Judah Messer Leon (1166)

Judah Messer Leon (1166)

Judah ben Isaac Messer Leon (1166 – 1224) was a French tosafist born in Paris. According to Gross he was probably a descendant of Rashi, and a pupil of Isaac ben Samuel of Dampierre and his son Elhanan. He married a daughter of Abraham ben Joseph of Orleans, who has been identified by Jacobs ("Jews of Angevin England", p. 409) with Abraham fil Rabbi Joce, chief Jew in London in 1186. In a list of that year associated with Abraham occurs the name of Leo Blund, whom Jacobs identifies with Judah ben Isaac (ib. p. 88; comp. Bacher, in "J.Q.R." vi.360).

Sir Leon must have left Paris in 1182, when all Jews were expelled from the French king's dominions; he did not return till 1198. According to Gross, however, he received his chief training at Dampierre under Simson of Sens, Simson of Coucy, Solomon of Dreux, and Abraham b. Nathan of Lunel. Shortly after 1198 he returned to Paris and founded an important school of tosafists, in which were trained, among others, Jehiel ben Joseph (Sir Leon's successor), Isaac ben Moses of Vienna (author of "Or Zarua"), Samuel ben Solomon (Sir Morel of Falaise), and Moses of Coucy.

He appears to have composed "tosafot" to most of the tractates of the Talmud, traces being found of his annotations to twenty tractates. The only collection that has been published are his additamenta to "Berakot," published at Warsaw in 1863. A long fragment of his "tosafot" to "Abodah Zarah" is still extant in a manuscript that formerly belonged to Luzzatto and Halberstam ("R.E.J." vii.55) and that is now in the possession of Jews' College, London. A few of his "responsa" are also found, chiefly in various additions to the Mordecai, while reference is also found to his commentary on the Pentateuch, in which he appears to have followed the method of Rashbam.

Judah wrote several poems — an Aramaic description of the Decalogue (Zunz, "Ritus", p. 198), a "pizmon" (idem, "Literaturgesch". p. 329), and a "piyyut" (Landshuth, "Ammude ha-'Abodah", i.68). He is not, however, to be identified with the mystical Judah Ḥasid, to whom are attributed the "Sefer ha-Ḥasidim" and an ethical will. Among the writers whom Judah quotes may be mentioned Amram Gaon, Sherira Gaon, Hai Gaon, and Nissim Gaon, Alfasi, Maimonides, Elijah ben Menahem, Gershom ben Judah, Jacob of Orleans, Jacob of Corbeil, Joseph Kara, Joseph Bekor Shor, Yom-Tov of Joigny, and Rashi.

He died in Paris in 1224 (Solomon Luria, "Responsa," No. 29).

See also



*Henri Gross, in Berliner's "Magazin," iv.173-210;
*idem, "Gallia Judaica", pp. 519-524;
*Joseph Jacobs, "Jews of Angevin England", pp. 406-416.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Judah Messer Leon — Not to be confused with Judah ben Isaac Messer Leon of Paris (1166–1224). Judah ben Jehiel Rofe, (c. 1420 1425–c. 1498), more usually called Judah Messer Leon, was an Italian rabbi, teacher, physician, and philosopher. Through his works,… …   Wikipedia

  • Messer — may refer to: MESSER, the band from Dallas, Texas Danny Messer, a fictional character on the television series CSI: NY Großes Messer, a type of German single edged weapon Messer, Oklahoma, United States Messer (book), a poetry book by Till… …   Wikipedia

  • 1166 in poetry — yearbox2 in?=in poetry in2?=in literature cp=11th century c=12th century cf=13th century yp1=1163 yp2=1164 yp3=1165 year=1166 ya1=1167 ya2=1168 ya3=1169 dp3=1130s dp2=1140s dp1=1150s d=1160s da=0 dn1=1170s dn2=1180s dn3=1190s|Births* Judah Messer …   Wikipedia

  • List of World War II topics (J) — # J XX # J Malan Heslop # J. Aird Nesbitt # J. Allen Frear, Jr. # J. B. Stoner # J. Braid # J. C. Gilbert # J. Caleb Boggs # J. Carson Mark # J. D. Salinger # J. D. Tippit # J. Douglas Blackwood # J. F. Lehmann # J. Fraser McLuskey # J. Henry… …   Wikipedia

  • Rachi —  ne doit pas être confondu avec le Rachbi Rachi Portrait de Rachi, Lyon, 1539 Présentation Nom de naissance …   Wikipédia en Français