Siberian Intervention


Siberian Intervention

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Siberian Intervention
partof= the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War


caption=Japanese lithograph depicting the capture of Blagoveschensk
date=August 1918 - July 1920; October 1920 Japanese withdrawal
place=Eastern Siberia
casus=Bolshevik Revolution, Rescue of the Czech Legion
territory=
result=Allies withdraw, Bolsheviks regain Siberia
combatant1=Entente Powers
flagicon|Empire of Japan Empire of Japan
flag|United States|1912
flagicon|United Kingdom British Empire
*flag|Canada|1868
flagicon|France France
flagicon|Italy|1861 Italy
flagicon|RussiaWhite Movement
combatant2=flag|Russian SFSR|1918 Pro-Bolshevik forces
1920-1922
commander1=Yui Mitsue
Admiral Kolchak
William S. Graves
commander2=
strength1=70,000 Japanese, 7,950 U.S soldiers, 1,500 British , 4,192 Canadian ["Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force"] , 800 French and 1,400 Italian troops
strength2=Unknown
casualties1=
casualties2=
notes=|

The nihongo|Siberian Intervention|シベリア出兵|Shiberia Shuppei of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army during the Russian Civil War. The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.

Background

Following the Russian October Revolution of 1917, the new Bolshevik government signed a separate peace with Germany. The collapse of the Russian front presented a tremendous problem to the Entente powers, since not only did it allow Germany to shift troops and war material from its eastern front to the west, but it also made it possible for Germany to secure the huge stockpiles of supplies that had been accumulating at Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok. In addition, the 50,000 man Czech Legion, fighting on the side of the Allies, was now trapped behind enemy-lines, and was attempting to fight its way out through the east to Vladivostok along the Bolshevik-held Trans-Siberian Railroad.

Faced with these concerns, Great Britain and France decided to militarily intervene in the Russian Civil War against the Bolshevik government. They had three objectives that they hoped to achieve:
# prevent the Allied war material stockpiles in Russia from falling into German hands
# rescue the Czech Legion and return it to the European front
# resurrect the Eastern Front by installing a White Russian backed government. Severely short of troops, the British and French requested that the United States provide troops for both the North Russia Campaign and the Siberian Campaign. In July 1918, against the advice of the War Department, President Wilson agreed to send 5,000 U.S. troops as the American North Russia Expeditionary Force (aka the Polar Bear Expedition) and 10,000 U.S. troops as the American Expeditionary Force Siberia. In the same month, the Beiyang government of the Republic of China accepted an invitation by the White movement and sent 2,000 troops by August. The Chinese later occupied Outer Mongolia and Tuva and sent a battalion to the North Russian Campaign as part of their anti-Bolshevik efforts.

Participants

Britain

The British short on personnel, only deployed 1,500 troops to Siberia. These came from 9 Bn, Hampshire Regiment and 25 Bn Middlesex Regiment.

Canada

The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Major General James H. Elmsley and authorised in August 1918, was sent to Vladivostok to bolster the allied presence there. Composed of 4,192 soldiers, the force returned to Canada between April and June 1919. During this time, the Canadians saw little fighting, with fewer than 100 troops proceeding "up country" to Omsk, to serve as administrative staff for 1,500 British troops aiding the White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. Most Canadians remained in Vladivostok, undertaking routine drill and policing duties in the volatile port city.

Japan

The Japanese were initially asked by the French in 1917, to intervene in Russia but declined the request.Humphreys, "The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920's", page 25] However, the army general staff later came to view the Tsarist collapse as an opportunity to free Japan from any future threat from Russia by detaching Siberia and forming an independent buffer state. The Japanese government in the beginning refused to undertake such an expedition and it was not until the following year that events were set in motion that led to a change in this policy. In July 1918, President Wilson asked the Japanese government to supply 7,000 troops as part of an international coalition of 25,000 troops, including an American expeditionary force, planned to support the rescue of the Czech Legion and recuring of wartime supplies. After heated debate in the Diet, the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops, but under the command of Japan, rather than as part of an international coalition.

Once the political decision had been reached, the Imperial Japanese Army took over full control under Chief of Staff Yui Mitsue and extensive planning for the expedition was conducted.Humphreys, "The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920's", page 26]

United States

The American Expeditionary Force Siberia was commanded by Major General William S. Graves and eventually totaled 7,950 officers and enlisted men. The AEF Siberia included the U.S. Army's 27th and 31st Infantry Regiments, plus large numbers of volunteers from the 13th and 62nd Infantry Regiments along with a few from the 12th Infantry Regiment. [Robert L. Willett, "Russian Sideshow", (Washington, D.C., Brassey's Inc., 2003), pages 166-167, 170]

Although General Graves did not arrive in Siberia until September 4, 1918, the first 3,000 American troops disembarked in Vladivostok between August 15 and August 21, 1918. They were quickly assigned guard duty along segments of the railway between Vladivostok and Nikolsk-Ussuriski in the north. [ [http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/winter/us-army-in-russia-1.html Guarding the Railroad, Taming the Cossacks The U.S. Army in Russia, 1918–1920] , Smith, Gibson Bell]

Unlike his Allied counterparts, General Graves believed their mission in Siberia was to provide protection for American-supplied property and to help the Czechoslovak Legions evacuate Russia, and that it did not include fighting against the Bolsheviks. Repeatedly calling for restraint, Graves often clashed with commanders of British, French and Japanese forces, who wanted the Americans to take a more active part in the military intervention in Siberia.

Allied intervention (1918-1919)

The joint Allied intervention began in August of 1918. The Japanese entered through Vladivostok and points along the Manchurian border with more than 70,000 Japanese troops being involved. The deployment of a large force for a rescue expedition made the Allies wary of Japanese intentions. On September 5, the Japanese linked up with the vanguard of the Czech Legion, a few days later the British and French contingents joined the Czechs in a effort to re-establish the east Front beyond the Urals; as a result the European allies trekked westwards. The Japanese, with their own objectives in mind, refused to proceed west of Lake Baikal and stayed behind. The Americans, suspicious of Japanese intentions, also stayed behind to keep an eye on the Japanaese. By November, the Japanese occupied all ports and major towns in the Russian Maritime Provinces and Siberia; east of the city of Chita.

In the summer of 1918 onwards, the Japanese army lent its support to White Russian elements; the 5th infantry division and the Japanese-backed Special Manchurian Detachment of Grigory Semyonov took control over Transbaikalia and founded a short-lived White Transbaikalia government.

Allied withdrawal (1919-1920)

With the end of the war in Europe the allies decided to support the anti Bolshevik White forces and effectively intervene in the Russian Civil War. Allied army Support was given to Admiral Kolchak's White government at Omsk while the Japanese continued to support Kolchak's rivals in Grigory Semyonov and Ivan Kalmykov.Humphreys, "The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920's", page 27] In the Summer of 1919, White regime in Siberia collapsed, after the capture and execution of Admiral Kolchak by the Red Army. In June 1920, the Americans, British and the remaining allied coalition partners withdrew from Vladivostok. The evacuation of the Czech Legion was also carried out in the same year.However, the Japanese decided to stay, primarily due to fears of the spread of communism so close to Japan, and Japanese controlled Korea and Manchuria. The Japanese were forced to sign the Gongota Agreement of 1920 in order to evacuate their troops peacefully from Transbaikal. It meant an unavoidable end of Grigory Semyonov's regime in October 1920.

The Japanese army provided military support to the Japanese-backed Provisional Priamur Government based in Vladivostok against the Moscow-backed Far Eastern Republic. The continued Japanese presence concerned the United States, which suspected that Japan had territorial designs on Siberia and the Russian Far East. Subjected to intense diplomatic pressure by the United States and Great Britain, and facing increasing domestic opposition due to the economic and human cost, the administration of Prime Minister Kato Tomosaburo withdrew the Japanese forces in October 1922.

Legacy

Effects on Japanese politics

Japan's motives in the Siberian Intervention were complex and poorly articulated. Overtly, Japan (as with the United States and the other international coalition forces) were in Siberia to safeguard stockpiled military supplies and to "rescue" the Czech Legion. However, the Japanese government's intense hostility to communism, a determination to recoup historical losses to Russia, and the perceived opportunity to settle the “northern problem” in Japan's security by either creating a buffer state, or through outright territorial acquisition were also factors. However, patronage of various White Movement leaders left Japan in a poor diplomatic position vis-à-vis the government of the Soviet Union, after the Red Army eventually emerged victorious from the Russian Civil War. The intervention tore Japan's wartime unity to shreads, leading to the army and government being involved in bitter controversy and renewed faction strife in the army itself.

Japanese casualties from the Siberian Expedition included some 5,000 dead from combat or illness, and the expenses incurred were in excess of 900 million yen.

See also

* Siberian separatism

References

Books

* White, John Albert. "The Siberian Intervention". Princeton University Press (1950)
*cite book
last = Humphreys
first = Leonard A.
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 1996
chapter =
title = The Way of the Heavenly Sword: The Japanese Army in the 1920's
publisher = Stanford University Press
location =
id = ISBN 0-8047-2375-3

*cite book
last = Kinvig
first = Clifford
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 2006
chapter =
title = Churchill's Crusade: The British Invasion of Russia, 1918-1920
publisher = Continuum International Publishing Group
location =
id = ISBN 1-8528-5477-4

Notes

External links

* [http://www.siberianexpedition.ca Canada's Siberian Expedition] website, by Benjamin Isitt
* [http://nortvoods.net/rrs/siberia/jonessibdiary-2.htm WWI Siberian Diary, by W.C. Jones, 2nd Lt. U.S Army Russian Railway Service]
* [http://www.czechlegion.com The Czech Legion]


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