Thanaullah Panipati|19th|Sunni|Hanafi wrote:
MAmjad 'Ali Azami in Bahar e Shariat
Bahar e Shariat by Amjad 'Ali Azamistated:
Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi
PresentScholar|Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi|20th|Deobandi wrote:
PresentScholar|Mahmud al-Alusi|19th|Sunni wrote:
Hayaath al Haywaan:
PresentScholar|Ibn Khaldun|14th|Sunni writes:
Tadhkira, Maqathiland Shazarath al Dhabah. This is also found in the Arabic (non-Leiden) version of the History of Al-Tabari:cquote|bgcolor=#F0FFF0|When the head of Husayn (R), the grandson of the Holy Prophet (saws), was presented before Yazeed he recited the couplets of the kaafir Zubayri:
Banu Hashimstaged a play for Kingdom there was no news from the skies neither was there any revelation" Sharh Fiqh Akbar: Maqathil Husayn:
Maqathil al Husayn:
Mutaalib al Saul: Ashiath al-Lamaath:
* [http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/yazeed/en/chap3.php this] Shi'a site contains several references to Sunni scholars view of Yazid.
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