Socialist Unity Party of Germany


Socialist Unity Party of Germany

Infobox_Germany_Former_Political_Party
party_name = Socialist Unity Party of Germany
party_name_german = Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands
party_
party_status = Former East German National Party
party articletitle=Socialist Unity Party of Germany
active= 1949–1989
ideology = Communism,
Marxism-Leninism
international=None
newspaper = "Neues Deutschland"
political position = Left
preceded_by= Communist Party of Germany (KPD), Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)
succeeded_by= Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS)| colors=Red
website=None

The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (German: "Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands", SED) was the governing party of the German Democratic Republic from its formation on 7 October 1949 until the elections of March 1990. The SED was a Communist political party with a Marxist-Leninist ideology. In the 1980s, the SED rejected the winds of change emanating from the Soviet Union, such as "perestroika" and "glasnost", and also failed to react positively to the growing discontent among the population of the GDR concerning its policies, particularly those in the areas of economics, personal liberty and the freedom to travel, which eventually led to the party's downfall in the autumn of 1989.

Early history

The SED was founded on 21 April 1946 through a merger between members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) who lived in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany and the Soviet-occupied sector of Berlin. Official East German and Soviet histories portrayed the merger between the SPD and KPD in the Soviet zone as a voluntary pooling of efforts by the socialist parties. However, there is much evidence that the merger was more troubled than commonly portrayed. By all accounts, the Soviet occupation authorities applied great pressure on the SPD's eastern branch to merge with the KPD. The newly-merged party, with the help of the Soviet authorities, swept to victory in the 1946 elections for local and regional assemblies held in the Soviet zone. In Berlin, however, the SED got less than half the votes of the SPD. The bulk of the Berlin SPD remained aloof from the merger, even though Berlin was deep inside the Soviet zone.

The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Russian initials: SVAG) directly governed the eastern areas of Germany following World War II, and their intelligence operations carefully monitored all political activities. An early intelligence report from SVAG Propaganda Administration director Lieutenant Colonel Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov (see "External Links" below) indicates that the former KPD and SPD members created different factions within the SED and remained rather mutually antagonistic for some time after the formation of the new party. Also reported was a great deal of difficulty in convincing the masses that the SED was a German political party, and not merely a tool of the Soviet occupation force.

According to Tiulpanov, many former members of the KPD expressed the sentiment that they had "forfeited [their] revolutionary positions, that [the KPD] alone would have succeeded much better had there been no SED, and that the Social Democrats are not to be trusted" (Tiulpanov, 1946). Also, Tiulpanov indicated that there was a marked "political passivity" among former SPD members, who felt they were being treated unfairly and as second-class party members by the new SED administration. As a result, the early SED party apparatus frequently became effectively immobilised as former KPD members began discussing any proposal, however small, at great length with former SPD members, so as to achieve consensus and avoid offending them. Soviet intelligence claimed to have a list of names of a SPD group within the SED which was covertly forging links with the SPD in the West and even with the Western Allied occupation authorities.

A problem the Soviets identified with the early SED was its potential to develop into a nationalist party. At large party meetings, members applauded speakers who talked of nationalism much more than when they spoke of solving social problems and gender equality. Some even proposed the idea of establishing an independent German socialist state free of both Soviet and Western influence, and of soon regaining the formerly German land that the Yalta Conference, and ultimately the Potsdam Conference, had (re)allocated to Poland, the USSR, and Czechoslovakia.

Soviet negotiators reported that SED politicians frequently pushed past the boundaries of the political statements which had been approved by the Soviet monitors, and there was some initial difficulty making regional SED officials realize that they should think carefully before opposing the political positions decided upon by the Central Committee in Berlin.

A monopoly of power

By the late 1940s, the SED began to purge most recalcitrant Social Democrats from its ranks, and it began to develop along lines similar to other Communist parties in the Soviet bloc. Although other parties nominally continued to exist, the Soviet occupation authorities forced them to join in the National Front of Democratic Germany, a nominal coalition of parties that was for all intents and purposes controlled by the SED. By ensuring that Communists predominated on the list of candidates put forward by the National Front, the SED effectively predetermined the composition of legislative bodies in the Soviet zone, and from 1949 in East Germany.

Over the years, the SED gained a reputation as one of the most hardline parties in the Soviet bloc. When Mikhail Gorbachev initiated reforms in the Soviet Union in the 1980s, the SED held to a Stalinist line.

The Party Congresses

The 1st Congress

The first party Congress "(Vereinigungsparteitag)", which convened on 21 April 1946, was the unification congress. This congress elected two co-presidents to lead the party: Wilhelm Pieck, former leader of the eastern KPD, and Otto Grotewohl, former leader of the eastern SPD. The union was initially intended to apply to the whole of occupied Germany. The union was rejected consistently in the three western occupation zones, where both parties remained independent. The union of the two parties was thus effective only in the Soviet zone. The SED was modeled after the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In 1946, the unification was announced in the Soviet occupation zone with an emblem of a handshake.

The 2nd Congress

The second party Congress convened from 20-24 July 1947. It adopted a fresh party statute and transformed the party executive committee into a central committee "(Zentralkomitee" or "ZK)".

The 3rd Congress

The third party congress convened in July 1950 and emphasized industrial progress. The industrial sector, employing 40% of the working population, was subjected to further nationalization, which resulted in the formation of the "people's enterprises" (German: "Volkseigener Betrieb"--VEB). These enterprises incorporated 75% of the industrial sector.

The 6th Congress

The sixth party Congress convened from 15-21 January 1963. The Congress approved a new party program and a new party membership statute. Walter Ulbricht was re-elected as the party's First Secretary. A new economic policy was introduced, more strongly centralized - the "New Economic System of Planning and Line".

The 7th Congress

First Secretary Walter Ulbricht announced the "ten requirements of the socialist moral and ethics". During his report at the seventh party congress in 1967, Erich Honecker had called for a return to an orthodox Socialist economic system, away from the recently instituted New Economic System. But the about-face in economic policy this year cannot be attributed to Honecker's advancement alone. During the previous two winters, the GDR had been plagued with power shortages and traffic breakdowns.

The 8th Congress

From 1971 onwards, congresses were held every five years. The last was the 11th Party Congress in April 1986. In theory the party congress set policy and elected the leadership, provided a forum for discussing the leadership's policies, and undertook activities that served to legitimize the party as a mass movement. It was formally empowered to pass both the Party Program and the Statute, to establish the general party line, to elect the members of the Central Committee and the members of the Central Auditing Commission, and to approve the Central Committee's report. Between congresses the Central Committee could convene a party conference to resolve policy and personnel issues.

In the spring of 1971, the eighth Congress rolled back some of the programs associated with the Ulbricht era and emphasized short-term social and economic problems. The SED used the occasion to announce its willingness to cooperate with West Germany and the Soviet Union in helping to solve a variety of international problems, particularly the future political status of Berlin. Another major development initiated at the congress was a strengthening of the Council of Ministers at the expense of the Council of State; this shift subsequently played an important role in administering the "Main Task" program. The SED further proclaimed that greater emphasis would be devoted to the development of a "socialist national culture" in which the role of artists and writers would be increasingly important. Honecker was more specific about the SED's position toward the intelligentsia at the Fourth Plenum of the Central Committee, where he stated: "As long as one proceeds from the firm position of socialism, there can in my opinion be no taboos in the field of art and literature. This applies to questions of content as well as of style, in short to those questions which constitute what one calls artistic mastery."

The 9th Congress

The ninth party Congress in May 1976 can be viewed as a midpoint in the development of SED policy and programs. Most of the social and economic goals announced at the eighth Congress had been reached; however, the absence of a definitive statement on further efforts to improve the working and living conditions of the population proved to be a source of concern. The SED sought to redress these issues by announcing, along with the Council of Ministers and the leadership of the FDGB, a specific program to increase living standards. The ninth Congress initiated a hard line in the cultural sphere, which contrasted with the policy of openness and tolerance enunciated at the previous congress. Six months after the ninth Congress, for example, the GDR government withdrew permission for the singer Wolf Biermann to live in East Germany. The congress also highlighted the fact that East Germany had achieved international recognition in the intervening years. East Germany's growing involvement in both the East European economic system and the global economy reflected its new international status. This international status and the country's improved diplomatic and political standing were the major areas stressed by this congress. The Ninth Party Congress also served as a forum for examining the future challenges facing the party in domestic and foreign policy. On the foreign policy front, the major events were various speeches delivered by representatives of West European Marxist-Leninist parties, particularly the Italian, Spanish, and French, all of which expressed in varying ways ideological differences with the Soviet Union. At the same time, although allowing different views to be heard, the SED rejected many of these criticisms in light of its effort to maintain the special relationship with the Soviet Union emphasized by Honecker. Another major point of emphasis at the congress was the issue of inter-German détente. From the East German side, the benefits were mixed. The GDR regime considered economic benefits as a major advantage, but the party viewed with misgivings the rapid increase in travel by West Germans to and through the GDR. Additional problems growing out of the expanding relationship with West Germany included conflict between Bonn and East Berlin on the rights and privileges of West German news correspondents in East Germany; the social unrest generated by the "two-currency" system, in which East German citizens who possessed West German D-marks were given the privilege of purchasing scarce luxury goods at special currency stores (Intershops); and the ongoing arguments over the issue of separate citizenship for the two German states, which the SED proclaimed but which the West German government refused to recognize as late as 1987.

During the ninth Congress, the SED also responded to some of the public excitement and unrest that had emerged in the aftermath of the signing of the Helsinki Accords, the human rights documents issued at the meetings in 1975 of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Before the congress was convened, the SED had conducted a "People's Discussion" in order openly to air public concerns related to East Germany's responsibility in honoring the final document of the Helsinki conference.

The 10th Congress

The tenth Congress, which took place in April 1981, celebrated the status quo; the meeting unanimously re-elected Honecker to the office of general secretary, and there were no electoral surprises, as all incumbents except the ailing 76-year-old Albert Norden were returned to the "Politbüro" and the Secretariat. The congress highlighted the importance of policies that had been introduced or stressed at the two previous congresses and that had dominated East German life during the 1970s. As in the past, Honecker stressed the importance of the ties to the Soviet Union. In his closing remarks, he stated: "Our party, the SED, is linked forever with the party of Lenin, [the CPSU] ." A delegation led by chief party ideolougue Mikhail Suslov, a member of the CPSU "Politburo", represented the CPSU at the SED congress. Honecker reiterated earlier positions on the relationship between the two German states, stressing that they were two sovereign states that had developed along different lines since World War II, and that their differences had to be respected by both sides as they continued efforts toward peaceful coexistence despite membership in antagonistic alliances. In his speeches, Honecker, along with other SED officials, devoted greater attention to Third World countries than he had done in the past. Honecker mentioned the continually increasing numbers of young people from African, Asian, and Latin American countries who received their higher education in East Germany, and he referred to many thousands of people in those countries who had been trained as apprentices, skilled workers, and instructors by teams from East Germany.

The bulk of the Central Committee report delivered at the opening session of the congress by the general secretary discussed the economic and social progress made during the five years since the ninth Congress. Honecker detailed the increased agricultural and industrial production of the period and the resultant social progress as, in his words, the country continued "on the path to socialism and communism." Honecker called for even greater productivity in the next five years, and he sought to spur individual initiative and productivity by recommending a labor policy that would reward the most meritorious and productive members of society.

The 11th Congress

The eleventh Congress, held 17-21 April 1986, unequivocally endorsed the SED and Honecker, whom it confirmed for another term as party head. The SED celebrated its achievements as the "most successful party on German soil", praised East Germany as a "politically stable and economically efficient socialist state", and declared its intention to maintain its present policy course. East Germany's successes, presented as a personal triumph for Honecker, marked a crowning point in his political career. Mikhail Gorbachev's presence at the congress endorsed Honecker's policy course, which was also strengthened by some reshuffling of the party leadership. Overall, the eleventh Congress exhibited confidence in East Germany's role as the strongest economy and the most stable country in Eastern Europe. Gorbachev praised the East German experience as proof that central planning could be effective and workable in the 1980s.

Official statements on the subject of foreign policy were mixed, particularly with respect to East Germany's relations with West Germany and the rest of Western Europe. Honecker's defense of his policy of "constructive dialogue" appeared in tune with Gorbachev's own calls for disarmament and détente in Europe. However, the SED leadership made it unequivocally clear that its foreign policy, including relations with West Germany, would remain closely coordinated with Moscow's. Although Honecker's criticism of West Germany was low key, Gorbachev's was sharp, attacking Bonn's participation in the United States Strategic Defense Initiative and the alleged "revanchism" in West Germany. However, after a final round of talks with Gorbachev, Honecker signed a hard-line communiqué that openly attacked the policies of the West German government. Overall, Gorbachev's statements suggested that the foreign policy emphasis would be on a common foreign policy adhered to by all members of the Warsaw Pact under Soviet direction. Until the Eleventh Party Congress, East German leaders had maintained that small and medium states had a significant role to play in international affairs. As a result of Soviet pressure, such statements disappeared from East German commentary on foreign policy.

The Final Days: Collapse of the SED

On the day of the 40th anniversary of the founding of the GDR, 7 October 1989, the old Social Democratic Party was (illegally) refounded. Following the riots in the GDR in October 1989, including those in East Berlin and Leipzig, on 18 October 1989, at a special "Politbüro" meeting, Honecker was forced to resign; he was replaced by Egon Krenz. The party made some attempts to adjust state policy, but could (or would) not satisfy the growing demands of the people for increased freedom. Even the party's decision to loosen travel restrictions to the West (through the opening of the border to West Germany and West Berlin) did not improve the situation. On 1 December 1989, the GDR parliament "(Volkskammer)" rescinded the clause in the GDR Constitution giving the SED the leading role in the country's politics. On 3 December 1989, the entire Central Committee and the "Politbüro" resigned. Egon Krenz resigned concurrently as General Secretary.

Rebirth as the PDS

The rump of the SED that remained was renamed as the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) at a special party congress in December 1989. Gregor Gysi became the new leader of the party. Initially, the party was known by the combination initials SED-PDS; this practice was dropped on 4 February 1990, after which the party was known solely as the PDS. On 18 March 1990, the PDS lost significant influence in the first free elections in GDR history; the Alliance for Germany coalition, led by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), won the election.

The SED had sequestered money overseas in secret accounts, including some which turned up in Liechtenstein in 2008. This was returned to the German government, as the PDS had rejected claims to overseas SED assets in 1990. [Spiegel: [http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/0,1518,536391,00.html "Magazin meldet Spur in Liechtenstein"] ] The vast majority of domestic SED assets were transferred to the GDR government before unification. Legal issues over back taxes possibly owed by the PDS on former SED assets were eventually settled in 1995, when an agreement between the PDS and the Independent Commission on Property of Political Parties and Mass Organizations of the GDR was confirmed by the Berlin Administrative Court. [Franz Oswald 2002, The Party That Came Out Of The Cold War, pp69-71]

The PDS survived the reunification of Germany and eventually started growing again, managing to get representatives elected to the Bundestag. The PDS remained influential in former eastern Germany, especially at the state and local levels, in articulating east-German issues and addressing social problems. In 2007 the PDS merged with the Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative ("Arbeit und soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG") to create the new party The Left ("Die Linke"), which has resulted in a higher acceptance in western states, the party now also being represented in the parliaments of Lower Saxony, Hesse and Hamburg.

West Berlin branch

Initially the SED had a branch in West Berlin, but in 1962 that branch became a separate party called the Socialist Unity Party of West Berlin ("Sozialistische Einheitspartei Westberlins" - SEW).

General Secretaries* of the Central Committee of the SED

*"(known as "First Secretary" from 1953 - 1976)"
*Walter Ulbricht (July 1950 – May 3, 1971)
*Erich Honecker (May 3, 1971 – October 18, 1989)
*Egon Krenz (October 18, 1989 – December 3, 1989)

References

ee also

*The Left
*Volkskammer
*Politics of Germany
*List of political parties in Germany
*List of foreign delegations at the 9th SED Congress
*Free German Youth

External links

* [http://www.chronikderwende.de/english/term.jsp?key=E_SED Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands from "chronik der wende"]
* [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/CWIHP/BULLETINS/b4a4.htm 1946 Soviet intelligence document] from Lieutenant Coloniel S. I. Tiulpanov, director of the Propaganda Administration of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany, detailing problems arising with the formation of the SED.
* [http://www.sed-forum.de/ SED Forum: Discussion on various aspects of the SED "(in German)"]
* [http://www.osaarchivum.org/db/fa/300-3-1-1.htm RFE/RL East German Subject Files: Communist Party] Open Society Archives, Budapest


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