Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)


Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)
Duchy of Estonia
Hertigdömet Estland
Dominion of Swedish Empire
Baltic coat of arms.svg
1561–1721
Flag of Sweden (1600s–1815) Coat of arms
Baltic provinces of Swedish Empire in the 17th century.
Capital Reval
Language(s) German, Estonian, Swedish
Religion Lutheranism
Government Dominion
Governor-General
 - 1674-1681 Anders Torstenson
 - 1687-1704 Axel Julius De la Gardie
History
 - Established June 4, 1561
 - Treaty of Nystad September 10, 1721
History of Estonia
Coat of Arms of Estonia
This article is part of a series
Ancient Estonia
Kunda culture
Narva culture
Aesti
Chudes
Baltic Finns
Viking and Middle ages
Oeselians
Livonian Crusade
Danish Estonia
Old Livonia
Swedish Estonia
Livonian War
Polish Estonia
Great Northern War
Modern Estonia
National awakening
German occupation
Declaration of Independence
War of Independence
Era of Silence
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The Swedish Empire

The Duchy of Estonia (Swedish: Hertigdömet Estland, Estonian: Eestimaa hertsogkond), also known as Swedish Estonia,[1] (Swedish: Svenska Estland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1561 until 1721, when it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad, following its capitulation in the Great Northern War. The dominion arose when the northern parts of present-day Estonia were united under Swedish rule in 1561. The city of Reval and the counties of Harjumaa, Western Virumaa, Raplamaa and Järvamaa surrendered in 1561, and Läänemaa was conquered in 1581. It is also colloquially known as the "good old Swedish times" [2] (Estonian: vana hea Rootsi aeg) by Estonians, but this expression was not used before the following Russian rule, in the beginning of which the situation of Estonian peasantry declined rapidly (to gain support of German nobility, Russia gave them more power over peasantry).

Contents

Head of Dominion

Governors (1561–1674)
  • Lars Ivarsson Fleming Friherre of Nynäs, from Sundholm (August 2, 1561 – February 27, 1562)
  • Klaus Christiern Horn of Åminne (acting) (August 1561)
  • Henrik Klasson Horn from Kankas (1st time) (February 27, 1562 – June 1562)
  • Svante Stensson Sture (June 30, 1562 – July 27, 1564)
  • Hermann Pedersson Fleming from Lechtis (1564 – 1565)
  • Henrik Klasson Horn from Kankas (2nd time) (January 30, 1565 – 1568)
  • Gabriel Kristiernsson Oxenstierna from Mörby (November 1568 – 1570)
  • Hans Björnsson from Lepas (October 9, 1570 – 1572)
  • Claes Åkeson Tott (November 6, 1572 – 1574)
  • Pontus De la Gardie (June 4, 1574 – December 1575)
  • Karl Henriksson Horn from Kankas (1st time) (January 1576 – May 1578)
  • Nilsson Hans Eriksson Finn from Brinkala (acting) (April 19, 1576 – 1577)
  • Göran Boije af Gennäs (1st time) (August 1, 1577 – 1580)
  • Svante Eriksson Stålarm from Kyala (1580 – 1581)
  • Göran Boije af Gennäs (2nd time) (April 25, 1582 – 1583)
  • Pontus De la Gardie (1583 – November 5, 1585)
  • Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna (November 8, 1585 – 1588)
  • Hans Wachtmeister (acting) (July 1588 – October 13, 1588)
  • Gustaf Axelsson Banér from Djurshom (October 13, 1588 – 1590)
  • Erik Gabrielsson Oxenstierna af Lindö (1590 – July 1592)
  • Göran Boije af Gennäs (3rd time) (1592 – June 1600)
  • Karl Henriksson Horn from Kankas (2nd time) (acting) (1600 – January 30, 1601)
  • Moritz Stensson Leijonhufvud Count of Raseborg (1601 – October 1602)
  • ... (October 1602 - May 1605)
  • Nils Turesson Bielke (May 10, 1605 - June 1605)
  • Axel Nilsson Ryning (1605 - 1608)
  • ... (1608 - 1611)
  • Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna (1611 - 1617)
  • Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud (1617 - 1619)
  • Jakob De la Gardie (July 1619 – 1622)
  • Per Gustafsson Banér af Tussa (1622 – January 1626)
  • Johan De la Gardie Friherre of Eckholm (1626 – October 1628)
  • Philipp Scheiding from Arnö (1628 – July 17, 1642)
  • Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna Friherre of Kimito (July 26, 1642 – 1646)
  • Erik Axelsson Oxenstierna, Count of Södermöre (September 9, 1646 – 1653)
  • Wilhelm Ulrich (1st time) (acting) (May 1653 – August 16, 1653)
  • Heinrich von Thurn-Valsassina, Count of Thurn (August 16, 1653 – 1655)
  • Wilhelm Ulrich (2nd time) (acting) (1655 – August 1655)
  • Bengt Skytte (1655–1656)
  • Wilhelm Ulrich (3rd time) (acting) (1655– August 2, 1656)
  • Bengt Klasson Horn (August 2, 1656 – November 1674)
  • Wilhelm Ulrich (4th time) (acting) (1656 – 1659)
  • Johan Christoph Scheiding (acting) (1674)
Governors-General (1674 - 1728)

Military

Swedish infantry and cavalry regiments

Infantry

Infantry regiments:

  • Estländskt infanteriregemente, Harriska kretsen (Estonian Infantry Regiment, Harrian Circle)
  • Estländskt infanteriregemente, Jerwiska kretsen (Estonian Infantry Regiment, Jerwian Circle)
  • Estländskt infanteriregemente, Wieriska kretsen I (Estonian Infantry Regiment, Wierian Circle I)
  • Estländskt infanteriregemente, Wieriska kretsen II (Estonian Infantry Regiment, Wierian Circle II)
  • Estländskt infanteriregemente II (Estonian Infantry Regiment II)
  • Garnisonsregementet i Narva (Garrison Regiment in Narva)
  • Stadsmajorens i Reval Bataljon (Reval City Major Battalion)
Cavalry

Cavalry regiments:

  • Estländska lantdragonskvadronen (Estonian County Dragoon Squadron)
  • Estniska adelsfanan (Estonian Banner of Nobles)
  • Estniska kavalleriregementet (Estonian Cavalry Regiment)
  • Laurentzens fridragoner (Laurentzen's Free Dragoons)
  • Lewenhaupts frikompani (Lewenhaupt's Free Company)
  • Öselska lantdragonskvadronen (Öselian County Dragoon Squadron)

Temporary cavalry regiments:

  • Estniska ståndsdragonbataljonen (Estonian Rank Dragoon Battalion)
  • Öselska ståndsdragonbataljonen (Ösel Rank Dragoon Battalion)

Livonian Confederation Terra Mariana Estonian SSR Duchy of Livonia (1721–1917) Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721) Duchy of Livonia (1561–1621) Duchy of Estonia (1721–1917) Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721) Danish Estonia Danish Estonia EU Estonia Ancient Estonia History of Estonia

See also

References

Coordinates: 59°26′N 24°45′E / 59.433°N 24.75°E / 59.433; 24.75


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