Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle


Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle

Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) is a conventionally powered or gas-electric hybrid vehicle designed to produce minimal air pollution at their point of use, typically 90% less than that of an equivalent ordinary full gasoline vehicle.

cope regarding emissions

Controlled pollution categories are:

*Hydrocarbons

*Nitrous oxides

*Carbon monoxide

The well-to-wheel emission balance is not included in the classification as SULEV, with certain fuel generation paths it might well prove to be more polluting for the wider environment.

Technologies

Several techniques can be used to reduce pollution. Since automobiles most heavily pollute when warming up the catalytic converter, moving this closer to the engine (or even heating it electrically) will enable it to quickly become effective. Preheating the cylinder head from previously saved hot coolant is used in some vehicles. Careful management of engine shut down is required to eliminate uncombusted fuel. Engine shutdown while the vehicle is stopped, rather than idling the engine, not only reduces pollution but can greatly improve mileage in severe city driving. A vapor tight fuel tank and system eliminate one source of hydrocarbon emission. Special catalytic converters called "three-way catalytic converters" reduce all three of the target pollutions from the exhaust pipe.

Examples

Examples of hybrid vehicles delivering SULEV emissions performance include the Honda Insight and the Toyota Prius.

A conventionally powered example is the Ford Focus SULEV variant. In 2005, General Motors' 3800 Series III V6 engines became the industry's first gasoline V6s to carry the SULEV rating and can be found in the Pontiac Grand Prix (optionally supercharged), Buick LaCrosse, and the Buick Lucerne.

PZEV is a more stringent variant of the SULEV standard, the Hyundai Elantra PZEV, The Subaru Legacy 2.5i PZEV, and the Volkswagen Jetta 2.5 PZEV are available in the state of California in compliance with this standard.

Honda's 2006 Civic Hybrid is another example of a SULEV vehicle, in addition to getting almost 45 miles per gallon. Honda was one of the first car makers to offerSULEV vehicles, starting with 2000 model year Honda Insights (Though only the CVT version attained this rating. The manual transmission version, due to its Lean burn, got a ULEV) and one model of the 2000 Honda Accord (special SULEV version of the EX 4-cylinder model, available in California).

The Toyota Prius gets a real world average of 38-40 MPG, and plug in HEV's get around 100.

Lexus introduced the LS600h L in 2007 delivering SULEV performance.

It should be noted that many SULEV vehicles are only available in LEV-II states. These include California, New York, New Jersey, Vermont, and Massachusetts.

Tax incentives

In the U.S. State of California, manufacturers of SULEVs can be given a partial credit for producing a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) and so a vehicle of this type can be administratively designated as PZEV (Partial Zero-Emission Vehicle). In order to qualify as a PZEV, a vehicle must meet the SULEV standard and, in addition, have zero evaporative emissions from its fuel system plus an extended (ten-year/150,000-mile) warranty on its emission-control components.

In the case of hybrid vehicles this warranty is extended to the electric propulsion components (electric motor/generator/starter, battery, inverter, controls) and their mechanical interface to the driveline - potentially a distinct advantage to the owner of such a vehicle.

See California AB 1493 [http://info.sen.ca.gov/pub/bill/asm/ab_1451-1500/ab_1493_bill_20050222_introduced.html] .

See also

* US emission standard
* Automaker
* California Air Resources Board
* Car dealership
* Low-energy vehicle
* Ultra Low Emission Vehicle

External links

* [http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/CCBG/2004pc.htm List of CARB SULEV qualifying vehicles]
* [http://www.bmwworld.com/models/years/2003/sulev.htm BMW SULEV models]
* [http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/09-23-2003/0002022176&EDATE= University of California study - effect of rapid introduction on Los Angeles meeting smog standards]
* http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/cc.htm
* [http://info.sen.ca.gov/pub/bill/asm/ab_1451-1500/ab_1493_bill_20050222_introduced.html California AB 1493] .


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