- Battle of Sipe-Sipe
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Sipe-Sipe
Argentine War of Independence
November 28, 1815
result= Spanish victory
United Provinces of South America
Joaquín de la Pezuela
strength1=3,000 to 3,500 9 artillery pieces
strength2=5,100 23 artillery pieces
casualties1= 2,000 killed, wounded or captured, 9 artillery pieces destroyed or captured
The Battle of Sipe-Sipe was an important battle in the
South American wars of independencein which the United Provinces of Río de la Plata(the insurgents in the old Spanish viceroyalty of the same name) were decisively defeated by Spanish royalist forces in Alto Perú (now Bolivia). The battle took place on November 29, 1815, and resulted in the loss of Alto Perú by the insurgents. The area was reannexed by the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.
The insurgent Army of the North had been under the command of
José de San Martín, but for health reasons he asked to be relieved. He was replaced by José Rondeau. At the time of the third campaign by the insurgents in Alto Perú (the first two had been defeats), General Carlos María de Alvearwas named by Supreme Director Ignacio Álvarez Thomasto replace Rondeau. However Rondeau's officers revolted, and communicated to him that they would obey only his orders. Rondeau, now in revolt himself, accepted the officers' proposal and ordered the attack.
Martín Miguel de Güemes, a rival of Rondeau, withdrew the support of his Gauchosand retired to Salta, taking with him the part of the army that was in Jujuy.
In his march to
Cochabamba, Rondeau camped in the pampas of Sipe-Sipe, near the city of the same name. There on November 28, 1815his forces were met by the Royalist forces from Peru under Brigadier Joaquín de la Pezuela. Rondeau had 3,000 to 3,500 men and nine pieces of artillery; Pezuela commanded 5,100 men and 23 artillery pieces.
The result of the battle the next day was the most serious defeat of the insurgent army since the
Battle of Huaquiin 1811. The insurgents' losses were estimated at 2,000 men and all of their artillery. With this defeat, the province of Alto Perú was finally lost to the Argentine insurgents. Spanish control was reestablished, and in South America only Buenos Aires remained in rebellion.
For his success, in 1816 Pezuela was named interim viceroy of Peru by royal order dated
October 15, 1815. The following year he was also promoted to lieutenant general and given the title "Marquis of Viluma". Rondeau was removed from his command in 1816 and he returned to Buenos Aires.
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