- Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
name = Wilhelm Röntgen
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caption = Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
birth_date = birth date|1845|3|27|df=y
death_date = Death date and age|df=yes|1923|2|10|1845|3|27
ETH Zurich University of Zürich
University of Strassburg Hohenheim University of Giessen University of Würzburg University of Munich
Herman March Abram Ioffe
prizes = nowrap|
Nobel Prize in Physics(1901)
Professor Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896 [cite book | last= Kevles | first=Bettyann Holtzmann | title=Naked to the Bone Medical Imaging in the Twentieth Century | publisher=Rutgers University Press | date=1996 | location=Camden, NJ | pages=pp19-22 | isbn=0813523583] [cite web | last=Sample | first=Sharron | authorlink= | coauthors= | title=X-rays | work=The electromagnetic spectrum | publisher=NASA | date= url=http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html | accessdate=2007-12-03]
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected
electromagnetic radiationin a wavelengthrange today known as x-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physicsin 1901.
Röntgen in English is spelled "Roentgen", and that is the usual rendering found in English-language scientific and medical references.
Röntgen was born at Lennep (which is today a borough of
Remscheid) in Rhenish Prussiaas the only child of a merchant and manufacturer of cloth. His mother was Charlotte Constanze Frowein of Amsterdam. In March 1848, the family moved to Apeldoornand Wilhelm was raised in the Netherlands. He received his early education at the Institute of Martinus Herman van Doorn, a private school in Apeldoorn. From 1861 to 1863, he attended the Utrecht Technical School, from which he was expelled for producing a caricature of one of the teachers, a "crime" he claimed not to have committed.
In 1865, he tried to attend the University of Utrecht without having the necessary credentials required for a regular student. Hearing that he could enter the
Federal Polytechnic Institutein Zurich, today the ETH Zurich, by passing its examinations, he began studies there as a student of mechanical engineering. In 1869, he graduated with a Ph.D. from the University of Zurich.
In 1874 Röntgen became a lecturer at
Strasbourg Universityand in 1875 became a professorat the Academy of Agricultureat Hohenheim, Württemberg. In 1876, he returned to Strasbourg as a professor of physics and in 1879, he was appointed to the chair of physics at the University of Giessen. In 1888, he obtained the physics chair at the University of Würzburg, and in 1900 at the University of Munich, by special request of the Bavarian government. Röntgen had family in Iowain the United States and at one time planned to emigrate. Although he accepted an appointment at Columbia Universityin New York Cityand had actually purchased transatlantic tickets, the outbreak of World War I changed his plans and he remained in Munich for the rest of his career.
Discovery of x-rays
—when an electrical discharge is passed through them. [Citation
last = Stanton
first = Arthur
title = Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen On a New Kind of Rays: translation of a paper read before the Würzburg Physical and Medical Society, 1895
journal = Nature
pages = pp 274-6
year = 1896
url = http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v53/n1369/pdf/053274b0.pdf
id = ] In early November he was repeating an experiment with one of Lenard's tubes in which a thin
aluminiumwindow had been added to permit the cathode rays to exit the tube but a cardboard covering was added to protect the aluminium from damage by the strong electrostatic field that is necessary to produce the cathode rays. He knew the cardboard covering prevented light from escaping, yet Röntgen observed that the invisible cathode rays caused a fluorescent effect on a small cardboard screen painted with bariumwhen it was placed close to the aluminium window. It occurred to Röntgen that the Hittorf-Crookes tube, which had a much thicker glass wall than the Lenard tube, might also cause this fluorescent effect.In the late afternoon of 8 November 1895, Röntgen determined to test his idea. He carefully constructed a black cardboard covering similar to the one he had used on the Lenard tube. He covered the Hittorf-Crookes tube with the cardboard and attached electrodes to a Ruhmkorff coil to generate an electrostaticcharge. Before setting up the barium platinocyanide screen to test his idea, Röntgen darkened the room to test the opacity of his cardboard cover. As he passed the Ruhmkorff coil charge through the tube, he determined that the cover was light-tight and turned to prepare the next step of the experiment. It was at this point that Röntgen noticed a faint shimmering from a bench a meter away from the tube. To be sure, he tried several more discharges and saw the same shimmering each time. Striking a match, he discovered the shimmering had come from the location of the barium platinocyanide screen he had been intending to use next.
Röntgen speculated that a new kind of ray might be responsible. 8 November was a Friday, so he took advantage of the weekend to repeat his experiments and make his first notes. In the following weeks he ate and slept in his laboratory as he investigated many properties of the new rays he temporarily termed
X-rays, using the mathematical designation for something unknown. Although the new rays would eventually come to bear his name in many languages where they became known as Röntgen Rays, he always preferred the term X-rays. Nearly two weeks after his discovery, he took the very first picture using x-rays of his wife's hand, Anna Bertha. When she saw her skeleton she exclaimed "I have seen my death!"
The idea that Röntgen happened to notice the barium platinocyanide screen misrepresents his investigative powers; he had planned to use the screen in the next step of his experiment and would therefore have made the discovery a few moments later.
At one point while he was investigating the ability of various materials to stop the rays, Röntgen brought a small piece of lead into position while a discharge was occurring. Röntgen thus saw the first radiographic image, his own flickering ghostly skeleton on the barium platinocyanide screen. He later reported that it was at this point that he determined to continue his experiments in secrecy, because he feared for his professional reputation if his observations were in error.
Röntgen's original paper, "On A New Kind Of Rays" ("Über eine neue Art von Strahlen"), was published 50 days later on 28 December 1895. On 5 January 1896, an
Austrian newspaper reported Röntgen's discovery of a new type of radiation. Röntgen was awarded an honorary Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Würzburgafter his discovery. He published a total of 3 papers on X-rays between 1895 and 1897. Today, Röntgen is considered the father of diagnostic radiology, the medical specialty which uses imaging to diagnose disease.
Röntgen died on 10 February 1923 from
carcinomaof the intestine. It is not believed his carcinoma was a result of his work with ionizing radiation because of the brief time spent on those investigations and because he was one of the few pioneers in the field who used protective lead shields routinely.
Röntgen was nearly bankrupt when he died. In keeping with his will all his personal and scientific correspondence were destroyed upon his death. He was married to Anna Bertha Ludwig (m. 1872, d. 1919) and had one child, Josephine Bertha Ludwig. Adopted at age 6, in 1887, she was the daughter of Anna's brother.
Honours and awards
In 1901 Röntgen was awarded the very first
Nobel Prize in Physics. The award was officially "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him". Röntgen donated the monetary reward from his Nobel Prize to his university. Like Pierre Curieseveral years later, Röntgen refused to take out patents related to his discovery. He did not even want the rays to be named after him.Fact|date=May 2007
Nobel Prize for Physics(1901)
* In November 2004
IUPACnamed element number 111 roentgenium(Rg) in his honour.
Roentgen’s landmarks in Remscheid-Lennep
Remscheid-Lennep, 40 kilometers east of Düsseldorf, we can see the house in which Roentgen was born in 1845 and, above all, the Deutsches Röntgen-Museum. [ [http://www.roentgen-museum.de Deutsches Röntgen-Museum ] at www.roentgen-museum.de]
* [http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/1901/rontgen-bio.html Biography at the official Nobel site]
* [http://physics.nobel.brainparad.com/wilhelm_conrad_rontgen.html Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen]
*" [http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/1/4/6/6/14663/14663-h/14663-h.htm#page403 The New Marvel in Photography] ", an article on and interview with Röntgen, in
McClure'smagazine, Vol. 6, No. 5, April, 1896, from Project Gutenberg
* [http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people/Röntgen,+Wilhelm Annotated bibliography for Wilhelm Rontgen from the Alsos Digital Library]
* [http://members.chello.nl/~h.dijkstra19/page5.html The Cathode Ray Tube site]
* [http://www.photograms.org/chapter02.html First X-ray Photogram]
* [http://www.arrs.org The American Roentgen Ray Society]
* [http://www.acorrn.org/ Academic Oncology & Radiobiology Research Network] An NCRI initiative to revitalise radiotherapy research in the UK, launched an interactive research database to mark the birthday of Wilhelm Röntgen in February 2006
* [http://www.roentgen-museum.de The Deutsches Röntgen-Museum]
NAME= Röntgen, Wilhelm
DATE OF BIRTH= 27 March 1845
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH= 10 February 1923
PLACE OF DEATH=
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