- Solid-state drive
A solid-state drive (SSD) is a
data storage devicethat uses solid-state memory to store persistent data. Unlike flash-based memory cards and USB flash drives, an SSD emulates a hard disk driveinterface, thus easily replacing it in most applications. An SSD using SRAM or DRAM(instead of flash memory) is often called a RAM-drive.
The original usage of the term "solid-state" (from
solid-state physics) refers to the use of semiconductor devices rather than electron tubes, but has in this context been adopted to distinguish solid-state electronics from electromechanicaldevices as well. With no moving parts, solid-state drives are inherently less fragile than hard disks and therefore also silent (unless a cooling fan is used); as there are no mechanical delays, they usually enjoy low access timeand latency.
The first ferrite memory SSD devices, or auxiliary memory units as they were called at the time, emerged during the era of vacuum tube computers.Fact|date=August 2008 But with the introduction of cheaper drum storage units, their use was discontinued. Later, in the 1970s and 1980s, SSDs were implemented in semiconductor memory for early supercomputers of IBM, Amdahl and Cray [ [http://web.utk.edu/~mnewman/ibmguide03.html] ] ; however, the prohibitively high price of the built-to-order SSDs made them quite seldom used product.
StorageTekdeveloped the first modern type of solid-state drive. In the mid-1980s Santa Clara Systems introduced BatRam, an array of 1 megabit DIP RAM Chips and a custom controller card that emulated a hard disk. The package included a rechargeable battery to preserve the memory chip contents when the array was not powered. The Sharp PC-5000, introduced in 1983, used 128 kilobyte (128 KiB) solid-state storage cartridges, containing bubble memory.
RAM "disks" were popular as boot media in the 1980s when hard drives were expensive, floppy drives were slow, and a few systems, such as the
Amigaseries, the Apple IIgs, and later the Macintosh Portable, supported such booting. At the cost of some main memory, the system could be soft-rebooted and be back in the operating system in mere seconds instead of minutes. Some systems were battery-backed so contents could persist when the system was shut down.
M-Systemsintroduced flash-based solid-state drives. ( SanDiskacquired M-Systems in November 2006). Since then, SSDs have been used successfully as hard disk drive replacements by the military and aerospace industries, as well as other mission-critical applications. These applications require the exceptional mean time between failures(MTBF) rates that solid-state drives achieve, by virtue of their ability to withstand extreme shock, vibration and temperature ranges.
In 2007, SSD's of a few gigabytes capacity gained mainstream popularity with
netbookand subnotebooks.Fact|date=October 2008
"Enterprise Flash Drives" (EFDs) are designed for applications requiring high performance ( Input/Output Operations Per Second), reliability and energy efficiency.
Architecture and function
An SSD is commonly composed of either
DRAM volatile memoryor NAND flash non-volatile memory.
Most SSD manufacturers use non-volatile flash memory to create more rugged and compact devices for the consumer market. These flash memory-based SSDs, also known as flash drives, do not require batteries. They are often packaged in standard disk drive form factors (1.8-inch, 2.5-inch, and 3.5-inch). In addition, non-volatility allows flash SSDs to retain memory even during sudden power outages, ensuring data persistence. Up to recentlywhen flash SSDs were significantly slower than DRAM (and even traditional HDDs on big files), but still perform better than traditional hard drives (at least with regard to reads) because of negligible seek time (flash SSDs have no moving parts, and thus eliminate spin-up time, and greatly reduce seek time, latency, and other delays inherent in conventional electro-mechanical disks).
Micron/Intel SSD made faster flash drives by implementing data striping (similar to
RAID0) and interleaving. This allowed creation of ultra-fast SSDs with 250 MB/s read/write - the maximum SATA interface could manage. This makes RAM-based SSDs nearly obsolete.Dubious|date=October 2008
LC versus MLC
Lower priced drives usually use
Multi-level cell(MLC) flash memory, which is slower and somewhat less reliable than Single-level cell(SLC) flash memory. [ [http://www.storagesearch.com/ssd-slc-mlc-notes.html Are MLC SSDs Ever Safe in Enterprise Apps?] ] Still, MLC chips continue to be used in many commericially available SSD's.
SSDs based on volatile memory such as DRAM are characterized by ultra fast data access, generally less than 0.01
milliseconds, and are used primarily to accelerate applications that would otherwise be held back by the latency of Flash SDDs or traditional HDDs. DRAM-based SSDs usually incorporate internal battery and backupstorage systems to ensure data persistence while no power is being supplied to the drive from external sources. If power is lost, the battery provides power while all data is copied from random access memory(RAM) to back-up storage, or to allow the data's transfer to another computer. When the power is restored, the data are copied back to RAM from the back-up storage, and the SSD resumes normal operation. (Similar to the hibernate function used in modern operating systems.)
These types of SSD are usually fitted with the same type of DRAM modules used in regular PC's and servers, allowing them to be swapped out and replaced with larger modules.
A secondary computer with a fast network connection can be used as a RAM-based SSD. [ [http://hardwareforall.com/ww/serverRAMdisk.html RIndMA Disk] ]
DRAM based solid-state drives are especially useful on computers that already have the maximum amount of supported RAM. For example, some computer systems built on the
x86-32architecture can effectively be extended beyond the 4 GB limit by putting the paging file or swap fileon an SSD. Owing to the bandwidth bottleneck of the bus they connect to, DRAM SSDs cannot read and write data as fast as main RAM can, but they are far faster than any mechanical hard drive. Placing the swap/scratch files on a RAM SSD, as opposed to a traditional hard drive, therefore can increase performance significantly.
The Gigabyte i-RAM (or GC-RAMDISK) is the main consumerised DRAM SSD system and uses standard DDR modules and connects to its host via
Serial ATA. This card can use the system's standby power (also used for Wake-on-LAN and similar features) to maintain its RAM contents even with the system powered off, and includes a battery that can retain the data when the system is completely disconnected from power. Early versions were in the form of a PCI card but the PCI interface was only used to supply power to the card. Later versions used the 5.25" drive format.
Comparison with hard disk drives
A comparison (with benchmarks) of SSDs,
Secure DigitalHigh Capacity (SDHC) drives, and hard disk drives (HDDs) is given in the reference. [cite web | url = http://www.notebookreview.com/default.asp?newsID=4258
title = SDHC Cards vs Hard Drive vs SSD
first = Jerry | last = Jackson | date = 2008-02-17 | publisher = NotebookReview.com, TechTarget]
* Faster start-up, as no
spin-upis required. (RAM & Flash)
* Typically, fast
random accessfor reading, as there is no read/write head to move. (RAM & Flash)
* Extremely low read latency times, as SSD seek-times are orders of magnitude lower than the best current hard disk drives. [cite web
title=Solid-state storage finds its niche
first = Alan | last = Radding
publisher = StorageSearch.com | accessdate=2007-12-29 Registration required.] (RAM) In applications where hard disk seeks are the limiting factor, this results in faster boot and application launch times (see
Amdahl's law). (RAM)
* Extremely fast write (RAM only)
* No noise: a lack of moving parts makes SSDs completely silent, unless, as in the case of some high-end and high-capacity models, they have cooling fans attached. (RAM & Flash)
* For low-capacity flash SSDs, low power consumption and heat production when in active use, although
high-endSSDs and DRAM-based SSDs may have significantly higher power requirements. (Flash)
* High mechanical reliability, as the lack of moving parts almost eliminates the risk of mechanical failure. (RAM & Flash)
** Ability to endure extreme shock, high altitude, vibration and extremes of temperature: once again because there are no moving parts. This makes SSDs useful for
laptops, mobile computers, and devices that operate in extreme conditions. (Flash)
* Larger range of operating temperatures. Typical hard drives have an operating range of 5-55 degrees C. Most flash drives can operate at 70 degrees, and some industrial grade drives can operate over an even larger temperature range. [cite web
title=Memoright SSDs: The End of Hard Drives?]
* Relatively deterministic read performance: [http://www.anandtech.com/storage/showdoc.aspx?i=2982&p=4 AnandTech: Super Talent SSD: 16GB of Solid State Goodness ] ] unlike hard disk drives, performance of SSDs is almost constant and deterministic across the entire storage. This is because the
seek timeis almost constant and does not depend on the physical location of the data, and so, file fragmentation has almost no impact on read performance.
* For low-capacity SSDs, lower weight and size: although size and weight per unit storage are still better for traditional hard drives, and microdrives allow up to 20 GB storage in a CompactFlash 42.8×36.4×5 mm (1.7×1.4×.2 in) form-factor. Up to 256 GB, SSDs are currently lighter than hard drives of the same capacity.cite web
url = http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/products/flash/Products_FlashSSD.html
title = SSD vs HDD | publisher = SAMSUNG Semiconductor]
* Price – as of mid-2008, SSD prices are still considerably more costly per gigabyte than are comparable conventional hard drives: consumer grade drives are typically USD 2 to 3.50 per GBcite web|title=Solid-state disk lackluster for laptops, PCs| url=http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&taxonomyName=Storage&articleId=9112065&taxonomyId=19&pageNumber=1| accessdate=2008-09-12| author=Lucas Mearian| date=August 27, 2008] [cite web
title=Seagate plans SSD, 2 TB hard drive for next year
date= 2008-05-30| accessdate=2008-05-30
last = Shah | first = Agam |publisher=Computerworld] for flash drives and over USD 80 per GB for RAM-based compared to less than USD 0.15 per gigabyte for hard drives.
* Capacity – currently far lower than that of conventional hard drives. (Flash SSD capacity is predicted to increase rapidly, with experimental drives of 1 TB) [cite web | url = http://www.taborcommunications.com/dsstar/03/0304/105524.html | title = Imperial Technology Announces One Terabyte SSD | publisher = Imperial Technology Inc ] [cite press release | url = http://www.byteandswitch.com/document.asp?doc_id=129251 | title = SDS Offers 1TB SSD | publisher = Solid Data Systems, Inc. | date = 2007-07-17]
* DRAM based SSDs have a higher vulnerability to abrupt power loss.
* Limited write (erase) cycles – flash-memory cells will often wear out after 1,000 to 10,000 write cycles for MLC, and up to 100,000 write cycles for SLCcite web|title=Solid-state disk lackluster for laptops, PCs| url=http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&taxonomyName=Storage&articleId=9112065&taxonomyId=19&pageNumber=1| accessdate=2008-09-12| author=Lucas Mearian| date=August 27, 2008 | quote = Corporate-grade SSD uses single-level cell (SLC) NAND memory and multiple channels to increase data throughput and wear-leveling software to ensure data is distributed evenly in the drive rather than wearing out one group of cells over another. And, while some consumer-grade SSD is just now beginning to incorporate the latter features. (Page1) It matters whether the SSD drive uses SLC or MLC memory. SLC generally endures up to 100,000 write cycles or writes per cell, while MLC can endure anywhere from 1,000 to 10,000 writes before it begins to fail, [according to Fujitsu's vice president of business development Joel Hagberg.] (page 4) ] , while high endurance cells may have an endurance of 1–5 million write cycles (many log files, file allocation tables, and other commonly used parts of the file system exceed this over the lifetime of a computer). [cite web
url = http://www.storagesearch.com/ssdmyths-endurance.html
title = SSD Myths and Legends - "write endurance"
first = Zsolt | last = Kerekes | publisher = StorageSearch.com] Special file systems or firmware designs can mitigate this problem by spreading writes over the entire device (so-called
wear levelling), rather than rewriting files in place. [cite web
url = http://lwn.net/Articles/234441/
first = Jonathon | last = Corbet | publisher = Linux Weekly News
title = LogFS | date = 2007-05-15 ] In 2008 wear levelling was just beginning to be incorporated into consumer level devices. An example for the lifetime of SSD is explained in detail in [http://wiki.eeeuser.com/ssd_write_limit this wiki] .Dubious|date=August 2008 SSDs based on DRAM, however, do not suffer from this problem.
* Slower write speeds – as
erase blocks on flash-based SSDs generally are quite large (e.g. 0.5 - 1 megabyte), they are far slower than conventional disks for random writes and therefore vulnerable to write fragmentation, [cite web
url = http://www.storagesearch.com/easyco-flashperformance-art.pdf
title = Understanding Flash SSD Performance
first = Douglas | last = Dumitru | publisher = EasyCo LLC | date = 2007-08-16 |format=PDF] and in some cases for sequential writes.cite web
title = SSD, i-RAM and Traditional Hard Disk Drives | date = 2008 -04-23
url = http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/storage/display/ssd-iram.html
first = Aleksey | last = Meyev| work = X-bit labs] SSDs based on DRAM do not suffer from this problem.
* Lower storage density – hard disks can store more data per unit volume than DRAM or flash SSDs, except for very low capacity/small devices.
* Higher power consumption at idle or under low workloads laptop battery runtimes decrease when using an SSD over a 7200 RPM 2.5" laptop hard drive, [cite web
url = http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/ssd-hard-drive,1968.html
first = Patrick | first = Schmid | coauthors = Achim Roos
title= Flash SSD Update: More Results, Answers : An Apology First – And One New SSD To Prove Us Right
| date = 2008-07-14 | accessdate = 2008-07-24 |publisher = Tom's Hardware ] flash drives also take more power per gigabyte.
** RAM based SSD require more power than hard disks, both operating and when turned off. [cite web
url = http://www.tomshardware.com/2007/11/07/hyperdrive_4_redefines_solid_state_storage/
title = HyperDrive 4 Redefines Solid State Storage : HyperDrive 4 - The Fastest Hard Disk In The World?
first = Patrick | last = Schmid | date = 2007-11-07 | publisher = Tom's Hardware]
Cost and capacity
Until recently, solid-state drives were too costly for mobile computing. As flash manufacturers transition from NOR flash to
single-level cell(SLC) NAND flash and most recently to multi-level cell(MLC) NAND flash to maximize silicon die usage and reduce associated costs, "solid-state disks" are now being more accurately renamed "solid-state drives" – they have no disks but function as drives – for mobile computing in the enterprise and consumer electronics space. This technological trend is accompanied by an annual 50% decline in raw flash material costs, while capacities continue to double at the same rate. As a result, flash-based solid-state drives are becoming increasingly popular in markets such as notebook PCs and sub-notebooks for enterprises, Ultra-Mobile PCs (UMPC), and Tablet PCs for the healthcare and consumer electronics sectors. Major PC companies have now started to offer such technology.
Even though solid-state drive (SSD) technology has been marketed to the military and niche industrial markets since the mid-1990s, it is only recently that the enterprise sector has taken notice of the benefits that SSDs can offer, as key SSD technologies emerge, prices drop and new case studies, along with analyst reports, are published.
Along with the emerging enterprise market, SSDs have been appearing in ultra-mobile PCs and a few lightweight laptop systems, adding a
US$$600 to $1000 premium to the price of a HDD-equipped laptop, depending on the capacity, form factor and transfer speeds. Only a handful of companies offer large (128 GBor larger) SSD drives with write speeds adequate for replacing traditional drives, and these drives are available in limited quantities and are very expensive. Already some manufacturers have begun shipping affordable, fast, energy-efficient drives priced at $350 to computer manufacturers. For low-end applications, a USB memory stick may be used as a Flash hard drive for $10 to $100 or so, depending on capacity, or a CompactFlashcard may be paired with a CF-to-IDE or CF-to-SATA converter at a similar cost. Either of these requires that write-cycle endurance issues be managed, either by not storing frequently written files on the drive, or by using a Flash file system. Standard CompactFlash cards usually have write speeds of 7 to 15 megabytes per second while the more expensive upmarket cards claim speeds of up to 40 MB/s.
One of the first mainstream releases of SSD was the XO Laptop built under the '
One Laptop Per Child' project. Mass production of these computers built for children in developing countries begun in December 2007. These machines use 1024 MiB SLC NAND flash as primary storage solution which is considered more suitable for the harsher than normal conditions they are expected to be used in. Dellhas begun shipping ultra-portable laptops with SanDisk SSDs on April 26, 2007.cite web
url = http://www.itpro.co.uk/111350/dell-gets-flash-with-ssd-option-for-laptops
title = Dell Gets Flash With SSD Option for Laptops
first = Simon | last = Aughton | date = 2007-04-25 | publisher = IT PRO]
Asusreleased the Eee PC subnotebookon October 16 2007, and after a successful commercial start in 2007, expects to ship several million PCs in 2008, with 2, 4 or 8 gigabytes of flash memory. [cite news
title=$199 Laptop Is No Child's Play | publisher=
first=Shu-Ching Jean | last=Chen |date=
2007-06-07| accessdate=2007-06-28] On January 31 2008 Apple Inc.released the MacBook Air, a thin laptop with optional 64 GB SSD. The cost is $999 more for this option if configured in the Apple Store, as compared to that of an 80 GB 4200 rpm Hard Disk Drive. [http://www.apple.com/macbookair/specs.html Macbook Air Specifications] ] Another option - Lenovo ThinkPadX300 with a 64Gbyte SSD - was announced by Lenovo in February 2008, [cite press release
url = http://www.lenovo.com/news/us/en/2008/02/x300.html
title = Road Warriors Get Ready – Lenovo Delivers "No Compromises" Ultraportable ThinkPad X300 Notebook PC
publisher = Lenovo | date = 2008-02-26] and is currently available to consumers in some countries.
A use for flash drives is to run lightweight operating systems designed specifically for turning general-purpose PCs into network appliances comparable to more expensive routers and firewalls. In this situation, a write protected flash drive containing the whole operating system is used to boot the system. A similar system could boot from CD, floppy disk or a traditional hard drive but flash memory is a good choice because of very low power consumption and failure rate.
A hybrid disk uses a small SSD as a buffer for a larger drive.
DRAM-based SSDs may also work as a buffer cache mechanism (see
Hybrid RAM drive). When data are written to memory, the corresponding block in memory is marked as dirty, and all dirty blocks can be flushed to the actual hard drive based on the following criteria:
# Time (e.g., every 10 seconds, flush all dirty data);
# Threshold (when the ratio of dirty data to SSD size exceeds some predetermined value, flush the dirty data).
# Loss of power/computer shutdown
Problems with SSDs on Windows
Many Windows users who purchase MLC disks are baffled cn by the slow performance of their flash drive fact. Windows is optimized for hard disk storage, handling data in small chunks (e.g. 0.5KiB); flash drives use larger page sizes (e.g. 4KiB).cite web| title = Samsung, Microsoft in talks to speed up SSDs on Vista | url = http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9111939 | accessdate = 2008-09-22] The factors that reduce the speed include the fact that Windows uses larger files, as well as the fact that Windows' background services constantly access the disk.
Hybrid drive- A hard diskwhich uses a solid-state drive to improve performance.
Memory card- A solid-state electronic data storage deviceused with digital cameras, handheld and laptopcomputers and other portable devices.
PC card- A peripheral interface for laptopcomputers, originally designed for memory expansion.
RAM disk- virtual SSD drive which uses a segment of a computer's main memory as secondary storage.
USB flash drive- Flash-based data storage for mobile computing
Random access memory
Universal Flash Storage
* [http://www.storagesearch.com/ssd.html STORAGEsearch.com] (oldest SSD site)
* [http://www.storagesearch.com/chartingtheriseofssds.html SSD Market History]
* [http://thefutureofthings.com/articles/42/samsungs-solid-state-disk-drive.html Samsung's SSD article interview]
* [http://www.ssdforums.com SSD Discussion Forum]
* [http://www.embeddedstar.com/articles/2004/11/article20041122-1.html SSD: Pushing the Envelope in Blade Server Design]
* [http://news.softpedia.com/news/INDILIX-to-Improve-Upcoming-SSDs-91745.shtml Indilix SSD controller]
* [http://www.jedec.org/Home/press/press_release/JC-6487-17-08.pdf JEDEC Continues SSD Standardization Efforts]
* [http://www.alternativerecursion.info/?p=106 OCZ MLC SSD and modern HDD]
* [http://www.datamarck.com/benchmarks SSDs and HDDs bechmarks]
* [http://www.imation.com/products/pdfs/Imation-SSD-Performance-White-Paper.pdf Imation SSD Performance Whitepaper]
** [http://www.imation.com/products/pdfs/SSD-Reliability-Lifetime-White-Paper.pdf Data Reliability and Lifetime Whitepaper]
* [http://www.tigerdirect.com/applications/SearchTools/item-details.asp?EdpNo=3747065&CatId=927 Sylvania, gOS SSD]
* Lenovo, ThinPad X301
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