Acteonidae


Acteonidae

Taxobox
name = Acteonidae


image_width = 250px
image_caption = Adam's baby bubble, "Rictaxis punctostriatus"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Mollusca
classis = Gastropoda
subclassis = Orthogastropoda
superordo = Heterobranchia
ordo = Opisthobranchia
subordo = Cephalaspidea
superfamilia = Acteonoidea
familia = Acteonidae
familia_authority = d'Orbigny, 1843
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = See text.
type_genus = Acteon
type_genus_authority = Montfort, 1810

Acteonidae is a family of small marine sea snails of the opisthobranch suborder Cephalaspidea.

hell description

The shell of these sand-dwelling micromollusks is small but it is large enough to house the retracted soft parts including the entire mantle. The narrow shell aperture, which is ovate and pointed on the top, can be closed with an operculum. The thick shell is oviform to fusiform, with a short (sometimes sunken) conical apex. They have spiral sculpturing. The elongated aperture opens up from narrow at the posterior notch to enlarged at the base. The base of the columella has several characteristic plaits.

Anatomy

The radula has no central tooth and there are five or six laterals on each side. The teeth are very similar in shape and size across the radula, which is specialised for a diet of polychaete worms. The eggs are enclosed in a long, gelatinous mass, which is attached to the substrate with a short stalk.

Further treatment can be found under Acteonoidea and Cephalaspidea.

Genera and species within the family Acteonidae

Genus "Acteon" Montfort, 1810 In the genus "Acteon", the individual teeth of the radula are very small. There are many teeth in each row.
* "Acteon aethiopicus" Martens, E.C. von, 1902
* "Acteon antarcticus" Thiele, 1912
** Distribution : subantarctic
** Length : 6.6 mm
** Description : found at depths of 120 to 340 m
* "Acteon archibenthicola" Habe, 1955
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon austrinus" Watson, 1883
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon biplicatus" Strebel, 1908
** Distribution : subantarctic, Argentina, Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego
** Length : 4.4 mm
** Description : found at depths of 16 to 150 m
* "Acteon candens" Rehder, 1939 Rehder’s baby bubble
** Distribution : Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, North Carolina, Florida, Western Atlantic Ocean.
** Length ; 10 mm
** Description : found at depths of 10 to 20 m; glossy white shell with five whorls; body whorl contains at the base three brown spiraling bands; the top of each whorl has a narrow brown band.
* "Acteon castus" Hinds, 1844
** Distribution : West America
* "Acteon danaida" Dall, 1881
** Distribution : Georgia, Caribbean, NE Brazil
** Length : 11 mm
** Description :.found at depths of 370 to 620 m; white translucent shell with five whorls.
* "Acteon delicatus" Dall, 1889
** Distribution :Florida, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico.
** Length : 10 mm
** Description : found at depths of 135 to 565 m
* "Acteon dolichoroseus" Iredale, 1936
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon edentulus" Watson, 1883
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon eloiseae" (= "Punctacteon eloisae" or perhaps a "Maxacteon" ?) Abbott, 1973 Eloise’s acteon
** Distribution : Red Sea, Oman.
** Length : 25-38 mm
** Description: sublittoral on sandy bottoms; cream-colored shell with 5 convex whorls, each whorl with many spiral windings; each whorl is filled with redbrown separate patterns with darkbrown to black borders; similar to Maxacteon flammea.
* "Acteon elongatus" Castellanos, Rolán & Bartolotta, 1987
** Distribution : Argentina
** Length : 8.5 mm
** Description : found at depths of 150 to 600 m
* "Acteon exiguus" Mörch, 1875
** Distribution : Venezuela, Surinam.
** Length : 6.5 mm
** Description : found at depths of 14 to 18 m
* "Acteon fabreanus" (= "Maxacteon fabreanus") Crosse, 1874
** Distribution : Philippines
** Length : 17-30 mm
** Description : white shell with five whorls, each whorl filled with lightbrown bands covering the many spirals of each whorl.
* "Acteon finlayi" McGinty, 1955
** Distribution : Florida, Caribbean
** Length : 12 mm
** Description : found at depths up to 360 m
* "Acteon flammeus" (= "Maxacteon flammea") Gmelin, 1791
** Distribution : Red Sea, tropical Indo-West Pacific
** Length : 17 mm
** Description : the headshield is developing secondary tentacles.
* "Acteon fortis" Thiele, 1925
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon hancocki" (= "Maxacteon hancocki") Rudman, 1971
** Distribution : New Zealand
* "Acteon hebes" A. E. Verrill, 1885
** Distribution : Georgia, North Carolina.
** Length : 8 mm
** Description : deepsea species; found at depths of 800 to 4700 m
* "Acteon incisus" Dall, 1881
** Distribution : Georgia, Mexico, Cuba
** Length : 10 mm
** Description : found at depths of 30 to 1170 m
* "Acteon juvenis" Dall, 1927
** Distribution : Georgia
** Length : 3 mm
** Description : found at depths of over 500 m
* "Acteon kirai" Habe, 1949
** Distribution : Philippines
** Length : 20 mm
** Description : shell whitish to brownish; five whorls, first whorl being the largest; each whorl has many spiral windings; outer lip is notched.
* "Acteon lactuca" (author unknown)
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific.
* "Acteon lacunatus" Dall, 1927
** Distribution : Georgia
** Length : 3 mm
** Description : found at depths of 800 m
* "Acteon mariae" (author unknown)
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon melampoides" Dall, 1881
** Distribution : Virginia, Florida, Caribbean
** Length : 9.6 mm
** Description : deepsea species; found at depths of 400 to 4700 m
* "Acteon milleri" (= "Maxacteon milleri") Rudman, 1971
** Distribution : New Zealand
* "Acteon minutus" (author unknown)
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon monterosatoi" Dautzenberg, 1889
** Distribution : Europe, Mediterranean, Azores
* "Acteon mysouffa cumingii" Adams, 1854
** Distribution : Brazil, Florida
** Length : 10-20 mm
** Description : found at depths of 10 to 360 m; lightbrown shell with a large first whorl; each whorl with many spiral windings.; outer lip notched.
* "Acteon nakayamai" Habe, 1952
** Distribution : Japan
* "Acteon nipponensis" Yamakawa, 1911
** Distribution : Japan, Korea
** Length : 10 mm
* "Acteon oryza" (author unknown)
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon ovulum" (Pfeiffer, 1840)
** Distribution : Cuba
** Length : 3.6 mm
** Description :
* "Acteon panamensis" Dall, 1908
** Distribution : Panama
* "Acteon parallelus" Dall, 1927
** Distribution : Georgia
** Length : 3 mm
** Description : found at depths of 530 to 800 m
* "Acteon particolor" Dall, 1927
** Distribution : Georgia
** Length : 3.5 mm
** Description : found at depths of 800 m
* "Acteon pelecais" Marcus, 1972
** Distribution : Brazil
** Length : 9.5 mm
** Description : found at depths to 85 m
* "Acteon perforatus" Dall, 1881
** Distribution : Mexico, Cuba
** Length : 14 mm
** Description : found at depths of 330 to 1450 m
* "Acteon proprius" Dall, 1927
** Distribution : America, Georgia.
** Length : 4.3 mm
* "Acteon pudicus" Adams, 1854
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon pulchrior" Melvill, 1904
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon punctocaelatus" (= "Rictaxis punctocaelatus") Carpenter, 1864 Barrel shell; Carpenter's baby bubble
* "Acteon punctostriatus" (= "Rictaxis punctostriatus") Adams, 1840 Adam’s baby bubble
* "Acteon retusus" Verco, 1907
** Distribution : Australia
* "Acteon roseus" Hedley, 1906
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon semicingulatus" Dall, 1927
** Distribution : Georgia
** Length : 3 mm
** Description : found at depths of 500 m
* "Acteon semisculptus" E. A. Smith, 1890
** Distribution : Eastern Atlantic, St. Helena
** Length : 4 mm
* "Acteon senegalensis" Petit de la Saussaye
** Distribution : West Africa
* "Acteon siebaldii" Reeve, 1842
** Distribution : Japan, Coral Sea, Philippines
** Length : 10 mm
** Description: found on sandy bottoms; whitish shell; first whorl with lighbrown color bordered with darker brown bands.
* "Acteon soyoae" Habe, 1961
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon splendidulus" Mörch, 1875
** Distribution : Caribbean
** Length : 4.8 mm
* "Acteon subincisus" Okutani, 1968
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon subroseus" Iredale, 1936
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon teramachii" Habe, 1950
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Acteon tornatilis" Linnaeus, 1767 Lathe acteon
** Distribution : Iceland, Norway, British coasts, Norway to Congo, Mediterranean, Marmara Sea.
** Length : 10-25 mm
** Description : This is the major representative of the Acteonidae in European waters; It lives buried in the sand, in the intertidal zone and to a depth of up to 250 m; thick boldly colored shell with large body whorl; There are 6-7 whorls, filled with alternating wider lightbrown spiral bands and smaller pinkgray strips; white outer lip; the shell is elongate and ovate with a sharp apex. Aperture is narrow at the posterior notch but wider at the base. Columella slightly thickened and twisted.
* "Acteon traskii" Stearns, 1897
** Distribution : California, Panama
** Length : 18 mm
* "Acteon vagabundus" Mabille & de Rochebrune, 1885
** Distribution : East America
* "Acteon variegatus" (= Punctacteon variegatus) Bruguière, 1789 Pink-spotted acteon
** Distribution : Philippines, West Australia.
** Length : 9-27 mm
** Description : sublittoral on sandy bottoms; convex, cream-colored shell with five whorls, each whorls is covered with transverse pink-colred to lightbrown patterns, without dark borders; whirls with prominent shoulder.
* "Acteon venustus" d'Orbigny, 1840
** Distribution : West America
* "Acteon virgatus" (= Punctacteon virgatus) Reeve, 1842 Striped acteon
** Distribution : SW Pacific
** Length : 25 mm
** Description : cream-colored convex shell with five whorls with many spiral grooves; transversely decorated with wavy darkbrown bands,.

Genus "Callostracon"
* "Callostracon amabile" Watson, 1886
* "Callostracon tyrrhenicum" Smriglio, C. & P. Mariottini, 1996
** Distribution : Tyrrhenian Sea.

Genus "Crenilabium" Cossmann, 1889
* "Crenilabium aciculatum" Cossman, 1889
* "Crenilabium exilis" (Jeffreys, 1870)
** Distribution : Florida, Mexico, Eastern Atlantic, Iceland, Mediterranean.
** Length : 8.1 mm
** Description : found at depths of 270 to 2640 m
* "Crenilabium pacifica" Kuroda & Habe, 1958
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific

Genus "Inopinodon" Bouchet, 1975
* "Inopinodon azonicus" Locard, 1897

Genus "Japonactaeon" Taki, 1956
* "Japonactaeon pusillus" Macgillivray, 1843
** Distribution : Florida, Japan, Mediterranean
** Length : 11 mm
** Description : found at depths of 200 to 820 m

Genus "Liocarenus" Harris & Burrows, 1891
* "Liocarenus globulinus" Forbes, 1844
** Distribution : Atlantic, Mediterranean

Genus "Lissacteon" Monterosato, 1890

Genus "Maxacteon"
* "Maxacteon cratericulatus" Hedley, 1906
** Distribution : New Zealand
* "Maxacteon fabreanus" (= "Acteon fabreanus") Crosse, 1874
** Distribution : Philippines
** Length : 17-30 mm
** Description : white shell with five whorls, each whorl filled with lightbrown bands covering the many spirals of each whorl.
* "Maxacteon flammea" (= "Acteon flammeus") Gmelin, 1791
** Distribution : Red Sea, tropical Indo-West Pacific
** Length : 17 mm
** Description : the headshield is developing secondary tentacles.
* "Maxacteon hancocki" (= "Acteon hancocki") Rudman, 1971
** Distribution : New Zealand
** Length : 6 mm
** Description : headshield with a pair of fleshy lobes; thin operculum; white shell with orange-brown markings at the base and at the apex; large body whorl; large columella, slightly twisted; shell sculptured with grooves
* "Maxacteon milleri" (= "Acteon milleri") Rudman, 1971
** Distribution : New Zealand

Genus "Microglyphis" Dall, 1902
* "Microglyphis breviculus" Dall, 1902
** Distribution America
* "Microglyphis curtulus" Dall
** Distribution : Patagonia
* "Microglyphis estuarinus" Dall, 1908
** Distribution : West America
* "Microglyphis" globularis Smith, 1875
** Distribution : Japan
* "Microglyphis japonicus" T. Habe, 1952
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Microglyphis mazatlanicus" Dall, 1908
** Distribution : West America
* "Microglyphis perconicus" Dall, 1890
** Distribution : West America

Genus "Mysouffa" Marcus, 1974
* "Mysouffa cumingii" (= "Acteon mysouffa cumingii") (A. Adams, 1855)
** Distribution : Florida, Brazil
** Length : 20 mm
* "Mysouffa turrita" (Watson, 1883)
** Distribution : Jamaica, Cuba, Caribbean
** Length : 14 mm
** Description : found at depths of around 700 m

Genus "Neactaeonina" Thiele, 1912
* "Neactaeonina cingulata" Strebel, 1908
** Distribution : subantarctic
** Length : 10.5 mm
** Description : found at depths of 50 to 350 m
* "Neactaeonina edentula" Watson, 1883
** Distribution : subantarctic, Indian Ocean, Kerguelen Islands.
** Length : 49.6 mm
** Description : found at depths of 170 to 800 m
* "Neactaeonina inexpectata" Dell, 1956
** Distribution : New Zealand

Genus "Obrussena" Iredale, 1930
* "Obrussena bracteata" Iredale, 1930
** Distribution : Australia
* "Obrussena moeshimaensis" T. Habe, 1952
** Distribution : Japan

Genus "Ovulacteon" Dall, 1889
* "Ovulacteon meekii" Dall, 1889
** Distribution : Cuba, Bahamas, East Brazil
** Length : 5.5 mm
** Description : found at depths of 360 to 820 m

Genus "Pseudacteon" Thiele, 1925
* "Pseudacteon albus" Sowerby, 1873
** Distribution : South Africa
* "Pseudacteon pusillus" Forbes, 1844
** Distribution : Florida, North Atlantic, Mediterranean
** Length : 11 mm
* "Pseudacteon tenellus" Loven, 1846

Genus "Punctacteon" Kuroda & Habe, 1961
* "Punctacteon amakusaensis" T. Habe, 1949
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Punctacteon cebuanus" Lan, 1985
** Distribution : Philippines
* "Punctacteon eloisae" = "Acteon eloisae"
* "Punctacteon fabraeus" H. Crosse
* "Punctacteon kajiyamai" T. Habe, 1976
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Punctacteon kawamurai" T. Habe, 1952
** Distribution : Japan
* "Punctacteon kirai" T. Habe, 1949
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Punctacteon virgatus" : = "Acteon virgatus"

Genus "Pupa" Röding, 1798The slugs of the genus Pupa have a large headshield with a deep median slit, separating it into two posteriorly projecting lobes.
* "Pupa affinis" Adams, 1854
** Distribution : South Africa, Red Sea, Indo-Pacific
** Length : 11-20 mm
** Description : cream-colored shell with horizontal spiraled patterns (dark brown, light brown or greenish) without dark borders; sharp apex
* "Pupa alveola" Souverbie, 1863
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Pupa choshiensis" T. Habe, 1958
** Distribution : Japan
* "Pupa cinerea" R. B. Watson, 1886
** Distribution : Japan
* "Pupa clathrata" Yokoyama, 1922
** Distribution : Japan
* "Pupa coccinata" L. A. Reeve, 1842 (considered by some to be a color form of "Pupa strigosa")
** Distribution : Japan, tropical Indo-West Pacific
** Length : 25 mm
** Description : headshield flaps cover the opening of the mantle cavity; white-colored with many orange-red spots in spiraling bands
* "Pupa davisi" Kilburn, 1975
** Distribution: South Africa
** Length : 12.5 mm
** Description : cream-colored shell with sharp apex.
* "Pupa fumata" Gould, 1859 Brown Pupa
** Distribution : tropical, Western Australia, Indo-Pacific
** Length : 20 mm
** Description : shell with spiral ribs; patterns of brown or gray spots on a cream-colored background; whorls separated by a white narrow band.
* "Pupa kirki" Hutton, 1873
** Distribution : New-Zealand
** Length : 15 mm
** Description : smooth cream-colored to lightpink shell with numerous horizontal spiral bands; columella has brownish to reddish color.
* "Pupa niecaensis" K. H. Barnard, 1963
** Distribution : South Africa
* "Pupa nitulida" Lamarck, 1818 Smooth pink pupa
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific, Philippines, New Caledonia, South Africa
** Length : 10-18 mm
** Description : shell has a smooth creamy to pink color; sharp apex.
* "Pupa nivea" Angas, 1871
** Distribution : West Australia
** Length : 14 mm
** Description : slender, elongate shell with sharp apex; white colored with numerous fine spiral grooves.
* "Pupa pudica" Adams, 1854
** Distribution : Hawaii
** Length : 7 mm
** Description : pink-colored elongate shell, with spiral bands of lightbrown patterns.
* "Pupa solidula" Linnaeus, 1758 Solid pupa
** Distribution : cosmopolitan, Indo-Pacific
** Length : 15-35 mm
** Description: shell with a white background, covered with horizontally spiraling bands of dark brown to light brown patterns; sharp apex.
* "Pupa solidula" fumata (= Pupa fumata) Reeve, 1865 Brown pupa
** Distribution : Philippines, Thailand
** Length : 6 mm
* "Pupa strigosa" Gould, 1859
** Distribution : Indo-West Pacific, Japan, Taiwan, South China Sea
** Length : 13 mm
** Description : intertidal to 100 m in sand; white-colored with many black spiral grooves.
* "Pupa strigosa sekii" Habe, 1958
** Distribution : Japan
* "Pupa sulcata" Gmelin, 1791 Furrowed pupa
** Distribution : cosmopolitan, tropical Indo-Pacific, Japan
** Length : 10-25 mm
** Description : intertidal and up to depths of 30 m, burrowing in the sand; lightbrown shell with horizontal darker bands, where the darkest parts form a vertical band; sharp apex
* "Pupa suturalis" A. Adams, 1855
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific
* "Pupa tessellata" L. A. Reeve, 1842
** Distribution : Indo-Pacific

Genus "Rictaxis" Dall, 1871The genus name is derived from Larin words, meaning “open mouth” and “axis”, referring to the columella.
* "Rictaxis albus" Sowerby, 1873
** Distribution : South Africa
** Length : 10-21 mm
** Description white shell with numerous spiraling white to lightbrown grooves
* "Rictaxis painei" Dall, 1903
** Distribution : America
* "Rictaxis punctocaelatus" Carpenter, 1864 Barrel shell; Carpenter's baby bubble
** Distribution : Southern Alaska, British Columbia, California
** Length : 10-20 mm
** Description : found in sand from lowtide line to depths up to 50 m; evenly elleptical shell with alternating darker brown and grayish-brown bands; outer lip and columellar folds are whitish; large spire; ovate columella strongly twisted, with a pointed posterior notch and a rounded base.
* "Rictaxis punctostriatus" (C. B. Adams, 1840) Adam’s baby bubble, pitted baby bubble
** Distribution : Western Atlantic, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Mexico, Caribbean, Venezuela.
** Length :3- 7.5 mm
** Description : found in mud or sand at lowtide line to depths of up to 100 m; ovate white shell with shouldered whorls; body whorl has 10-14 slightly irregular spiral grooves; twisted columella; aperture ovate, rounded above and below; eggs in a spiral string, enclosed in a mucous tube.

Genus "Tenuiacteon"
* "Tenuiacteon ambiguus" Hutton, 1885

Genus "Tomlinula" Strand, 1932
* "Tomlinula turrita" Watson, 1886


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