- The Kallikak Family
"The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness" was a 1912 book by the American psychologist and eugenicist
Henry H. Goddard. The work was an extended case study of Goddard's for the inheritanceof " feeble-mindedness," a general category referring to a variety of mental disabilities including mental retardation, learning disabilities, and mental illness. Goddard concluded that an entire variety of mental traits were hereditary in nature and that it was important for society to institute a check upon the reproduction of "unfit" individuals.
Goddard's research and argument
The book begins by discussing the case of "Deborah Kallikak" (the name Kallikak is a
pseudonymderived from the Greek καλός ("kalos") and κακός ("kakos"), meaning "good" and "bad," respectively), a woman in Goddard's institution, the New Jersey Home for the Education and Care of Feebleminded Children (now Vineland Training School). In the course of investigating her genealogy, Goddard claims to have discovered that her family tree bore a curious and surprising moral tale.
The book follows the genealogy of Martin Kallikak, Deborah's great-great-great grandfather, a
Revolutionary Warhero. On his way back from battle, the normally morally upright Martin dallied one time with a " feeble-minded" barmaid. The young Martin soon reformed and went on with his upright life, becoming a respected New England citizen and fathered a large family of prosperous individuals.
But according to Goddard, a child was born by the dalliance with "the nameless feeble-minded girl". This single child, a male, went on to father more children, who fathered their own children, and on and on down the generations. And so with the Kallikaks, Goddard claims to have discovered, one has as close as one could imagine an experiment in the hereditability of intelligence, moral ability, and criminality.
On the "feeble-minded" side of the Kallikak family, descended from the barmaid, the children wound up poor, insane, delinquent, and mentally retarded. Much of Goddard's work is devoted to one Deborah Kallikak, a girl in the institution he ran, the Training School for Backward and Feeble-minded Children at
Vineland, New Jersey. Deborah was, in Goddard's assessment, "feeble-minded": a catch-all early 20th century term to describe various forms of mental retardation or learning deficiencies. Goddard was interested in the heritability of "feeble-mindedness" — and often wrote of the invisible threat of recessive "feeble-minded" genes carried by otherwise healthy and intelligent looking members of the population (Mendel's laws had only been rediscovered a decade before; Goddard's genetic shorthand was, in its day, considered to be on par with cutting edge science). It was in tracing the family history of Deborah that Goddard and his assistants -- usually upper-class girls from nearby colleges -- discovered that Deborah's family of drunks and criminals was related -- through Martin Kallikak -- to another family tree of economy and prosperity.
On the "normal" side of the Kallikak family tree, the children ended up prosperous, intelligent, and morally upstanding. They were lawyers, ministers, and doctors.Goddard concluded from this that intelligence, sanity, and morality were
hereditary, and every effort should be undertaken to keep the 'feeble-minded' from procreating, with the overall goal of potentially ending 'feeble-mindedness' and its accompanying traits. The damage from even one dalliance between a young man and a "feeble-minded" girl could create generations and generations worth of crime and poverty, with its members eventually living off the generosity of the state (and costing taxpayers a fortune), Goddard argued. His work contains intricately constructed family trees, showing near-perfect Mendelian ratios in the inheritance of negative and positive traits.
Not surprisingly, Goddard recommended segregating them in institutions exactly like the one he himself ran, where they would be taught how to work various forms of menial labor.
Present-day evaluation of the work
In its day, "The Kallikak Family" was a tremendous hit and went through multiple printings. It helped propel Goddard to the status of one of the nation's top experts in using
psychologyin policy, and along with the work of Charles B. Davenportand Madison Grantis considered one of the canonical works of early 20th century American eugenics.
In recent years, its methodology and conclusions have been standard examples of the problems with early eugenics and heredity research. Though Goddard was considered a true scientist in his day — he was the first to bring
Alfred Binet's IQtest to the United States and to translate it into English — his work is now relegated to the same realm of pseudoscienceand chicanery as that of the other eugenicists of his eraFact|date=March 2008. The majority of Goddard's data was collected by his assistants, upper-class girls from nearby colleges, who would wander into the slums of the "bad" side of the Kallikak family, and spend only a moment before pronouncing a member "feeble-minded."Fact|date=March 2008
It has also been argued that, if anything was going along family lines in the Kallikak family, it was wealth or poverty.
Malnutrition, for example, goes hand in hand with poverty, and hand in hand with familiesFact|date=March 2008. If the father of a family cannot afford decent food, then the children will not have it either. Goddard's peer, Davenport, even identified various forms of diseases now known to be caused by diet deficiencies as being hereditary for the same reason: the failure to realize that shared living situations often can make a great many things travel along family lines which have nothing to do with genetic information.
Another recent perspective has been offered that the Kallikaks almost certainly had undiagnosed
Fetal alcohol syndrome(FASD). [Karp, R.J. (1993). Introduction: A history and overview of malnourished children in the United States. In R.J. Karp (Ed.), "Malnourished Children in the United States: Caught in the Cycle of Poverty". New York: Springer-Verlag.] [Karp, R.J., Quazi, Q.H., Moller, K.A., Angelo, W.A., & Davis, J.M. (1995). Fetal alcohol syndrome at the turn of the century: An unexpected explanation of the Kallikak family. "Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine", "149(1)", 45-48.] In addition to poverty and malnourishment, prenatal alcohol exposure can create craniofacialand other physical anomalies that could account for their peculiar facial features.Streissguth, A.P. (1997). "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities". Baltimore, MD: Brookes.] Furthermore, prenatal alcohol exposure may also damage the central nervous system, which can result in impaired cognitiveand behavioral functioning similar to that described by Goddard.
Alteration of Photographs
The paleontologist and science writer
Stephen Jay Gouldadvanced the view that Goddard — or someone working with him — had retouched the photographs used in his book in order to make the "bad" Kallikaks appear more menacing. In older editions of the books, Gould said, it has become clearly evident that someone has drawn in darker, crazier looking eyes and menacing faces on the children and adults in the pictures. Gould argues that photographic reproduction in books was still then a very new art, and that audiences would not have been as clued into photographic retouching, even on such a crude level. The 14 photos were subsequently studied further to show the nature of the retouching and subsequent use to help make Goddard's points [Cite journal |last=Elks |first=Martin A.|year=2005 |month=August |title=Visual indictment: a contextual analysis of the Kallikak family photographs |journal=Mental Retardation |volume=43 |issue=4 |pages=268–280 |issn=0047-6765 |accessdate=2008-02-08 |doi=10.1352/0047-6765(2005)43 [268:VIACAO] 2.0.CO;2]
The psychologist R. E. Fancher, however, has claimed that retouching of faces of the sort which is apparent in Goddard's work was a common procedure at the time, in order to avoid a "washed out" look which was common to early photographic printing methods (poor halftones). Furthermore, Fancher argued, malicious editing on Goddard's part would take away from one of his primary claims: that only a trained eye can spot the moron in the crowd.
Influence of the study
The overall effect of "The Kallikak Family" was to temporarily increase funding to institutions such as Goddard's, but these were not seen to be worthwhile solutions of the problem of "feeble-mindedness" (much less "rogue" "feeble-mindedness" — the threat of idiocy as a recessive trait), and more stringent methods, such as
compulsory sterilizationof the mentally retarded, were undertaken.
The term "Kallikak" became, along with "
Jukes" and " Nams" (other case studies of similar natures), a cultural shorthand for the rural poor in the South and Northeast United States.
Family studies in eugenics
Henry H. Goddard, "The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness", New York: Macmillan, 1912.
Stephen Jay Gould, " The Mismeasure of Man", Norton: New York, 1996, revised edn.
*R. E. Fancher, "Henry Goddard and the Kallikak family photographs," "American Psychologist", 42 (1987), 585-590.
* J. David Smith, "Minds Made Feeble : The Myth and Legacy of the Kallikaks", Rockville, MD : Aspen, 1985 ISBN 0-87189-093-3
* [http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Goddard/ About half of the text of 1913 edition of the book]
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