ICC profile

ICC profile

In color management, an ICC profile is a set of data that characterizes a color input or output device, or a color space, according to standards promulgated by the International Color Consortium (ICC). Profiles describe the color attributes of a particular device or viewing requirement by defining a mapping between the device source or target color space and a profile connection space (PCS). This PCS is either CIELAB (L*a*b*) or CIEXYZ. Mappings may be specified using tables, to which interpolation is applied, or through a series of parameters for transformations.

Every device that captures or displays color can be profiled. Some manufacturers[1] provide profiles for their products, and there are several products[2] that allow an end user to generate his or her own color profiles, typically through the use of a tristimulus colorimeter or preferably a spectrophotometer.

The ICC defines the format precisely but does not define algorithms or processing details. This means there is room for variation between different applications and systems that work with ICC profiles. As of 2009, the current version of the specification is 4.2,[3] but most devices support only version 2.


Contents

Details

To see how this works in practice, suppose we have a particular RGB and CMYK color space, and want to convert from this RGB to that CMYK. The first step is to obtain the two ICC profiles concerned. To perform the conversion, each RGB triplet is first converted to the Profile connection space (PCS) using the RGB profile. If necessary the PCS is converted between CIELAB and CIEXYZ, a well defined transformation. Then the PCS is converted to the four values of C,M,Y,K required.

A profile might define several mappings, according to rendering intent. These mappings allow a choice between closest possible color matching, and remapping the entire color range to allow for different gamuts.

The reference illuminant of the Profile connection space (PCS) is a 16-bit fractional approximation of D50;[4] its white point is XYZ=(0.9642, 1.000, 0.8249). Different source/destination white points are adapted using the Bradford transform.[4]

References in standards

The ICC profile specification, currently being progressed as International Standard ISO 15076-1:2005,[5][6] is widely referred to in other standards. The following International and de facto standards are known to make reference to ICC profiles.

International Standards

  • ISO/IEC 10918-1: Coding of still pictures - JPEG
  • ISO 12234-4: Photography - Electronic still-picture imaging – Part 4: Exchangeable image file format (Exif 2.2) (ISO TC42)
  • ISO 12639:2004 Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Taged Image File Format for Image Technology (TIFF/IT) (ISO TC130)
  • ISO/DIS 12647-1: Graphic Technology - Process control for the production of halftone color separations, proof and production prints – part 1: Parameters and measurement methods (Revision under way in ISO TC130)
  • ISO/DIS 12647-2: Graphic Technology – Process control for the production of halftone color separations, proof and production prints – part 2: Offset processes (Revision under way in ISO TC130)
  • ISO/CD 12647-3: Graphic technology - Process control for the production of half-tone color separations, proofs and production prints - Part 3: Coldset offset lithography on newsprint
  • ISO/CD 12647-3: Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone color separations, proof and production prints — Part 4: Publication gravure printing
  • ISO/CD 12647-6: Graphic technology – Process control for the production of half-tone color separations, proof and production prints – Part 6: Flexographic printing
  • ISO/IEC 15948: Portable Network Graphics file format (jointly defined with W3C – see www.libpng.org/pub/png/spec/iso)
  • ISO/IEC15444: Coding of still pictures - JPEG2000 (ISO JTC 1/SC 2)
  • ISO 15930-1:2001 Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF. Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a) (ISO TC130)
  • ISO 15930-3:2002 Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF. Part 3: Complete exchange suitable for color managed workflows (PDF/X-3) (ISO TC130)
  • ISO 15930-4:2003 Graphic technology - Prepress digital data exchange using PDF - Part 4: Complete exchange of CMYK and spot color printing data using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-1a)
  • ISO 15930-5:2003 Graphic technology - Prepress digital data exchange using PDF - Part 5: Partial exchange of printing data using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-2)
  • ISO 15930-6:2003 Graphic technology - Prepress digital data exchange using PDF - Part 6: Complete exchange of printing data suitable for color-managed workflows using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-3)
  • ISO 22028-1:2004 Photography and Graphic Technology – Extended color encodings for digital image storage, manipulation and interchange – Part 1: Architecture and requirements (ISO TC42)
  • ISO 12052 / NEMA PS3 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)

De-facto standards

  • PICT standard specifications (file format published by Apple Computer Inc.)
  • PostScript Language (EPS file format published by Adobe Systems Inc.)
  • PDF Portable Document Format (file format published by Adobe Systems Inc.)
  • JDF v1.1 Revision A (Job Definition format published by the CIP4 consortium available)
  • SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) version 1.1 (file format defined by W3C available from http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG)
  • SWOP (Specifications for Web Offset Publications), used for CMYK print jobs, primarily in the United States

See also

References

External links


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См. также в других словарях:

  • ICC-Profile — Ein ICC Profil (synonymer Begriff: Farbprofil) ist ein genormter Datensatz, der den Farbraum eines Farbeingabe oder Farbwiedergabegeräts, z. B. Monitor, Drucker, Scanner etc. beschreibt. Ziel eines konsequent eingesetzten Farbmanagements ist,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ICC Cricket Hall of Fame — ICC Hall of Fame Award details Sport Cricket History First award 2009 …   Wikipedia

  • ICC Champions Trophy — Administrator International Cricket Council Format One Day International First tournament 1998 Last tournament …   Wikipedia

  • ICC-Farbprofil — Ein ICC Profil (synonymer Begriff: Farbprofil) ist ein genormter Datensatz, der den Farbraum eines Farbeingabe oder Farbwiedergabegeräts, z. B. Monitor, Drucker, Scanner etc. beschreibt. Ziel eines konsequent eingesetzten Farbmanagements ist,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ICC-Profil — Ein ICC Profil (synonymer Begriff: Farbprofil) ist ein genormter Datensatz, der den Farbraum eines Farbeingabe oder Farbwiedergabegeräts, z. B. Monitor, Drucker, Scanner etc. beschreibt. Ziel eines konsequent eingesetzten Farbmanagements ist …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ICC-профиль — В управлении цветом ICC профилем называют набор данных, характеризующий устройство цветного ввода или вывода или цветовое пространство согласно стандартам, провозглашенным Международным Консорциумом по Цвету (ICC). Профили описывают цветовые… …   Википедия

  • Perfil ICC — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Dentro del ámbito de la Gestión del color, un perfil ICC es un conjunto de datos que caracteriza a un dispositivo de entrada o salida de color, o espacio color, según los estándares promulgados por el Consorcio… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Profil ICC — Un profil ICC est un fichier numérique d un format particulier (extensions .icc et .icm) décrivant la manière dont un périphérique informatique restitue les couleurs. Ce type de fichier a été créé par l International Color Consortium (ICC) pour… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Color management — In digital imaging systems, color management is the controlled conversion between the color representations of various devices, such as image scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, computer printers, offset presses, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Color calibration — The aim of color calibration is to measure and/or adjust the color response of a device (input or output) to a known state. In ICC terms this is the basis for a additional color characterization of the device and later profiling[1]. In non ICC… …   Wikipedia


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