Tamil Eelam

Tamil Eelam

contains Indic text
Infobox Country
native_name = தமிழ் ஈழம் tamiḻ īḻam
conventional_long_name = Tamil Eelam
common_name = Tamil Eelam






national_anthem =
official_languages = Tamil, English
ethnic_groups = Tamil Sinhalese
ethnic_groups_year =
capital = Trincomalee [ [http://news.independent.co.uk/world/asia/article360824.ece Cycle of violence brings Sri Lanka to edge of war] ] (claimed)
Kilinochchi (effective)
largest_city =
capital = Trincomalee [ [http://news.independent.co.uk/world/asia/article360824.ece Cycle of violence brings Sri Lanka to edge of war] ] (claimed)
Kilinochchi (effective)
government_type = Internationally unrecognized state
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
leader_title2 =
leader_name2 =
leader_title3 =
leader_name3 =
sovereignty_type = Independence from Sri Lanka
established_event1 = Declaration of Independence
established_date1 = "No official declarationFact|date=July 2008"
established_event2 =
established_date2 =
established_event3 =
established_date3 =
area_km2 = 195091
area_sq_mi = 7532.467
area_rank =
area_magnitude =
percent_water = negligible
area_data2 =
population_estimate =
population_estimate_year =
population_estimate_rank =
population_census = 3,162,254 [According to the [http://www.statistics.gov.lk/census2001/index.html 2001 Sri Lankan census] , for all districts of North Eastern Province and Puttalam District in North Western Province.]
population_census_year = 2001
population_density_km2 =
population_density_sq_mi =
population_density_rank =
GDP_PPP_year =
GDP_PPP =
GDP_PPP_rank =
GDP_PPP_per_capita =
GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
HDI_year =
HDI =
HDI_rank =
HDI_category =
currency = Sri Lankan Rupee
currency_code = LKR
time_zone =
utc_offset = +5:30
time_zone_DST =
utc_offset_DST =
cctld =
calling_code = 94
calling_code_note =
footnote1 = [Area calculated from [http://www.statoids.com/ulk.html statoids.com] , including all districts of North Eastern Province and Puttalam District in North Western Province.]

Tamil Eelam (Tamil: தமிழ் ஈழம், "tamiḻ īḻam") is the name given by certain Tamil groups in Sri Lanka to the state which they aspire to create in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. It is derived from the ancient Tamil name for Sri Lanka, namely Eelam. One such group, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) currently controls some of the land claimed for Tamil Eelam. This includes parts of the districts of Kilinochchi, Mullaitivu and Vavuniya. However a majority of the land, including the claimed districts of Jaffna, Ampara, Trincomalee, Mannar, Batticaloa and Puttlam, is controlled by the government of Sri Lanka.

Central issue and Historic development

Great Britain gained control of the whole island of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1815 and administratively unified the island cite journal
author = Stokke, K.
coauthors = Ryntveit, A.K.
year = 2000
title = The Struggle for Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka
journal = A Journal of Urban and Regional Policy
volume = 31
issue = 2
pages = 285-304
doi = 10.1111/0017-4815.00129
] with a legislative council in 1833 with three Europeans and one each for Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils and Burghers. British Governor William Manning, who arrived in Ceylon in 1919, created a reformed legislative council in 1921 and actively encouraged communal thinking in the legislative council. K. M. de Sila, History of Sri Lanka, Penguin 1995] [ K. M. de Silva, Ceylon Journal of Historical and Social Studies, vol 2(1), p 114 (1972) ] As a result, the Tamils started to develop communal consciousness and began to think of themselves as needing to be represented by Tamil leadership. [ K. M. de Silva, Ceylon Journal of Historical and Social Studies, vol 2(1), p 114 (1972) ] K. M. de Sila, History of Sri Lanka, Penguin 1995 p 488] It was this thinking that made way for the development of Tamil political organization called the All Ceylon Tamil Congress headed by G. G. Ponnambalam [Gunasingham, M."Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism: A study of its origins", p.] [Wilson, A.J. "Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries", p.1-12] Likewise Sinhala communal consciousness reached the political stage in the Southern part of Ceylon with the formation of numerous Sinhala political parties.

Ceylon achieved independence from the British in 1948 and in the same year the government of Sri Lanka, with the acceptance vote from G.G. Ponnambalam, passed a new act called the Ceylon citizen act which disenfranchised the Indian Tamil plantation workers [cite web|title=Missed Opportunities and the Loss of Democracy|url=http://www.uthr.org/BP/volume1/Chapter1.htm] cite journal
author = De Silva, P.L.
year = 1997
title = The growth of Tamil paramilitary nationalisms: Sinhala Chauvinism and Tamil responses
journal = South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies
volume = 20
pages = 97-118
url = http://www.informaworld.com/index/778260866.pdf
accessdate = 2008-04-27
] [Wilson, A.J. "Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries", p.66-81] Though Ponnambalam did not vote for all the bills pertaining to the Ceylon citizenship act (including the offending bill), his silence in parliament made the Tamil public believe that he was not interested in Indian Tamil rights. [Wilson, A.J. "Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries", p.80] . In 1949 a new Tamil political party, named the Federal Party, was formed and was led by S. J. V. Chelvanayakam who earlier broke away from All Ceylon Tamil Congress because of the latter's decision to tie up with the UNP [cite web|title=Missed Opportunities and the Loss of Democracy|url=http://www.uthr.org/BP/volume1/Chapter1.htm]

In 1956 the government enacted another act called the Sinhala Only Act which made the Sinhala as the sole official language of Sri Lankacite journal
author = De Silva, P.L.
year = 1997
title = The growth of Tamil paramilitary nationalisms: Sinhala Chauvinism and Tamil responses
journal = South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies
volume = 20
pages = 97-118
url = http://www.informaworld.com/index/778260866.pdf
accessdate = 2008-04-27
] [Tambiah, S.J. "Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy", p. ] The Ceylon citizen act and the Sinhala Only Act were seen as discriminatory policies towards the minorities and led to increased ethnic and political tensions between the two communities. The Federal Party (FP) opposed both the Ceylon citizenship act and the Sinhala Only Act and as a result became popular amongst the Tamil populationcite journal
author = De Silva, P.L.
year = 1997
title = The growth of Tamil paramilitary nationalisms: Sinhala Chauvinism and Tamil responses
journal = South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies
volume = 20
pages = 97-118
url = http://www.informaworld.com/index/778260866.pdf
accessdate = 2008-04-27
] [Tambiah, S.J. "Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy", p. ] . As a result of their popularity the Federal party became the most dominant party in the Tamil districts after the 1956 elections.

Concept

Federal Party (FP) became the most dominant Tamil political party in 1956 and it lobbied for a unitary state which gave Tamil and Sinhalese equal rights, including recognition of two official languages (Tamil and Sinhala) and considerable autonomy for the Tamil areas. [Wilson, A.J. "Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries", p.82-90] cite journal
author = Kearney, R.N.
year = 1985
title = Ethnic Conflict and the Tamil Separatist Movement in Sri Lanka
journal = Asian Survey
volume = 25
issue = 9
pages = 898-917
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-4687(198509)25%3A9%3C898%3AECATTS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B
accessdate = 2008-06-05
] It was against this backdrop that the Federal party decided to sign the Bandaranaike-Chelvanayakam pact on July 1957. However soon afterwards, the agreement was not implemented by the Sinhala party. On 1965 another pact called Dudey-Chelvanayakam pact was also signed but was also not implemented [Wilson, A.J. "Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries", p.81-110] The failure of the Sinhalese dominated government to implement devolutionary agreements through the 1950s and 1960s, abrogation of power-sharing promises, worsening economic conditions, and lack of territorial autonomy caused further disillusionment and isolationamong northern Tamilscite journal
author = Kleinfeld, M.
year = 2005
title = Destabilizing the identity--territory nexus: Rights-based discourse in Sri Lanka’s new political geography
journal = GeoJournal
volume = 64
issue = 4
pages = 287-295
url = http://www.springerlink.com/index/L37M1P0520106N34.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-22
]

In the 1970 election the United Front (UF) led by Sirimavo Bandaranaike came into power. The new Government in power adapted two new policies that were considered discriminatory by the Tamil people. [Wilson, A.J. "Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries", p.102-103] First the government introduced a dicriminatory system regulating university admissions specifically targeted at reducing the intake of overachieving Tamils and other minorities in the Sri Lankan educational system. The scheme allotted up to 40% of the university placement to rural youth (primarily from Sinhala areas). The government claimed that this was an affirmative action scheme to assist geographically disadvantaged students to gain tertiary education. According to K.M de Silva, a Historian, the system of standardisation of marks, however, required the Tamil students to achieve higher marks than the Sinhalese students to get into universitycite journal
author = De Silva, K.M.
year = 1984
title = University Admissions and Ethnic Tension in Sri Lanka, 1977—1982
journal = From Independence to Statehood: Managing Ethnic Conflict in Six African and Asian States. London: Francis Pinter
pages = 97
] Same sort of policy was adapted for employment in the public sector in which less than 10 percent of Tamil speakers were employed as public servants [Wilson, A.J. "Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries", p.102-103] [Goldman, R.B. and Wilson, A.J. "From Independence to Statehood", p.173-184] The Federal Party opposed these policies and Chelvanayakam resigned his parliamentary seat on October 1972. The new constitution in 1972 further exasperated long standing grievances and sense of discrimination for the Sri Lankan Tamil people. This had emboldened younger Tamils to seek ways to form a Tamil homeland (nation) where the rights and freedoms of the Tamil people could be protected and nurtured.

In 1973, Tamil parties’ call for regional autonomy was replaced with the demand for a separate state called Tamil Eelam and two years later, in 1975, all Tamil political parties merged together and became known as the Tamil United Liberation Front(TULF). On 1976, the first national convention of the Tamil United Liberation Front was held at Vaddukodai and the Tamil United Liberation Front adapted a unanimous resolution called the Vaddukodai resolution. The Vaddukodai resolution charged that the Sinhalese government, with the use of the constitution of 1972, used it's power to "deprive the Tamil nation of its territory, language, citizenship, economic life, opportunities of employment and education thereby destroying all the attributes of nationhood of the Tamil people." The resolution further called for the "Free, Sovereign, Secular Socialist State of TAMIL EELAM".cite journal
author = Pfaffenberger, B.
year = 1981
title = The Cultural Dimension of Tamil Separatism in Sri Lanka
journal = Asian Survey
volume = 21
issue = 11
pages = 1145-1157
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-4687(198111)21%3A11%3C1145%3ATCDOTS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z
accessdate = 2008-06-22
]

As a result of the Vaddukodai resolution, the Tamil United Liberation Front became the first Tamil political party to run it's campaign on a separatist platform. It swept the parliamentary elections in the Tamil-dominated districts of the North and East in 1977, winning 18 seats and became the largest opposition in parliamentcite web|title= TULF leader passes away |author=DBS Jeyaraj|url= http://www.hinduonnet.com/2002/06/06/stories/2002060603761100.htm|publisher=Hindu News |accessdate=2008-05-04 ] cite journal
author = Nadarajah, S.
coauthors = Sriskandarajah, D.
year = 2005
title = Liberation struggle or terrorism? The politics of naming the ltte
journal = Third World Quarterly
volume = 26
issue = 1
pages = 87–100
doi = 10.1080/0143659042000322928
] The reason for the success of the TULF was seen as the result of growing Tamil agitation for self-determination

During the time of the Vaddukodai declaration, there were several Tamil militant organizations that believed an armed struggle was the only way to protect the sovereignty of the Tamil areas. TULF, however, believed in peaceful parliamentary ways towards achieving a solutioncite journal
author = Schalk, P.
year = 2002
title = Ilavar and Lankans, Emerging Identities in a Fragmented Island
journal = Asian Ethnicity
volume = 3
issue = 1
pages = 47-62
url = http://www.informaworld.com/index/WUTVBK5HX91JPUX4.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-22
] Though the TULF had adapted a separatist platform they were still open for peaceful negotiations and, as a result, decided to work towards a political agreement with the executive president at that time, J.R Jayewardene. The outcome was the District Development Councils’ scheme (DDC) passed 1980. The District Development Councils' scheme was based, to some extent, on decentralization of the government within a united Sri Lanka. The District Development Councils' scheme was soon abandoned because both sides were not able to agree to the number District Ministership in the Tamil districts [Wilson, A.J. " The Break-up of Sri Lanka: The Sinhalese-Tamil Conflict", p.142-143] In 1983 the Sixth Amendment was passed and required Tamil members of parliament and Tamils in public office to take the oath of allegiance to the unitary state of Sri Lanka. The Sixth Amendment forbade advocating a separate state even by peaceful means. Consequently, the TULF was expelled from the parliament for refusing to take the oath. [Wilson, A.J. " The Break-up of Sri Lanka: The Sinhalese-Tamil Conflict", p.228]

Development

At first, the concept of Tamil Eelam conceived by the Federal party was state within united Sri Lanka, but in time the concept developed into complete self-determination. The concept of Tamil Eelam always implied the notion of freedom and self-government for the Tamil people cite journal
author = Matthews, B.
year = 1982
title = District Development Councils in Sri Lanka
journal = Asian Survey
volume = 22
issue = 11
pages = 1117-1134
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-4687(198211)22%3A11%3C1117%3ADDCISL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I
accessdate = 2008-06-28
] The demand for a separate statehood of Tamil Eelam is believed to have grown as a result of job opportunities and university admissions being severely curtailed for Tamils because of discriminatory government quotas; and continuing decline of economic opportunities As a result the people began to believe that a separate state would win back their opportunities and the concept of Tamil Eelam was welcomed enthusiastically throughout Tamil areascite journal
author = Wilson, A.J.
coauthors = Chandrakanthan, J.
year = 1998
title = The de facto state of Tamil Eelam
journal = Wilson & Chandrakanthan, Demanding Sacrifice: War and Negotiation in Sri Lanka, London: Conciliation Resources
] In addition to the economical and social basis for separate state there is also a more fundamental basis for support for a separate statehood - safetycite book
author = Gambetta, D.
year = 2005
title = Making sense of suicide missions
publisher = Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press
isbn = 9780199276998
pages = 49
] In 1977, after the parliamentary election campaign by the TULF which was on a platform of separate state, a riot engulfed the island in which about 300 Tamil civilians were killed Likewise in 1983, another anti-Tamil riot engulfed the island as a result of an IED attack on group of Sri Lankan Soldiers by LTTE rebels. The riot, know as Black July, killed between 1,000cite web
title=President Kumaratunga's speech on the 21st Anniversary of 'Black July'
url=http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/document/papers/BlackJuly2004.htm |date=2004-07-23 | publisher=South Asia Terrorism Portal
] and 3,000 [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3090111.stm BBC NEWS | South Asia | Twenty years on - riots that led to war] ] The call for Tamil Eelam increased as a result of these communal violence against the Tamil minority perpetrated by the Sinhalese majority Furthermore, allegations of state terrorism and genocide by the Sri Lankan government have led to solidification of demand for separate state for minority Tamils Rupesinghe, " Ethnic Conflict in South Asia: The Case of Sri Lanka and the Indian Peace-Keeping Force (IPKF)", pp.337] Hattotuwa, "From violence to peace: Terrorism and Human Rights in Sri Lanka", pp.11-13] [cite journal | last = | first = | title = Sri Lanka: testimony to state terror
journal = Race & Class | volume = 26 | issue = 4 | pages = 71–84 | publisher = Institute of Race Relations | location = | date = 1985 | url = | doi = 10.1177/030639688502600405 | id = | accessdate = 2007-01-17
] To add to the Tamil people's separatist sentiments, acts of mass violence, rape, extrajudicial executions, whole scale round ups, force detention, torture and other forms of inhuman treatment by members of Sinhalese dominated Sri Lankan security forces within the North and East provinces have further created communal tensions among the Tamil people The mistrust in the Sinhala dominated armed forces and the perceived discrimination faced by the Tamil populationcite journal
author = Shastri, A.
year = 1990
title = The Material Basis for Separatism: The Tamil Eelam Movement in Sri Lanka
journal = Journal of Asian Studies
volume = 49
issue = 1
pages = 56-77
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-9118(199002)49%3A1%3C56%3ATMBFST%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S
accessdate = 2008-07-04
] lead the Tamil people to believe that only Eelam could provide long term safety and came to believe that their very survival was possible only through formation of a separate Tamil state on the island

Current status

Governance

The portion of Northern Sri Lanka under the control of the LTTE is run as a de facto quasi-independent statecite web |url= http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2005/01/30/fea28.html|title=SFrom relief, rehabilitation to peace|accessdate=2008-06-21 |format= |work=] [cite web |url= http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/TKAE-6VZ8LB?OpenDocument&cc=lka&rc=3|title=Independence-seeking Tigers already run shadow state|accessdate=2008-06-21 |format= |work=] cite web |url= http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6895809.stm|title='War victory party' in Sri Lanka|accessdate=2008-06-21 |format= |work=] and it runs a government cite journal
author = Stokke, K.
year = 2006
title = Building the Tamil Eelam State: emerging state institutions and forms of governance in LTTE-controlled areas in Sri Lanka
journal = Third World Quarterly
volume = 27
issue = 6
pages = 1021-1040
doi = 10.1080/01436590600850434
] cite journal
author = McConnell, D.
year = 2008
title = The Tamil people's right to self-determination
journal = Cambridge Review of International Affairs
volume = 21
issue = 1
pages = 59-76
url = http://www.informaworld.com/index/790622093.pdf
accessdate = 2008-03-25
doi = 10.1080/09557570701828592
] cite journal
author = Ranganathan, M.
year = 2002
title = Nurturing a Nation on the Net: The Case of Tamil Eelam
journal = Nationalism and Ethnic Politics
volume = 8
issue = 2
pages = 51-66
url = http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/nep/2002/00000008/00000002/art00004
accessdate = 2008-03-25
] in these areas. The Tamil Tigers have also established a military wingcite book
author = Winn, N.
year = 2004
title = Neo-Medievalism and Civil Wars
publisher = Frank Cass Publishers
page = 130
isbn =
] cite journal
author = Rizas, S.
year = 2005
title = Neo-medievalism and Civil Wars Neil Winn
journal = JOURNAL OF SOUTHEAST EUROPEAN AND BLACK SEA STUDIES
volume = 5
issue = 1
pages = 157
] cite book
author = McDowell, C.
coauthors = McDowell, C.
year = 1996
title = A Tamil Asylum Diaspora: Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and Politics in Switzerland
publisher = Berghahn Books
isbn =
] with land combat force, naval force (the Sea Tigers), air wing which they call "Tamil Eelam Air Force", [cite web | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6496381.stm | title=Tamil Tigers unveil latest tactic |accessdate=2007-03-28 |author=Rowland Buerk | publisher=BBC News] In addition, the LTTE runs a judicial system complete with local, supreme and high courts. The US state department has alleged that the judges have very little standards or training and act as agents to LTTE; it also accuses the LTTE of forcing Tamils under their control to accept their judicial system [cite web| url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2006/03/060310_us_report.shtml | title=US slams police, Karuna and LTTE |accessdate= |author= | publisher=BBC News] , however, people who have a choice at judicial system sometimes choose to go to the judicial courts of the areas controlled by the LTTE rather than the Sri Lankan courtscite journal
author = Nadarajah, S.
coauthors = Sriskandarajah, D.
year = 2005
title = Liberation struggle or terrorism? The politics of naming the ltte
journal = Third World Quarterly
volume = 26
issue = 1
pages = 87–100
doi = 10.1080/0143659042000322928
] Furthermore, Tigers performs state functions such as Police Force, Human Rights organization, humanitarian assistant board, health board and education boardcite journal
author = Goodhand, J.
coauthors = Hulme, D.; Lewer, N.
year = 2000
title = Social Capital and the Political Economy of Violence: A Case Study of Sri Lanka
journal = Disasters
volume = 24
issue = 4
pages = 390-406
doi = 10.1111/1467-7717.00155
] [cite book | author = Wilson, A. J. | year = 1988 | title = The Break-up of Sri Lanka: The Sinhalese-Tamil Conflict | publisher = C. Hurst & Co. Publishers | isbn = 1850650330 ] It also runs a Bank (Bank of Tamil Eelam), a radio station (Voice of Tigers) and a Television station (National Television of Tamil Eelam)

Pongu Tamil

"Pongu Tamil" (or Tamil Upraising) is an event that is held in support of "Tamils Right to Self-Determination" and "Tamil Traditional homeland". Pongu Tamil was first organized in Jaffna on January 2001 by students of the Jaffna University. The event was organized in response to alleged disappearances, mass graves and abuses under the government’s military rule and was designed as peaceful protest. The event attracted between 4000-5000 students amid the event being banned in Jaffna, an area controlled by the Sri Lankan Army, and allegations of intimidation and death threats by the policecite journal
author = Orjuela, C.
year = 2003
title = Building Peace in Sri Lanka: a Role for Civil Society?
journal = Journal of Peace Research
volume = 40
issue = 2
pages = 195
doi = 10.1177/0022343303040002004
] In 2003, the event was held again and attracted over 150,000 people and has become an annual event in the LTTE held areas of Sri Lanka. In the recent years some members of Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora have also picked up on the notion and it has become an annual event in the countries they residecite web | last = Kumaaran | first = Satheesan | title = Poets join activists in chorus for Tamil cause | publisher = Sunday Times Sri Lanka| date = 2008 | url = http://sundaytimes.lk/080622/News/timesnews0025.html| accessdate = 2008-07-07] In 2008, the event was held in New Zealand,Norway,Denmark,Italy,South Africa, France,Australia, England and Canada. According to Tamilnet, a pro-rebel website, the event attracted thousands of people in these countries including over 7,000 in Francecite web | last = | first = | title = Pongku Thamizh rally in France draws 7000 | publisher = Tamilnet| date = 2008 | url = http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=26064| accessdate = 2008-07-07] , 30,000 in Englandcite web | last = | first = | title = Grand finale for Pongku Thamizh in London | publisher = Tamilnet| date = 2008 | url = http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=79&artid=26338| accessdate = 2008-07-12] and over 75,000 in Canada cite web | last = | first = | title = Spontaneous show of solidarity in Canada | publisher = Tamilnet| date = 2008 | url = http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=26278| accessdate = 2008-07-07] Australia is said to have attracted about 2000 people displayed the Australian flag, Tiger symbol and picture of Velupillai Prabhakaran. [cite web | last = | first = | title = Tiger territory | publisher = | date = 2008 | url = http://www.innerwestweekly.com.au/article/2008/07/23/2593_news.html| accessdate = 2008-08-10]

ee also

* Eelam War IV
* Self-determination
* North Eastern Province, Sri Lanka
* Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war
* Policy of standardization

References

External links

* [http://www.eelam.com/ Tamil Eelam web page]
* [http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=27012 Tamil, Eelam & Tamil Eelam]


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См. также в других словарях:

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