Liu Mingchuan


Liu Mingchuan

Infobox Military Person
name=Liu Mingchuan
born=birth date|1836|0|0|df=y
died=death date and age|1896|1|1|1836|1|1|df=y
placeofbirth=Hefei, Anhui, Qing Empire
placeofdeath=Hefei, Anhui, Qing Empire


caption=Liu Mingchuan
nickname= Porkmark face Liu
allegiance= Qing Empire
serviceyears=military commander of Hebei(1864–1868)rest(1870--1883)

Oversee Army of Taiwan(Sino-French War)(1884)

First Governor of Taiwan(1885--1891)

Army Commander(1894) |
rank=Colonel General
commands=
unit=
battles=Taiping rebellion
*Battle of Changzhou(1864)
Nien Rebellion(1865--1868)
*Sino-French War(1884--1885)
awards=created Baron First Class, Order of succession 一等男爵, 世襲) in 1868 |laterwork=

Liu Mingchuan (1836-1896, 劉銘傳) was a Chinese official during the Qing dynasty, born in Hefei in Anhui province. He became involved in the suppression of the Taiping rebellion at an early age, and worked closely with both Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang. In 1885, he was appointed the first governor of the newly established province of Taiwan as its governance was separated from Fujian. Today he is remembered for his efforts in modernizing Taiwan during his tenure as governor and several institutions have been given his name, including Ming Chuan University in Taipei.

Early

Liu was born into a family of farmers so poor that even clothing for the children was barely affordable. Liu's father died when Liu was 11 years old. At age 18, Liu decided to join a local gang of bandits in the mountains, and at 20 he took part in the early Nien Rebellion. At 23 he changed his mind and joined the Huai Army, beginning his loyalty to the Qing Empire's military.

Battle of Changzhou

After the Suzhou Massacre POW Incident, Huai Army‘s last target city in Jiangsu was Changzhou, there were over 80,000 Taiping army vowed never surrender, that have become the largest tough challenge from raised Huai Army in 1858. In 1864 the Huai Army commander Li Hongzhang and vice commander Liu attacked Changzhou‘s Taiping, and recover this city that Liu created first merit,Major General Liu was jump promoted to Colonel General speedly and it appointed defend capital Beijing that glory job newly.

Against Nien Rebellion

Liu faced twice times to death nealy, but he alived luckily.

Defeated by Lai Wenkwok

Kill Ren Zhu

Liu spend lots money buy a killer that killer was Ren‘s body guard, this killer selected chance closed Ren Zhu and took pistol shot Ren‘s back in battlefield. Somebody known all thought Liu immoral.

Wounds by down horses

After Liu murdered Ren Zhu successfully, some strange thing happened on Liu that like Ren‘s ghost took revenge, Liu fallen down from horse and tread by run horses. Liu fainted and weak breath. Li Hongzhang very worried for Liu‘s life and use political relation please the Head Eunuch Li Lianying that reported Empress Dowager Cixi promised gave some just only Emperor‘ medicine to cure Liu, after one month Liu wake up but weak from then.

Sino-French War

Liu defends Taiwan

On September 26, 1884, Liu arrived in the port of Tamsui by ship from the Chinese mainland, and rode a speedy horse to the headquarters in Taipei. Then the French troops attacked the port of Keelung for many days, and Liu went to Keelung to assess the situation.

But on the morning of October 3, French troops started an offensive on Tamsui, firing more than 1000 shells at the coast. Liu immediately made an important decision: the Qing troops should abandon Keelung and defend Taipei, which required taking Tamsui first. So he went back to Taipei, but the people there erroneously thought he would escape, jailing him until he promised to stay.

When Liu was in jail, he quick-wittedly told the people, "If you love your country, you should join the army immediately and contribute to the military efforts." Consequently, many thousands more people joined the volunteers, and the Qing government armed them.

Victory and appointment as governor

Liu ordered the major general Sun Kaihua (孫開華) to command the Fuzhou Corps stationed in Tamsui. On October 8, 600 French marines landed at the beachhead and launched an offensive against the Fuzhou Corps. After one day of battle, Sun won, killing more than 300 French troops, forcing the remainder to return in their ships to Keelung.

As a result of this victory, Beijing promoted both Sun and Liu, with Liu becoming the first governor of Taiwan province. The French troops' remains were buried in Keelung. In the 1960s, he French government had many of the remains exhumed and repatriated. Many more French troops, around 700 in all, remain buried in the Keelung French Cemetery.

First created in Taiwan, China

Railroad

The Chinese first raised railroad in 1891 from Keelung to Taipei by Qing Empire.

Telegraphy

Lamp

The Chinese Lamp (electrical component) first created was in Taipei city in 1887 that were street lamps created by Qing Empire.

Collapse:Too much tax forced Taiwanese revolt

On October 6 1888 in Changhua County, many thousands Taiwanese raised attack ed the Qing officials for taxes of land. They refused to obey Liu‘s financial policy seriously, that means Liu should be leave Taiwan. in fact, this revolt character was [king of Taiwan] Shi Lang‘s grandgrandson, and later against this revolt that Qing general Ling belong to Xiang Army,Liu belong to the Why Army, that was interest of lands conflict inner Qing governors not appearance pure people‘s revolt.

Thus Beijing(Yixin, 1st Prince Gong?) known inner truth and manage very smart: call back Liu and next governor instead by Shen Baozhen because he not belong any groups and his wife‘s father was every people respected Lin Zexu, but Qing never found Xiang Army and Why army groups conflict so deeply but Japan knew it and used in future.

End:First Sino-Japanese War

Why Japan refused fight to Liu?

Death:old fatal wounds

References

*Chu, Samuel C. "Liu Ming-ch'uan and Modernization of Taiwan." "The Journal of Asian Studies." Vol. 23, No. 1 (Nov., 1963), pp. 37-53.
*Hummel, Arthur William, ed. "Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912)." 2 vols. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1943.


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