Zhang Daoling


Zhang Daoling
Zhang Daoling

Zhang Daoling as pictured in
Myths and Legends of China
by E. T. C. Werner
Born 34
Died 156 (aged 121–122)
Occupation Founder of Way of the Five Pecks of Rice

Zhang Ling (simplified Chinese: 张陵; traditional Chinese: 張陵; pinyin: Zhāng Líng; Wade–Giles: Chang Ling; 34–156), style name Fuhan (simplified Chinese: 辅汉; traditional Chinese: 輔漢), was an Eastern Han Dynasty Taoist hermit who founded the Way of the Celestial Masters sect of Taoism, which is also known as the Way of the Five Pecks of Rice.

He is also known as Zhang Daoling (simplified Chinese: 张道陵; traditional Chinese: 張道陵; pinyin: Zhāng Dàolíng; Wade–Giles: Chang Tao-ling), Celestial Master Zhang (張天師), Ancestral Celestial Master (祖天師) or Zhengyi Zhenren (正一真人) to Taoists. Zhang is sometimes pictured riding on a tiger. In some Taoist sects, Zhang, along with Ge Xuan, Xu Xun and Sa Shoujian, are called the "Four Celestial Masters" (四大天師).

Biography

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Zhang traced his ancestral home to Feng County, Jiangsu, and was said to be a descendant of Zhang Liang. He was born in the tenth year of the Jianwu era during the reign of Emperor Guangwu of Han. He started reading the Tao Te Ching at a young age and studied in the Taixue (Imperial Academy) before. He served as a magistrate in Jiangzhou, Ba Commandery (present-day Chongqing) during the reign of Emperor Ming of Han.

Zhang later retired and led a reclusive life at Mount Beimang, where he practiced ways of achieving longevity. When invited to serve as a boshi (equivalent of a present-day professor) in the Imperial Academy, he claimed that he was ill. Emperor He of Han summoned him thrice to serve as the Taifu (Imperial Tutor) but he refused again.

According to tradition, in 142, Laozi appeared to Zhang on Mount Heming, and informed the hermit that the world was coming to an end, to be followed by an era of Great Peace. Laozi explained that those following him would go on to another life, part of the "Orthodox One Covenant with the Powers". Through this covenant, Zhang and his followers would have access to the assistance of celestial powers who control the fate of mankind.

Zhang went on to found the first regular Taoist community as noted above. A major change instituted by the new Covenant was the rejection of food and animal sacrifices. Also, the teachings of Laozi as transmitted by Zhang included the first true Taoist religious pantheon as distinguished from the prior ancient religion of China. Zhang also wrote a 24 volume Taoist classic, said to be the Xiang'er, a commentary to the Tao Te Ching.

Zhang died on Mount Qingcheng in 156 during the reign of Emperor Huan of Han at the age of 123. However, it is also said that Zhang did not die. Instead, he ascended to Heaven with his wife and two disciples, and became an immortal.

See also


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zhang Daoling — Zhāng Dàolíng (chin. 张道陵/張道陵; * um 34 im Kreis Feng, heute Provinz Jiangsu; † um 156; auch Himmelsmeister Zhang (chin. 张天师/張天師 Zhāng Tiānshī) genannt, gilt als Begründer des Himmelsmeister Daoismus. Über seine Biographie ist kaum etwas bekannt,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhang Daoling — Zhang Ling (張陵), ultérieurement appelé Zhang Daoling (張道陵) ou Chang Tao ling, est considéré par la tradition taoïste chinoise comme le fondateur de l École des cinq boisseaux de riz qu il aurait transmise à son fils Zhang Heng (張衡), et le premier …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Zhang Daoling —   [dʒaȖ ], Chang Tao ling, chinesischer taoistischer Religionsstifter Mitte des 2. Jahrhunderts n. Chr.; widmete sich magischen Praktiken, die v. a. der Unterwerfung von Geistern und damit dem Schutz vor Unheil, der Heilung von Krankheiten u. Ä.… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Zhang Daoling — or Chang Tao ling born AD 34?, Pei, Jiangsu province, China died 156?, Hanzhong Founder and first patriarch of organized religious Daoism. Zhang composed a Daoist work that attracted many followers among Chinese and indigenous groups in Sichuan.… …   Universalium

  • Zhang Daoling — o Chang Tao ling (¿34? AD, Pei, provincia de Jiangsu, China–¿156?, Hanzhong). Fundador y primer patriarca del taoísmo religioso organizado. Zhang compuso una obra taoísta que atrajo muchos seguidores entre los chinos y grupos nativos de Sichuan.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Zhang Ling — Zhang Daoling Zhāng Dàolíng (chin. 张道陵/張道陵), auch Himmelsmeister Zhang (chin. 张天师/張天師 Zhāng Tiānshī) genannt, war der Begründer des Himmelsmeister Daoismus und soll von 34 bis 156 gelebt haben. Über seine Biographie ist kaum etwas bekannt und die …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhang Ling — Zhang Daoling série Taoïsme Courants Textes Personnalités Notions et pratiques Divinités …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ZHANG TIANSHI — [TCHANG T’IEN CHE] Nom chinois désignant les Maîtres Célestes de la famille Zhang, qui sont les chefs héréditaires de l’Église taoïste orthodoxe (Zhengyi). À la même époque que celle du mouvement des Turbans jaunes, on trouve, dans les régions… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Zhang Jue — Zhang Jiao (chin. 張角 / 张角, Zhāng Jiǎo) oder Zhang Jue (Pinyin Zhāng Jué) war der Anführer des Aufstands der Gelben Turbane zur Zeit der späten Östlichen Han Dynastie in China. Er soll ein Enkel von Zhang Daoling gewesen sein, dem Gründer der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhang (surname) — Zhang Family name Meaning (张) expansive bow, bowmaker (章) State of Zhang Zhang (traditional Chinese: 張; simplified Chinese: 张; …   Wikipedia


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