Temple West

Temple West

Vice-Admiral Temple West (bef. 1715 – 9 August 1757) was a British naval officer, best known for his role as second-in-command to Admiral John Byng in the Battle of Minorca.

Early career

West was a younger son of Rev. Dr. Richard West, archdeacon of Berkshire, and his wife Maria Temple, daughter of Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet. His elder brother was the author Gilbert West. [cite book | first=J. K | last=Laughton | chapter=West, Temple (bap. 1715, d. 1757) | editor=rev. Richard Harding | title=Oxford Dictionary of National Biography | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2004 | chapterurl=http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/29098 | accessdate=2007-09-04]

In 1738, he was given command of "Deal Castle", a 24-gun sixth-rate. [http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/18d.HTM] In 1742, he was made captain of "Warwick", a 60-gun fourth-rate. During the Battle of Toulon, "Warwick" was one of three ships that broke up a Franco-Spanish movement to weather the British line, but did so contrary to orders. He was court-martialed at Deptford on 13 December 1745, found guilty, and dismissed the service, but was reinstated on 12 May 1746 by order in council. [http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/18uz.HTM] In 1747, he commanded "Devonshire" as flag-captain to Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Warren at the Battle of Cape Finisterre.

He married Frances Balchen, daughter of Admiral Sir John Balchen, [http://www.balchin-family.org.uk/family_history/places/carlton/index.html Carlton House, 15 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea ] ] and was the father of Balchen West and hence grandfather of Sir Edward West, first Chief Justice of Bombay.

Battle of Minorca

In 1756, West, now a rear-admiral, was appointed second-in-command to Admiral Byng to lead a hastily-assembled squadron to the relief of Minorca. West sailed aboard "Buckingham", Flag-Captain Michael Everitt,http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/18b.HTM] , and the fleet saw action on 20 May 1756, the day after their arrival. West had command of the van, which attacked the rear of the French van and drew heavy fire. In the rear, Byng, who had insufficient sail on to promptly come up and support the van, declined to put on further sail, citing the court-martial of Thomas Mathews at the Battle of Toulon. (Mathews had attacked the enemy individually while flying a signal to attack in line of battle, resulting in a confused and disorderly attack.) The French drew off at the end of the day, and the English fleet lacked the weather gage to pursue.

After Minorca

Both Byng and West were recalled from command after the battle, beginning the process which culminated in the court-martial and execution of Byng, for failing to do his duty "to his utmost". West, on the contrary, was received as a hero, and was appointed a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty on 17 November 1756 and promoted to Vice-Admiral. The fate of his superior greatly affected West, who afterwards declined a command, saying that "although he could answer for his loyalty and good intentions, he could not undertake to be held capitally responsible on all occasions for the correctness of his judgment". [cite book | last=Clowes | first=William Laird | title=The Royal Navy: a history from the earliest times to the present | url=http://home.wxs.nl/~pdavis/Byng.htm | accessdate=2006-10-16] He died not long after, on 9 August 1757, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.



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