- Bombing of Mannheim in World War II
As part of Operation Abigail Rachel the "first deliberate terror raid" on Germany took place on December 16, although with poor effect even though one hundred tonnes of explosives and 14,000 incendiaries were dropped on Mannheim.
The British had been waiting for the opportunity to experiment with such a raid aimed at creating a maximum of destruction in a selected town since the summer 1940, and the opportunity was given after the German raid on Coventry. Internally it was declared to be a reprisal for Coventry and Southampton. The new bombing policy was officially ordered by Churchill on December 1, explained in the War Cabinet on December 12, and operation Abigail was approved on the 13th, on condition it receive no publicity and be considered an experiment. The "air-crews, rightly, regarded it as a terror raid". Incendiaries dropped by 8 bombers to mark the target missed the city center and of the 100 or so aircraft, of the 134 dispatched, that did drop bombs most missed the city center. German casualties were 34 dead and 81 injured. The lessons learned from the large dispersal of bombs over Mannheim was to develop the "bomber stream", maximum amount of bombs over shortest time and area. Despite the lack of decisive success of this raid, approval was granted for further Abigails.
This was the start of a British drift away from precision attacks on military targets and towards area bombing attacks on whole cities.
The largest raid on Mannheim was on September 5 and 6, 1943. A large part of the city was destroyed. In 1944, raids destroyed Mannheim Palace, leaving only one room undamaged out of over 500. On March 2, 1945 the RAF launched a 300 bomber attack, causing a devastating firestorm. 25,181 tons of bombs fell throughout the war.
- Boog, Stumpf and Rahn (editors) Germany and the Second World War: Volume VI: The Global War Oxford University press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-822888-0
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