- Beechcraft King Air
"This article is about 90 and 100 Series King Airs. For 200 and 300 Series King Airs, see the
Beechcraft Super King Airarticle." Infobox Aircraft
name= King Air
type= Civil utility aircraft
caption= C-GSYN, Adlair Aviation Ltd.'s King Air 100
first flight= May 1963
introduced= September 9, 1964
status= Active service
primary user =
United States Navy
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia
number built= 3,100+
unit cost = King Air C90GTi $3.4 million
developed from =
Beechcraft Queen Air
variants with their own articles=
Beechcraft Super King Air
The Beechcraft King Air family is part of a line of twin-
turboprop aircraftproduced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation (now Beechcraft Division of Hawker Beechcraft). The King Air line comprises a number of models that have been divided into two families; the Model 90 and 100 series are known as King Airs, while the Model 200 and 300 series were originally marketed as Super King Airs, with "Super" being dropped by Beechcraft in 1996 (although it is still often used to differentiate the 200 and 300 series King Airs from their smaller stablemates). As of August 2008, the only small King Air in production is the conventional-tail C90GTi.
The King Air was the first aircraft in its class and has been in continuous production since 1964. It has outsold all of its turboprop competitors combined and is the only small twin-turboprop business aircraft in production. It now faces competition from jet aircraft such as the
Beechcraft Premier Iand Cessna Citation Mustang.
Model 90 series
The Model 90 King Air was conceived as the Model 120 in 1961. In May 1963, Beechcraft began test flights of the proof-of-concept Model 87, a modified Queen Air with
Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-6 engines. On July 14, Beech announced a new type, and a month later began accepting orders for the "King Air", with deliveries to commence in Autumn 1964. [ [http://www.wingsoverkansas.com/legacy/article.asp?id=346 Beech King Air timeline] retrieved 2008- 08-07.] After 10 months of test flying, in 1964 the Model 87 was delivered to the United States Armyas the NU-8F. On January 24, the first definitive prototype, by now designated Model 65-90 and also fitted with PT6A-6 engines, flew for the first time. The first production aircraft was delivered on October 8, and by the end of the month ,152 aircraft had been ordered; [Green, William. "Beech 65-90 King Air", "The Observer's Book of Aircraft", 1965 Edition. Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd., London. No ISBN, Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 57-4425.] by year's end, seven had been built.
In 1966, after 112 65-90s were completed, production switched to the Model 65-A90 with PT6A-20 engines. As a measure of the type's popularity, 206 65-A90s were built in less than two years when production switched to the Model B90, the first of these rolling off the production line in 1968. Military versions built during these years included the 65-A90-1, 65-A90-2, 65-A90-3, and 65-A90-4, all being unpressurised models based on the Model 87. These were produced for the US Army which designated them U-21s of various sub-models; many were fitted out for electronic battlefield surveillance. A total of 162 of these were built between 1967 and 1971.
A total of 184 B90 models were produced before the Model C90 was introduced in 1971, with wingspan increased over earlier models by 4 ft 11 in to 50 ft 3 in (15.32 m), Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) increased by 350 lb to 9,650 lb (4,378 kg), and PT6A-20A engines. The broadly similar Model E90 was introduced the following year, with PT6A-28 engines; the two were produced in parallel. Further refinement of the 90 series resulted in the Model F90 and follow-on Model F90-1. The F-models featured the T-tail of the Model 200 King Air mated to the fuselage and wings of the E90, with PT6A-135 engines of 750 shp (560 kW) driving four-bladed propellers. The F90 prototype flew on
January 16 1978and 203 production versions followed between 1979 and 1983, when the F90 was superseded by the F90-1. The F90 prototype was re-engined with Garrett AiResearch TPE-331engines to test the feasibility of a Model G90, but this model was not put into production.
The Model C90-1 entered production in 1982 after 507 C90s and 347 E90s had been built, and featured PT6A-21 engines and improvements to the pressurisation system. 54 were built. [R.W.Simpson, "Airlife's General Aviation", Airlife Publishing, England, 1991, ISBN 1 85310 104 X, pp 47] The following year the F90-1 was put into production with redesigned engine cowlings, upgraded PT6A-135A engines, hydraulic landing gear, and triple-fed electrical bus; only 33 were built by the time production terminated in 1985. The C90-1 was soon followed by the Model C90A, which featured the redesigned engine cowlings of the F90-1. The C90A received an increase in MTOW in 1987, being certified to 10,100 lb (4,580 kg). The C90A model was in production until 1992, by which time 235 had been built, all but 74 with the increased MTOW.
Only two C90As were built in 1992, the Model C90B followed that year with airframe improvements, four-bladed propellers, and propeller synchrophasing, [A system fitted to many twin-engined propeller-driven aircraft, it matches propeller revolutions-per-minute and also "phases" the position of the blades of each propeller relative to the other, so the cabin noise is more even.] all in an effort to reduce cabin noise. This model also had PT6A-21s; the first production C90B was fitted with the 10,000th PT6 engine delivered to Beechcraft. In 1994 a cheaper version was introduced as the C90SE (Special Edition), with standardised interior and avionics. A total of 456 C90Bs and C90SEs were delivered by the time production of these models ended in late 2005.
In July 2005, during the
Oshkosh Airshow, Beechcraft introduced the C90GT. The C90GT was fitted with 750 shp PT6A-135As, flat ratedto the same 550 shp as the earlier King Airs. This engine change increased performance due to lower operating temperatures, improving both cruise speed and climb rate. With a 275 kt (509 km/h, 316 mph) cruise speed, the C90GT was highly competitive with the new generation of Very Light Jets over short to medium distances, while providing a larger and more luxurious cabin. C90GT deliveries commenced at the beginning of 2006. On May 21, 2007, during the 7th Annual European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition in Geneva, Beechcraft announced the Model C90GTi updated version of the C90GT [ [http://www.hawkerbeechcraft.com/include/content_view.aspx?id=7896 Hawker Beechcraft Press Release] retrieved 2007- 09-20.] , featuring the Rockwell CollinsProline 21 avionicspackage previously only offered for the B200 and B300 King Airs. Deliveries commenced in 2008 after 97 C90GTs were delilvered to customers over the previous two years. [http://www.hawkerbeechcraft.com/service_support/pubs/docs/nontechnical/serializationList.pdf Hawker Beechcraft aircraft Serial Number Lists 1945-2008] retrieved 2008- 08-06.]
Model 100 series
The Model 100 is a stretched derivative of the Model 90 featuring five cabin windows instead of the Model 90's three; MTOW increased by 1,300 lb (590 kg) over the 90, to 10,600 lb (4,810 kg). The 100 used the wings, tail, and engines (two PT6A-28 engines rated at 620 shp) from the Model 99 airline, itself a development of the Queen Air (as was the Model 90).
The Model 100 was flown for the first time on
March 17, 1969and unveiled to the public in May. 89 Model 100s were built before it was superseded by the Model A100 in 1972, with a further increase in MTOW to 11,500 lb (5,220 kg), fuel capacity increased by 94 US Gallons (357 litres), and four-bladed propellers. A total of 157 A100s were built by the time production of this model ceased in 1979. The next in the series was the B100, which featured 715 shp Garrett AiResearch TPE-331 engines as an alternative to the Pratt & Whitneys offered on other King Airs, and another increase in MTOW to 11,800 lb (5,350 kg). The B100 was introduced in 1976 and was produced concurrently with the A100 for several years; manufacture ceased in 1983 after 137 were built. The Model 200 Super King Air was developed from the Model 100, with the same fuselage design (with some differences, mainly associated with the different tails) being used for both models. The 200 had different wings and a T-tail and entered service in 1974.
Military King Air versions
The U.S. military has used King Air 90s in various roles, primarily VIP and liaison transport, with designations including the VC-6A, the T-44A Pegasus, and the U-21 Ute. The U-21 Ute used by the US Army was the most common version.
Most U-21s were unpressurized Model 87 derivatives, but there were also five U-21Fs based on the A100 King Air; and three U-21Js, which Beechcraft designated Model A100-1, but were actually the first three production Model 200 Super King Airs (C/Ns BB-3, BB-4 and BB-5, after prototypes C/N BB-1 and BB-2 had been built). The majority of U-21s were delivered as U-21As (102 65-A90-1s), but there were also four RU-21As (65-A90-1s), three RU-21Bs (65-A90-2s), two RU-21Cs (65-A90-3s), 18 RU-21Ds (65-A90-1s), 16 RU-21Es (65-A90-4s), and 17 RU-21Gs (65-A90-1s). The RU-21Es (except one written off) were later converted to U-21Hs and RU-21Hs, with two U-21Hs and an RU-21H being further converted to JU-21Hs. [ [http://home.att.net/~jbaugher/1970.html USAF FY1970 Serial Number list retrieved 3 September 2007.] ] As of August 2008, only the three surviving RU-21As remain in military service. [Information derived from [http://www.laasdata.com/turbos/ctowctry.php?t=Beech%20King%20Air%2090&nnum=8&c= LAASdata online King Air 90 survivors database] accessed
2008- 08-07.] The majority of the U-21 series were retired in the second half of the 1990s and most are now owned by Dynamic Aviation of Bridgewater, Virginia. Some have been modified as spraying aircraft and are used on insect control work. [Information derived from conducting an [http://www.landings.com/evird.acgi$pass*96746814!_h-www.landings.com/_landings/pages/search/search_nnr-serial.html online search of the US civil aircraft register] using "LM-" (the serial number prefix for A90-1 aircraft). Search conducted 2007- 09-09.]
Two VC-6A aircraft were operated by the US military. One was a Model 65-A90 operated by the US Army and serialled 66-15361, [ [http://home.att.net/~jbaugher/1966.html USAF FY1966 Serial Number list] retrieved
2007- 09-03.] the other a B90 operated by the United States Air Forceas Air Force One.
The T-44A Pegasus was a trainer version, designated the Model H90 by Beechcraft, used to train
United States Navyand Air Force pilots to fly multi-engine turboprop aircraft such as the P-3 Orionand the C-130 Hercules. A total of 61 were delivered to the US Navy between 1977 and 1980. In August 2006, the Navy announced, after 29 years of operation, the T-44A fleet would be upgraded with modernized avionics systems, and redesignated T-44Cs. [ [http://pao.navair.navy.mil/press_releases/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.view&Press_release_id=3557&site_id=23 Vendrasco, Stephanie, "Transforming the Pegasus"] ]
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force(JMSDF) has operated a total of 40 C90 and C90A King Airs, with deliveries beginning in 1973. These have been given various designations by the JMSDF and consist of 34 TC-90 trainers, five LC-90 transports and a single UC-90 which is configured for photographic aerial survey. The TC-90s and the UC-90 comprise the 202 Kyoiku Kokutai (Training Squadron) based at Tokushima, while the LC-90s are attached to various Lockheed P-3 "Kokutai" (Squadrons) and a NAMC YS-11"Kokutai" [Japan Maritime Defence Force Order of Battle accessed via [http://www.scramble.nl/jp.htm this webpage] , retrieved 2007- 10-09.] as liaison aircraft. In late 2005 the JMSDF marked 500,000 accident-free flying hours of the TC-90 trainer fleet. [ [http://www.hawkerbeechcraft.com/include/content_view.aspx?id=3243 Hawker Beechcraft Press Release] retrieved 2007- 10-09]
Air Force One
During the administration of President
Lyndon Johnson, the United States Air Forceacquired a Model B90 King Air "off-the-shelf". With the military designation VC-6A, the aircraft, serialled 66-7943, [ A [http://www.uswarplanes.net/commutertypes.html list of civil aircraft types used by the US military] retrieved 2007- 09-03.] was used to transport President Johnson between Bergstrom Air Force Base(near Austin, Texas) and the Johnson family ranch near Johnson City, Texas. When Johnson was aboard, the aircraft used the callsign Air Force One. This aircraft is now on display, with other presidential aircraft, at the National Museum of the United States Air Forceat Wright Patterson Air Force Basenear Dayton, Ohio.
Modification and upgrade programs
Aftermarket modifications and upgrades are available for 90 and 100 Series King Airs. [http://www.commuterair.com/stc.html A non-comprehensive list of STCs available for King Air series aircraft] retrieved
2007- 09-20.] A popular engine upgrade package involves C90, C90A, C90B, and E90 Series aircraft being re-engined with the PT6A-135As of the C90GT. Aircraft with this modification are known as Silverhawk 135s [ [http://www.silverhawk135.com Silverhawk Conversions Home page] retrieved 2008- 02-07.] or Blackhawk XPs. [ [http://www.blackhawk.aero/BlackhawkXP.htm Blackhawk Modifications Inc. Blackhawk XP page] retrieved 2007- 09-20.] A more radical re-engining programme is the Kilo Alpha 290, which involves the replacement of the PT6s in C90 and E90 King Airs with TPE-331s. [ [http://www.kiloalpha.com/about-kilo.html Kilo Alpha web page] retrieved 2007- 10-16.]
Among the numerous airframe modifications available, one company offers a Wing Front Spar Reinforcement Kit for both 90 and 100 Series aircraft, while another offers a modification for the entire King Air line that entails reworking and extending the nose [ [http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgSTC.nsf/0/fdcd09c00de717d38625724b0076632a/$FILE/SA00367SE.pdf FAA STC No. SA00367SE] retrieved
2007- 09-20.] to house a baggage compartment as well as the avionics normally found in the noses of King Air aircraft. Modifications available for the King Air 100 include a belly cargo pod similar to those fitted to the Beech 99 and the Model 1300 version of the King Air 200 series. [ [http://www.commuterair.com/ka100a.html Commuter Air Technology King Air 100 page] retrieved 2007- 09-20.]
* Hellenic Army;GUA;IRQ;MEX;JAM;JPN;MAR;PER;SRI;ESP;USA
United States Air Force
United States Army
United States Navy;VEN;URU
Eight C90A King Airs were operated by
Bombardieron behalf of the Canadian Air Force. These were used as multi-engine trainers and flew with Canadian civil registrations. All entered service in 1992 [ [http://www.odynet.ca/~bwalker/Civil_cdn_1_postwar.html List of civil-registered aircraft of the Canadian Armed Forces] retrieved 2007- 10-09.] and were operated until 2005. That year a new contract was awarded to Allied Wings, a consortium of Kelowna Flightcraft Ltd., Canadian Helicopters Ltd, Canadian Base Operators and Atlantis Systems International, which uses seven civil-registered C90B King Airs [Pugliese, David. [http://www.airtraining.forces.gc.ca/training/fmt/taking_wing_e.asp "Taking Wing"] , retrieved 2007- 10-31.] [ [http://www.tc.gc.ca/aviation/activepages/ccarcs/aspscripts/en/advancedsearch.asp Canadian civil aircraft register] search using "Allied Wings" as the Owner Name search parameter. Search conducted 2007- 10-31.] .
* Government of Province of Ushuaia and Catamarca.;CAN
* Government of Canada
* Government of the Province of
New Brunswick[ [http://www.tc.gc.ca/aviation/activepages/ccarcs/aspscripts/en/quicksearch.asp Canadian civil aircraft register] search using "Province of" as the Owner Name search parameter. Search conducted 2007- 10-31.] ;CHI
*Chile's Civil Aviation Administration (DGAC).;USA
Drug Enforcement Administration
* Governments of the States of
Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Montana, New Mexico, Ohioand Tennessee[ [http://registry.faa.gov/aircraftinquiry/name_inquiry.asp US civil aircraft register] search using "State of" as the Owner Name search parameter. Search conducted 2007- 10-31.]
NASAThe Department of Civil Aviation of Papua New Guineaoperated a C90 King Air for a number of years, but now operates a Model 200 Super King Air.
Kenn Borek Air
Maritime Air Charter
North Cariboo Air
Transportes Aéreos Ejecutivos, TAE;ISR
Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australiapreviously operated a large number of 90 Series King Airs, but retired the last example in 2006, standardising on the King Air 200 Series and the Pilatus PC-12for its fleet requirements. Two of the former RFDS C90 King Airs are now operated by the New Tribes Missionin Papua New Guinea.
A total of more than 3,100 King Air 90 and 100 series aircraft have been delivered as of August 2008: [Unless otherwise noted, all information here is obtained from Production Lists in the book "Beechcraft - Pursuit of Perfection" and the online Production Lists available at [http://www.laasdata.com/turbos/ctowctry.php LAASdata.com] ]
*Model 87:"Proof-of-concept" test aircraft; one built (c/no. LG-1).
*Model 65-90:Prototypes and first production model; 112 built (c/nos. LJ-1 to LJ-113, except LJ-76).
*Model 65-A90:206 built (c/nos. LJ-76, LJ-114 to LJ-317; includes c/no. LJ-178A), one (c/no. LJ-153) to US Army as VC-6A.
*Model 65-A90-1:Based on the Model 87; 141 built and delivered to the US Army (c/nos. LM-1 to LM-141).
*Model 65-A90-2:Based on the Model 87; three built and delivered to the US Army (c/nos. LS-1 to LS-3).
*Model 65-A90-3:Based on the Model 87; two built and delivered to the US Army (c/nos. LT-1 and LT-2).
*Model 65-A90-4:Based on the Model 87; 16 built and delivered to the US Army (c/nos. LU-1 to LU-16).
*Model B90:Third civil model; 184 built (c/nos. LJ-318 to LJ-501), one (c/no. LJ-320) to USAF as VC-6A.
*Model C90:507 built (c/nos. LJ-502 to LJ-1010, except LJ-986 and LJ-996).
*Model C90-1:54 built (c/nos. LJ-986 and LJ-996, LJ-1011 to LJ-1062).
**C90A - initial production run between 1984 and 1992 of 235 aircraft (c/nos. LJ-1063 to LJ-1299, except LJ-1288 and LJ-1295).
**C90B and C90SE - marketing names for updated versions of C90A produced between 1992 and 2005, 456 built [Due to disagreement between available online sources, it is impossible to determine the number of each sub-type built.] (c/nos. LJ-1288 and LJ-1295, LJ-1300 to LJ-1755, except LJ-1727 and LJ-1754).
*Model C90GT:Version with flat-rated PT6A-135 engines; 97 built (c/nos. LJ-1727, LJ-1754, LJ-1756 thru LJ-1768, LJ-1770 thru LJ-1846, LJ-1848 thru LJ-1852).
*Model C90GTi:Current production version (as of August 2008), variant of C90GT with Proline 21 avionics suite; at least 78 built [The last King Air C90GTi built as of August 2008 is shown in the available online sources ( [http://www.laasdata.com/turbos/ctowctry.php?t=Beech%20King%20Air%2090&nnum=8&c= LAASdata King Air 90 list] and various nations' online civil aircraft Registers) as c/no. LJ-1928, however there are gaps for registered King Airs, with some above c/no. LJ-1900 not listed.] (c/nos. LJ-1769, LJ-1847, LJ-1853 & after).
*Model E90:Manufactured concurrently with the C90; 347 built (c/nos. LW-1 to LW-347).
*Model F90:Prototype and production model with T-tail of the Super King Air; 203 built (c/nos. LA-1 to LA-204, except LA-202).
*Model F90-1:Follow-on from F90; 33 built (c/nos. LA-202, LA-205 to LA-236).
*Model G90:F90 prototype re-engined with Garrett TPE-331s in place of the Pratt & Whitney PT6s originally fitted, c/no. LA-1/LE-0.
*Model H90:Version manufactured for the US Navy; 61 built (c/nos. LL-1 to LL-61).
*Model 100:Prototype and first production "long fuselage" King Air version; 90 built (c/nos B-1 to B-89 and B-93).
*Model A100:157 built (c/nos B-90 to B-247, except B-93), prototype Model 100 c/no. B-1 also converted to A100 model in 1976, three years after introduction of A100 model. Five (c/nos. B-95 to B-99) to US Army as U-21Fs.
*Model B100:Prototype (converted from A100 c/no. B-205) plus production model, all with Garrett TPE-331 engines instead of Pratt & Whitney PT6s fitted to previous models; 137 built (c/nos BE-1/B-205, BE-2 to BE-137).
*Model A100-1:Beechcraft designation for first three production Model 200 Super King Airs delivered to the US Army (c/nos. BB-3 to BB-5).
ICAOdesignator, such as might be used in a PIREPor a flight plan, for the various King Airs are BE90 (various model 90s), and BE10 (model 100).With the exception of the F90 and F90-1, all 90 Series King Airs have been produced under the same Type Certificate (Number 3A20) used for Queen Air production. All 100 Series King Airs were produced under the same Type Certificate (Number A14CE) used for Model 99 production. [ [http://rgl.faa.gov/regulatory_and_guidance_Library/rgMakeModel.nsf/0/c0a846816b9bfac386257385005c5f33/$FILE/A14ce.pdf Model 99 and King Air 100 series Type Certificate Data Sheet] retrieved 2008- 01-21.]
King Air C90GTi
"Specifications obtained from the FAA Type Certificate and the Hawker Beechcraft website" [http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgMakeModel.nsf/0/8c3d574efe5ea4a58625733a006a4a8b/$FILE/3a20.pdf Queen Air and King Air 90 series Type Certificate Data Sheet] retrieved
2007- 09-20.] [ [http://www.hawkerbeechcraft.com/beechcraft/aircraft/turboprops/kac90gti/specifications.aspx Hawker Beechcraft C90GTi Specifications] retrieved 2008- 08-07.]
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
capacity= 7 passengers maximum, depending on cabin configuration
length main= 35 ft 6 in
length alt= 10.82 m
span main= 50 ft 3 in
span alt= 15.32 m
height main= 14 ft 3 in
height alt= 4.34 m
area main= 294 ft²
area alt= 27 m²
empty weight main= 6,950 lb
empty weight alt= 3,150 kg
max takeoff weight main= 10,100 lb
max takeoff weight alt= 4,580 kg
Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-135A
type of prop=
turboprops, driving HartzellHC-E4N-3N propellers
number of props= 2
power main= 550 shp
power alt=410 kW
max speed main= 260 mph Indicated Air Speed (IAS)
max speed alt= 226 kts IAS, 416 km/h IAS
cruise speed main= 311 mph True Air Speed (TAS)
cruise speed alt= 270 knots TAS, 500 km/h TAS
stall speed main= 90 mph
stall speed alt= 78 knots, 145 km/h
stall speed more= IAS (flaps down)
range main= 1,530 miles
range alt= 1,321 nm, 2,446 km
ceiling main= 30,000ft
ceiling alt= 9,144 m
climb rate main= 2,003 ft/min
climb rate alt= 10.2 m/s
loading main= 34.3 lb/ft²
loading alt= 170 kg/m²
power/mass main= 0.099 hp/lb
power/mass alt= 179 W/kg
King Air B100
"Specifications obtained from "The International Directory of Civil Aircraft", 1997/98 Edition" [Frawley, Gerald. "The International Directory of Civil Aircraft", 1997/98 Edition. Aerospace Publications Pty. Ltd. Canberra ACT, 1997. ISBN 1 875671 26 9] .
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
capacity= 13 passengers maximum, depending on cabin configuration
length main= 39 ft 11 in
length alt= 12.17 m
span main= 45 ft 11 in
span alt= 14.0 m
height main= 15 ft 5 in
height alt= 4.7 m
area main= 279.7 ft²
area alt= 26.0 m²
empty weight main= 7,092 lb
empty weight alt= 3,212 kg
max takeoff weight main= 11,800 lb
max takeoff weight alt= 5,352 kg
engine (prop)= Garrett TPE-331-6-251B or -252
type of prop=
turboprops, driving 3-bladed propellers
number of props= 2
power main= 840 shp, flat-rated to 715 shp
power alt=533 kW
max speed main= 307 mph Indicated Air Speed (IAS)
max speed alt= 265 kts IAS, 491 km/h IAS
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
stall speed more= IAS (flaps down)
range main= 1,525 mi
range alt= 1,325 nm, 2,455 km
ceiling main= 24,850 ft
ceiling alt= 7,574 m
climb rate main= 2,140 ft/min
climb rate alt= 10.87 m/s
loading main= 42.2 lb/ft²
loading alt= 205.84 kg/m²
power/mass main= 0.121 hp/lb
power/mass alt= 199.17 W/kg
Beechcraft Queen Air
Beechcraft Super King Air
Beechcraft Model 99
Piper PA-31T Cheyenne
Embraer EMB 121 Xingu
* Phillips, Edward H. "Beechcraft - Pursuit of Perfection, A History of Beechcraft Airplanes". Flying Books, Eagan, Minnesota 1992. ISBN 0-911139-11-7
* Taylor, M. J. H. ed. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation" Studio Editions Ltd. ISBN 1 85170 324 1
* [http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/aero/aircraft/beech_kingair.htm Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - Beechcraft King Air 65-90]
* [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=571 National Museum of the US Air Force - Beechcraft VC-6A]
* [http://www.raytheonaircraft.com/beechcraft/aircraft/turboprops/kac90gti/ Beechcraft King Air website]
* [http://www.wingsoverkansas.com/history/article.asp?id=346 Beech King Air timeline from Wings of Kansas]
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