- Haplogroup C3 (Y-DNA)
human genetics, Haplogroup C3 (M217, P44) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup mainly found in indigenous Mongolians. Haplogroup C3 is the most widespread and frequently occurring branch of the greater Haplogroup C (M130). One particular haplotypewithin Haplogroup C3 has received a great deal of attention for the possibility that it may represent direct patrilineal descent from Genghis Khan.
Haplogroup C3 is believed to have originated approximately 20,000 years before present in eastern or central Asia. Its closest phylogenetic relatives are found in the general vicinity of South Asia, East Asia, or Oceania. First, Haplogroup C1 has a
relictualdistribution in Japan, which suggests an origin in the Jōmonpeople of the prehistoric Japanese Archipelago. Second, Haplogroup C2 appears to have expanded throughout East Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesiaafter the hybridization of Austronesiancolonists, ultimately from the Asian mainland, with pre-existing Melanesians. Third, Haplogroup C4 is the predominant male lineage among the indigenous Australians. Finally, Haplogroup C5 is found at an extremely low frequency in South Asia. Haplogroup C* Y-chromosomes, which do not belong to any of the five identified subclades of Haplogroup C, are found at low frequency in Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania.
Haplogroup C3 is the modal haplogroup among Mongolians and most indigenous populations of the
Russian Far East, such as the Northern Tungusicpeoples, Koryaks, and Nivkhs. The subcladeC3b-P39 is quite common among males of the indigenous North American peoples whose languages belong to the Na-Dené phylum. The frequency of Haplogroup C3 tends to be negatively correlated with distance from Mongolia and the Russian Far East, but it still comprises more than ten percent of the total Y-chromosome diversity among the Manchus, Koreans, Ainu, and some Turkic peoplesof Central Asiaalthough in a genetic study in 2004, haplogroup C3 was more frequent among Koreans than previously thought. Among the Kazakhs, who are a Turkic people of Kazakhstan and neighboring areas in northern Central Asia, Haplogroup C3 once again emerges as the most common haplogroup. Beyond this range of high-to-moderate frequency, which contains mainly the northeast quadrant of Eurasia and the northwest quadrant of North America, Haplogroup C3 continues to be found at low frequencies, and it has even been found as far afield as Northwest Europe, Turkey, Pakistan, Vietnam, the Malay Archipelago, and some aboriginal populations of Colombia and Venezuela. The marginally low frequency of Haplogroup C3 among the Japanese, a mere 2% or 3% (which is lower than the frequency among some regional subgroups of Germans), and its complete absence from the closely related Ryūkyūan population, is another indication of the rather extreme genetic isolation that has shaped the population of the Japanese Archipelago, as Haplogroup C3 is the most frequently occurring haplogroup among the indigenous populations of the neighboring Northeast Asian mainland. Within Japan, haplogroup C3 has been found almost exclusively among Ainus (2/16 = 12.5% or 1/4 = 25%) and among Japanese of the Kyushu region(4/53 = 7.5%).
The extremely broad distribution of Haplogroup C3 Y-chromosomes, coupled with the fact that the ancestral paragroup C* is not found among any of the modern Northeast Asian, Siberian, or North American populations among whom Haplogroup C3 predominates, makes the determination of the geographical origin of the defining M217 mutation exceedingly difficult. The presence of Haplogroup C3 at a low frequency but relatively high diversity throughout
East Asiaand parts of Southeast Asiamakes that region one likely source, but it is troubling that the STR profiles of Haplogroup C3 Y-chromosomes suggest that the entire clade has derived from an ancestral Y-chromosome that was more closely related to the Haplogroup C* chromosomes found among modern South Asians than to the Haplogroup C* chromosomes found among the Vietnamese and other Southeast Asians, which for their part appear to be more closely related to the Haplogroup C elements (both C* and C2) found among Melanesian and Austronesian populations. In addition, the C3 haplotypes found among North Eurasian populations appear to belong to a different genealogical branch from the C3 haplotypes found at a low frequency among East and Southeast Asians, which suggests that the marginal presence of C3 among modern East and Southeast Asian populations is not due to recent admixture from Northeast or Central Asia. [ [http://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/zdownload/papers/CurrentBiology.pdf Gene Flow from the Indian Subcontinent to Australia: Evidence from the Y Chromosome] , Alan J. Redd, June Roberts-Thomson "et al"., "Current Biology", 12: 673-677 (April 2002)]
The subclades of Haplogroup C3 with their defining mutation(s), according to the [http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpC08.html 2008 ISOGG tree] :
*C3 (M217, P44, PK2)
**C3* "Typical of
Buryats, Mongolians, Daurs, Kalmyks, Manchus, Sibes, Oroqens, Koryaks, and Itelmens; also found with significant frequency among other Tungusic peoples, Koreans, Ainus, Nivkhs, Altaians, Tuvinians, Uzbeks, and Han Chinese"Michael F. Hammer, Tatiana M. Karafet, Hwayong Park, Keiichi Omoto, Shinji Harihara, Mark Stoneking and Satoshi Horai, "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes," "Journal of Human Genetics", Volume 51, Number 1 / January, 2006.] Yali Xue, Tatiana Zerjal, Weidong Bao, Suling Zhu, Qunfang Shu, Jiujin Xu, Ruofu Du, Songbin Fu, Pu Li, Matthew Hurles, Huanming Yang and Chris Tyler-Smith, "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times," "Genetics" 172: 2431–2439 (April 2006).] Atsushi Tajima, Masanori Hayami, Katsushi Tokunaga, Takeo Juji, Masafumi Matsuo, Sangkot Marzuki, Keiichi Omoto and Satoshi Horai, "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages," "Journal of Human Genetics", Volume 49, Number 4 / April, 2004.] R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America", 2001 August 28; 98(18): 10244–10249.] Ivan Nasidze, Dominique Quinque, Isabelle Dupanloup, Richard Cordaux, Lyudmila Kokshunova, and Mark Stoneking, "Genetic Evidence for the Mongolian Ancestry of Kalmyks," "American Journal of Physical Anthropology" 126:000–000 (2005).]
**C3a (M93) "Observed sporadically among Japanese"Sanghamitra Sengupta, Lev A. Zhivotovsky, Roy King, S.Q. Mehdi, Christopher A. Edmonds, Cheryl-Emiliane T. Chow, Alice A. Lin, Mitashree Mitra, Samir K. Sil, A. Ramesh, M.V. Usha Rani, Chitra M. Thakur, L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Partha P. Majumder, and Peter A. Underhill, "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists," "The American Journal of Human Genetics", Volume 78, Issue 2, 202-221, 1 February 2006.]
**C3b (P39) "Typical of the Na-Dené peoples of North America"
**C3c (M48, M77, M86) "Typical of
Northern Tungusicpeoples, Kazakhs, Oirats, Kalmyks, Outer Mongolians, Yukaghirs, Nivkhs, Koryaks, and Itelmens, with a moderate distribution among Southern Tungusicpeoples, Inner Mongolians, Buryats, Tuvinians, Yakuts, Chukchi, Kyrgyz, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, and TajiksJeffrey T. Lell, Rem I. Sukernik, Yelena B. Starikovskaya, Bing Su, Li Jin, Theodore G. Schurr, Peter A. Underhill and Douglas C. Wallace, "The Dual Origin and Siberian Affinities of Native American Y Chromosomes," "The American Journal of Human Genetics", Volume 70, Issue 1, 192-206, 1 January 2002.] Brigitte Pakendorf, Innokentij Novgorodov, Vladimir Osakovskij, Albina Danilova, Artur Protodjakonov, and Mark Stoneking, "Investigating the effects of prehistoric migrations in Siberia: genetic variation and the origins of Yakuts," "Human Genetics", Volume 120, Number 3, October 2006, pp. 334-353(20).] V. N. Kharkov, V. A. Stepanov, O. F. Medvedeva, M. G. Spiridonova, N. R. Maksimova, A. N. Nogovitsina, and V. P. Puzyrev, "The origin of Yakuts: Analysis of the Y-chromosome haplotypes," "Molecular Biology", Volume 42, Number 2 / April, 2008.]
**C3d (M407) "Observed sporadically among
Yakutsand Han Chinese"
Notes and references
[https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=my057 Spread of Haplogroup C3] , from
The Genographic Project, " National Geographic"
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