- Janet Jackson
Infobox Musical artist
Name = Janet Jackson
Img_capt = Jackson during a 2006 press conference
Background = solo_singer
Birth_name = Janet Damita Jo Jackson
Born = birth date and age|1966|5|16
Indiana, United States
Singer-songwriter, record producer, actress
Instrument = Vocals,
Years_active = 1976–present
Label = A&M, Virgin, Island Def Jam
URL = [http://www.janetjackson.com/ www.janetjackson.com]
Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is an American recording artist and entertainer. Born in Gary,
Indianaand raised in Encino, California, she is the youngest child of the Jackson familyof musicians. She first performed on stage with her family beginning at the age of seven, and later started her career as an actress with the variety television series "The Jacksons" in 1976. She went on to star in other television shows throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, including " Good Times" and " Diff'rent Strokes".
At age sixteen in 1982, Jackson signed a recording contract with A&M, releasing her self-titled debut album the same year. She faced criticism for her limited vocal range, and for being yet another member of the Jackson family to become a recording artist. Beginning with her third studio album "Control" (1986), Jackson began a long-term collaboration with record producers
Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis. Her music with Jam and Lewis incorporated contemporary R&Bwith elements of rap music, sample loop, triple swing and industrial beats, which led to crossover appeal in popular music. In addition to receiving recognition for the innovation in her albums, music videos and choreography, Jackson was acknowledged as a role model for her socially conscious lyrics.
In 1991, she signed the first of two record-breaking, multi-million dollar recording contracts with
Virgin Records, which established her as one of the highest paid artists in the recording industry. Her debut album under the Virgin label, " janet." (1993), saw Jackson develop a public image as a sex symbolas she began to explore sexuality in her music. That same year she appeared in her first starring film role in " Poetic Justice"; since then she has continued to act in feature films. By the end of the decade Jackson was named the second most successful recording artist of the 1990s. "All for You" (2001), became her fifth consecutive studio album to debut at number one the "Billboard" 200 album charts. In 2007, she changed labels, signing with the Island Def Jam Music Groupand released her tenth studio album "Discipline" the following year.
Jackson is ranked by "Billboard" magazine as one of the top ten best-selling music artists in the history of
contemporary music, having sold over 100 million albums worldwide.Janet Jackson is one of the top ten selling artists in the history of contemporary music, ranked by Billboard magazine as the ninth most successful act in rock and roll history, and the second most successful female artist in pop music history, selling over 100 million albums worldwide. Citation |title=UOMO Producer Helps Propel Janet Jackson to #1 in the US| publisher= Business Wire| year=2008 | date= 2008-03-10] The Recording Industry Association of Americalists her as the eleventh best-selling female artist in the United States with 26 million certified albums. [Citation | title = Top Selling Artists | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America| url = http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?table=tblTopArt | accessdate = 2008-09-03] Jackson's longevity in the recording industry has rivaled that of several entertainers and her musical style and choreography have influenced a number of contemporary pop and R&B artists.
1966–1982: Early life and career
Janet Jackson was born in Gary,
Indiana, the youngest of nine children, to Katherine Esther (née Scruse) and Joseph Walter Jackson.Citation | last = Cornwell | first = Jane| title = Janet Jackson | publisher = Carlton Books| date = 2002 | pages = 2, 10, 24 | isbn = 1842224646] The Jacksons were lower-middle class and devout Jehovah's Witnesses. By the time she was a toddler, her older brothers—Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, Marlon and Michael—were performing music at nightclubs and theaters as The Jackson 5. In March 1969, the group signed a record deal with Motown, and by the end of the year they had recorded the first of four consecutive number one singles. The Jackson 5's success allowed the family to move to the Encino neighborhood of Los Angeles, Californiain 1971, where they settled in a gated mansion called Hayvenhurst. Although born into a family of professional musicians, Jackson, whose love of horses resulted in a desire to become a race-horse jockey, had no aspiration to become an entertainer. Despite this, her father planned for her to pursue a career in entertainment. Jackson once commented, "No one ever asked me if I wanted to go into show business ... it was expected."
In 1974, at the age of seven, Jackson appeared on stage in Las Vegas,
Nevadawith her siblings in a routine show at the MGM Casino. Jane Cornwell documented in her biography of the singer, "Janet Jackson" (2002), that at age eight Joseph Jackson told Janet not to call him "Dad" anymore since he was her manager; he told her she would henceforth address him as "Joseph". She began her career as an actress with the debut of the CBSvariety show "The Jacksons" (1976), in which she appeared with her siblings Tito, Rebbie, Randy, Michael, Marlon, La Toya and Jackie. In 1977, Jackson was selected by producer Norman Learto play a recurring role as Penny Gordon Woodsin the sitcom " Good Times". From 1979 to 1980, Jackson starred in " A New Kind of Family" as Jojo Ashton, and then joined the cast of " Diff'rent Strokes", portraying Charlene Duprey from 1981 to 1982. She played a recurring role during the fourth season of the television series "Fame" as Cleo Hewitt, though she later commented that the series was not a project she enjoyed working on. [Citation | last = Fox | first = Norman | title = "Indian Summer" | publisher = tv.com | url = http://www.tv.com/fame/indian-summer/episode/77620/summary.html | accessdate = 2008-09-03] Citation |last= Saunders |first= Michael | title=The 3 Divas Janet Jackson turns her focus inward | newspaper= The Boston Globe| page=p. D13 | year=1996 | date= 1996-10-03]
1982–1985: Early recordings
Although Jackson was initially apprehensive about starting a music career, she agreed to participate in recording sessions with her family. The first of these, a duet with her brother Randy titled "Love Song for Kids", took place in 1978. When Jackson was sixteen, her father arranged a contract for her with
A&M Records. Her debut album, "Janet Jackson", produced by soul singers Angela Winbush, René Mooreand Leon F. Sylvers III, was released in 1982, the entire production of which was overseen by her father Joseph. It peaked at number six on the "Billboard" Hot R&B albums chart.Citation | title = Janet Jackson | publisher = Allmusic| date = 2006 | url = http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:fifuxqe5ldae~T5| accessdate = 2008-04-13]
Jackson's second album, "Dream Street", was released two years later. Her father recruited her brothers to help produce the album: Marlon co-wrote two of the album's tracks, while Tito, Jackie and Michael provided background vocals. "Dream Street" reached number nineteen on the R&B albums chart; its sales were less than that of Jackson's debut album. The album's only hit, "
Don't Stand Another Chance", peaked at number nine on "Billboard"'s R&B singles chart. [Citation | title = Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs "Don t Stand Another Chance" | work = Top Music Charts-Hot 100-Billboard 200-Music Genre Sales | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2007 | url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/esearch/chart_display.jsp?cfi=367&cfgn=Singles&cfn=Hot+R%26amp%3BB%2FHip-Hop+Songs&ci=3003911&cdi=6165082&cid=11%2F24%2F1984 | accessdate = 2008-09-13] In late 1984, Jackson eloped with childhood friend and fellow R&B singer James DeBarge. They divorced shortly afterwards, and the marriage was annulled in mid-1985. [Citation | last = Sleeman | first = Elizabeth | title = The international who's who of women 2002 | publisher = Routledge | date = 2001 | page= 268 | isbn = 1857431227] [Citation | last1 = Sneed | first1 = Michael|last2= Lavin |first2=Cheryl |last3=O'Malley |first3=Kathy | title = City Ditties.. | page = p. 2 | newspaper = Chicago Tribune| date = 1985-06-07| year = 1985]
Following the release of "Dream Street", Jackson decided to separate her business affairs from her family. She later commented, "I remember trying to tell my father I no longer wanted him to manage me. It would have been easier to have Mother tell him for me, but that was something I had to do for myself." Jackson also stated, "I just wanted to get out of the house, get out from under my father, which was one of the most difficult things that I had to do, telling him that I didn't want to work with him again." A&M Records executive John McClain hired producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis to work with Jackson. Within six weeks, Jackson, Jam and Lewis crafted Jackson's third studio album, "Control".Citation | last = Cohen | first = Jonathan | title = Billboard Feature: Janet Jackson: Still In Control| publisher = "Billboard" | date =
1999-12-15| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1314915 | accessdate = 2008-04-06] Jackson recalled that during the recording of the album, she was threatened by a group of men outside of her hotel in Minneapolis. She stated that " [t] he danger hit home when a couple of guys started stalking me on the street ... Instead of running to Jimmy or Terry for protection, I took a stand. I backed them down. That's how songs like 'Nasty' and 'What Have You Done for Me Lately' were born, out of a sense of self-defense."
Though Jam and Lewis were concerned with achieving cross-over appeal, their primary goal was to create a strong following for the singer within the
African-Americancommunity first.Citation | last = Gaar | first = Gillian G. | title = She's a rebel: the history of women in rock & roll | publisher = Seal Press | date = 2002 | pages = 323–324 | isbn = 1580050786] Jam commented, " [w] e wanted to do an album that would be in every black home in America ... we were going for "the" black album of all time." Released in February 1986, the album debuted at number one on the "Billboard" 200. The " Newsweek" review of "Control" noted that the album was "an alternative to the sentimental balladry and opulent arrangements of Patti LaBelleand Whitney Houston." [Citation | title = Singer Janet Jackson | volume= 108 | issue = 3 | page = p. 61 | newspaper = Newsweek| date = 1986-07-21| year = 1986 | issn = 00289604] Rob Hoerburger of " Rolling Stone" asserted, "Control" is a better album than Diana Rosshas made in five years and puts Janet in a position similar to the young Donna Summer's—unwilling to accept novelty status and taking her own steps to rise above it." [Citation | last=Hoerburger | first=Rob | title = Janet Jackson: Control: Music Reviews: Rolling Stone | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date = 1986-04-24| url = http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/janetjackson/albums/album/321531/review/5944692/control | accessdate = 2008-06-30] Five of the album's singles—" What Have You Done for Me Lately", "Nasty", " When I Think of You", "Control", and " Let's Wait Awhile"—peaked within the top 5 of the "Billboard" Hot 100.Citation | title = Artist Chart History - Janet Jackson | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2008 | url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/retrieve_chart_history.do?JSESSIONID=N0P4LfRKktZQ0CbjcCstl2LH2pfhF28n6GFvFvRssrV9ZTpbQl7J!-1212055899&model.vnuArtistId=4899&model.vnuAlbumId=1107719| accessdate = 2008-08-10] "When I Think of You" became Jackson's first single to peak at number one. "The Pleasure Principle" became a top 20 hit, peaking at number fourteen. Most of the "Control" music videos were choreographed by a then-unknown Paula Abdul. Jonathan Cohen of "Billboard" magazine commented " [Jackson's] accessible sound and spectacularly choreographed videos were irresistible to MTV, and helped the channel evolve from rock programming to a broader, beat-driven musical mix."
"Control" was certified five times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, and has sold over eight million copies worldwide. [Citation | title = Control | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America | date = 1989 | url = http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=Control&artist=Janet%20Jackson&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2008&sort=Artist&perPage=25 | accessdate =
2008-06-07] "Billboard" credited it as being the fifth best-selling album of 1986 in the United States. [Citation | last1 = Holden | first1 = Stephen | title = The Pop Life; 1986, A Musically Conservative Year | page = p. 11 | newspaper = New York Times| date = 1986-12-31| year = 1986 | issn = 03624331] It won four American Music Awards, from twelve nominations—a record that has yet to be broken—and was nominated for Album of the Year at the 1987 Grammy Awards. [Citation | last = Cane | first = Clay | title = Janet Jackson: Still On Top | publisher = "Essence" | url = http://www.essence.com/essence/themix/entertainment/0,16109,1721295,00.html?xid=031208-EssenceNewsletter-JanetTextLin| accessdate = 2008-03-12] [Citation | last1 = Hamlin | first1 = Jesse | title = Graced With a Grammy / Paul Simon wins award for top album | page = p. 48 | newspaper = San Francisco Chronicle | date = 1987-02-25| year = 1987] Richard J. Ripani Ph.D., author of "The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950-1999" (2006), observed that the album was one of the first successful records to influence the rise of new jack swing, incorporating R&B, funk, jazz, soul and various production techniques which emerged in the mid-1980s.Citation | last = Ripani | first = Richard J. | title = The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950-1999 | publisher = Univ. Press of Mississippi | date = 2006 | pages = 132–153 | isbn = 1578068622] The success of "Control", according to Ripani, bridged the gap between R&B and rap music.
1989–1992: "Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814"
In September 1989, Jackson released her fourth album, "
Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814". Though executives at A&M wanted an album similar to "Control", Jackson was unwilling to compromise her artistic integrity, and was determined to imbue her music with a socially-conscious message that complimented her songs about love and relationships. [Citation | last1 = Cocks | first1 = Jay | title = Dancing on the charts | volume = 135 | issue = 22 | page = p. 87 | newspaper = Time | date = 1990-05-28| year = 1990 | issn = 0040781X] Jackson stated, "I'm not naive—I know an album or a song can't change the world. I just want my music and my dance to catch the audience's attention, and to hold it long enough for them to listen to the lyrics and what we're saying." [Citation |last1 =Graham | first1 = Jefferson | title = Janet in command; Jackson rules her own `Nation'; Highlights of a rhythmic life | page = p. 01.D | newspaper = USA Today| date = 1989-12-15| year = 1989] Producer Jimmy Jam told "The Boston Globe", "We would always have a TV turned on, usually to CNN... And I think the social slant of songs like Rhythm Nation, State of the World and The Knowledge came from that." [Citation| last1 = Morse | first1 = Steve | title = Changing Her Tune Janet Jackson's New Conscience | page = p. 30 | newspaper = The Boston Globe | date = 1989-11-20| year = 1989] "Rolling Stone" magazine's Vince Aletti observed Jackson shifted from "personal freedom to more universal concerns—injustice, illiteracy, crime, drugs—without missing a beat." [Citation| last = Aletti | first = Vince | title = Rhythm Nation 1814: Janet Jackson: Review: Rolling Stone | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date = 1998-10-19 | url = http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/album/182747/review/5943659/rhythmnation1814 | accessdate = 2008-03-24] Richard J. Ripani observed that the album, much like its predecessor, contained heavy styling of new jack swing; the use of sample loop, triple swing, rap vocals and blues notes are present in the album's title-track "Rhythm Nation".
After debuting at number one on the "Billboard" 200, the album was later certified six times platinum and eventually sold over eight million copies worldwide. [Citation| title = Rhythm Nation 1814 | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America | date =
1992-11-19| url = http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=Rhythm%20Nation%201814&artist=Janet%20Jackson&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2008&sort=Artist&perPage=25 | accessdate = 2008-06-07] [Citation| last = Gates | first = Henry Louis | coauthors= Anthony Appiah | title = Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American | publisher = Basic Civitas Books | date = 1999 | page = 1022 | isbn = 0465000711] The release became the only album in history to produce number one hits on the "Billboard" Hot 100 in three separate calendar years—" Miss You Much" in 1989, "Escapade" and "Black Cat" in 1990, and " Love Will Never Do (Without You)" in 1991—and the only album in the history of the Hot 100 to have seven top 5 hit singles. [Citation| last = Bronson | first = Fred | title = Chart Beat Chat | work = A 'CLUMSY' TRIP | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2007-12-21| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003688261 | accessdate = 2008-03-17] Citation| title = Janet Jackson Biography | publisher = "Billboard" | url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/bio/index.jsp?pid=4899&cr=artist&or=ASCENDING&sf=length&kw=janet%20jackson| accessdate = 2008-03-09] Citation| last = Dowell | first = Dowell | coauthors = Kim Jones | title = Heritage Signature Entertainment Memorabilia Auction #622 | publisher = Heritage CapitalCorporation | date = 2006 | page = 139 | isbn = 1599670364] The corresponding music video for "Rhythm Nation" won the 1989 Grammy Award for Best Long Form Music Video.Citation| title = Grammy Winners Seach | publisher = The Recording Academy | date = 2008 | url = http://www.grammy.com/GRAMMY_Awards/Winners/Results.aspx?title=&winner=janet%20jackson&year=0&genreID=0&hp=1 | accessdate = 2008-07-27] "Billboard" named "Rhythm Nation 1814" the number-one selling album of the year in 1990, winning multiple music awards. [Citation |last=Macdonald |first=Patrick |title = Ringing In 1991: Northwest Top 10 Video Count-Down | page = p. 8 | newspaper = Seattle Times| date = 1990-12-28| year = 1990] [Citation | last1 = Anderson | first1 = Susan | title = Chronicle | page = p. 7 | newspaper = New York Times| date = 1990-11-28| year = 1990 | issn = 03624331] Jackson was dubbed a reigning "Princess of Pop" by the " Chicago Tribune". [Citation |last= DeKnock |first=Jan |title = Abdul, Jackson poised for battle | page = p. S | newspaper = Chicago Tribune| date = 1990-02-23| year = 1990] Although some attributed Jackson's accomplishments to her producers, Jimmy Jam stated "when someone says, 'Well, she brought in Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis,' you've got to remember that we weren't exactly ... Quincy Jones... 'Control' was our first smash. The same with Paula. It wasn't like Janet [hired] Fred Astaire... She took a chance on all of us." [Citation|last1=Hilburn|first1=Robert|title=Janet Jackson Cuts Loose Her Puppet Image / In control on hot "Rhythm Nation' tour|page=p. 43|newspaper=San Francisco Chronicle|date = 1990-04-22|year=1990]
Rhythm Nation 1814 Tour, Jackson's first world tour in support of a studio album, aimed to recreate the "award–winning, visually innovative" music videos of "Rhythm Nation 1814" and "Control", and was described as "an elaborately choreographed spectacle" by " Entertainment Weekly". [Citation |title = Music features: A Million Miles Of Music Your Complete Guide To The Tours Of Summer Summer Music Preview | page = p. 32 | newspaper = Entertainment Weekly| date = 1990-06-01| year = 1990] As Jackson began her tour, she was acknowledged for the cultural impact of her music. Joel Selvin of the " San Francisco Chronicle" wrote "the 23-year-old has been making smash hit records for four years, becoming a fixture on MTV and a major role model to teenage girls across the country", and William Allen, then-executive vice president of the United Negro College Fund, told the " Los Angeles Times", "Jackson is a role model for all young people to emulate and the message she has gotten to the young people of this country through the lyrics of 'Rhythm Nation 1814' is having positive effects." [Citation |last=Selvin |first=Joel |title = Just Wholesome Glitz From Janet | page = p. F1 | newspaper = San Francisco Chronicle| date = 1990-04-30| year = 1990] [Citation |title = Names In The News Janet Jackson Benefit Concert | page = p. 9 | newspaper = Los Angeles Times| date = 1990-02-05| year = 1990 |issn=04583035] With an attendance of more than two million patrons, the Rhythm Nation 1814 Tour remains the most successful debut tour by any recording artist. [Citation| last = Jaynes | first = Gerald David | title = Encyclopedia of African American Society | publisher = Sage Publications| date = 2005 | page = 565 | isbn = 0761927646] "Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge" (2000) documented that Jackson's success during this time period placed her on par with several other recording artists, including her older brother Michael Jackson, Madonna and Tina Turner. [Citation| last = Kramarae | first = Cheris | coauthors = Dale Spender | title = Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge | publisher = Routledge| date = 2000 | page = 1408 | isbn = 0415920914]
With the release of "Rhythm Nation 1814", Jackson fulfilled her contract with A&M Records. In 1991, after being approached personally by
Virgin Recordsowner Richard Branson, she signed a highly publicized multi-million dollar contract with the label. The contract value was estimated between $32–50 million, and she became the highest paid female recording artist in contemporary music.Citation | last1 = Wild | first1 = David | title = Jackson's Double Play | issue = 657 | page = p. 18 | newspaper = Rolling Stone | date = 1993-05-27| year = 1993 | issn = 0035791X] Citation | last= Hilburn | first= Robert | title= I Think I've Finally Grown Up | newspaper= Newsday| page=p. 10 | year=1993 | date= 1994-06-27] Citation | last1 = Goldberg | first1 = M. | title = The Jacksons score big | page = p. 32 | newspaper = Rolling Stone | date = 1991-05-02| year = 1991 | issn = 0035791X] That same year, Jackson secretly entered into her second marriage with long-term friend—dancer, songwriter and director René Elizondo, Jr.In May 1992, Jackson recorded a song entitled " The Best Things in Life Are Free" with Luther Vandross, featuring Bell Biv Devoeand Ralph Tresvant, for the " Mo' Money" film soundtrack.Citation | title = Janet Jackson: Biography: Rolling Stone | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | url = http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/janetjackson/biography | accessdate = 2008-04-09]
1993–1996: "janet." and "Poetic Justice"
In May 1993, Jackson's fifth studio album entitled "
janet." (pronounced "Janet, period."), was released by Virgin Records and debuted at number one on the "Billboard" 200. Jackson commented, "... [c] ertain people feel I'm just riding on my last name ... That's why I just put my first name on "janet." and why I never asked my brothers to write or produce music for me." [Citation | last=Gundersen | first=Edna | title=All About Janet | newspaper= USA Today| page=p. 1 | year=1994 | date= 1994-02-18] "The New Rolling Stone Album Guide" (2004) commented that the album's number one hit single " That's the Way Love Goes"—winner of the 1994 Grammy Award for Best R&B Song—and the top 10 singles "If", " Because of Love", " You Want This", and " Any Time, Any Place", all contained "grown-up desires". [Citation| last =Brackett | first =Nathan | co-authors= Christian David Hoard, Christian Hoard| title = The New Rolling Stone Album Guide | publisher = Simon and Schuster | date = 2004 | page = 411 | isbn = 0743201698] "Rolling Stone" wrote: "As princess of America's black royal family, everything Janet Jackson does is important. Whether proclaiming herself in charge of her life, as she did on Control (1986), or commander in chief of a rhythm army dancing to fight society's problems (Rhythm Nation 1814, from 1989), she's influential. And when she announces her sexual maturity, as she does on her new album, "Janet.", it's a cultural moment." [Citation| title = Janet: Janet Jackson: Review: Rolling Stone | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date = 1993-06-24| url = http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/album/182126/review/6067467/janet| accessdate = 2008-07-02] Robert Johnson of " San Antonio Express-News" wrote that the album ranges from "dreamy and sensual" to "downright erotic", and although " ["janet."] isn't perfect ... it should be enough to make her the Queen of Pop." [Citation | last=Johnson | first=Robert | title=Jackson delivers under pressure with "janet." | newspaper= San Antonio Express-News| page= | year=1993 | date= 1993-05-28] Conversely, David Browneof "Entertainment Weekly" gave it a moderate rating, asserting "her wispy voice is often smothered by her two male producers", and regarded "janet." as a "blatant rip-off of the club-beat style of Madonna's "Erotica"." [Citation| last=Browne | first=David | title = janet. Music Review | publisher = "Entertainment Weekly" | date = 1993-05-21| url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,306636,00.html | accessdate = 2008-07-02] "janet." was later certified six times platinum by the RIAA, with worldwide sales exceeding ten million copies. [Citation| title = janet. | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America | date = 1994-04-12| url = http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=Janet&artist=Janet%20Jackson&format=ALBUM&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2008&sort=Artist&perPage=25 | accessdate = 2008-06-07] [Citation |last1=Bickelhaupt |first1=Susan |last2= Dezell | first2=Maureen | title=Room with a private view | newspaper= The Boston Globe | page=p. 26 | year=1996 | date= 1996-01-13]
In July 1993, Jackson made her film debut in "
Poetic Justice". "Rolling Stone" described Jackson's performance as "a beguiling film debut" despite her inexperience, while the " Washington Post" considered her "believably eccentric". [Citation| title = Poetic Justice | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date = 2000-12-08| url = http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/movie/5947325/review/5947326/poetic_justice | accessdate = 2008-06-13] [Citation| last= Howe| first= Desson | title = Poetic Justice | publisher = " Washington Post" | date = 1993-07-23| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/videos/poeticjusticerhowe_a0afdf.htm| accessdate = 2008-06-13] Jackson's ballad "Again" was featured on the film's soundtrack, and garnered a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Original Song. [Citation | last= Biddle | first= Frederic M. | title= Fashion and fame team on Oscar night | newspaper= The Boston Globe | page=p. 61 | year=1994 | date= 1994-03-22]
In September 1993, Jackson appeared topless on the cover of "Rolling Stone" magazine with the hands of her then-husband René Elizondo, Jr. covering her breasts. The photograph is the original full-length version of the cropped image used on the cover of the "janet." album, shot by
Patrick Demarchelier. [Citation| title = Janet Jackson | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date = 2004-09-30| url = http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6478137/janet_jackson | accessdate = 2008-07-23] Sonia Murray of " The Vancouver Sun" later reported, "Jackson, 27, remains clearly established as both role model and sex symbol; the Rolling Stone photo of Jackson ... became one of the most recognizable, and most lampooned, magazine covers of the year." [Citation | last1 = Murray | first1 = Sonia | title = Janet: The Queen of Pop: Michael could lose his crown to his hot little sister | page = p. C1 | newspaper = The Vancouver Sun| date = 1994-02-03| year = 1994 | issn = 08321299] In the cover story, "Sexual Healing" by David Ritz, Jackson explained, "... sex has been an important part of me for several years. But it just hasn't blossomed publicly until now. I've had to go through some changes and shed some old attitudes before feeling completely comfortable with my body. Listening to my new record, people intuitively understand the change in me."Citation | last1 = Ritz | first1 = David | title = Sexual healing | issue = 665 | page = p. 38 | newspaper = Rolling Stone | date = 1993-09-16| year = 1993 | issn = 0035791X] Ritz likened Jackson's transformation to Marvin Gayeas he stated, " [j] ust as Gaye moved from What's Going Onto Let's Get It On, from the austere to the ecstatic, Janet, every bit as serious-minded as Marvin, moved from Rhythm Nation to janet., her statement of sexual liberation." Jackson's second world tour—the janet. Tour—garnered critical acclaim as Michael Snyder of the " San Francisco Chronicle" described Jackson's stage performance as erasing the line between "stadium-size pop music concerts and full-scale theatrical extravaganzas", and Steve Pick of the " St. Louis Post-Dispatch" observed Jackson's show made the "janet." album's numerous hit singles more effective with her "larger-than-life stage persona". [Citation | last=Pick | first=Steve | title=Janet Jackson Offers Hits, Larger-Than-Life Persona | newspaper= St. Louis Post-Dispatch| page=p. 6d | year=1994 | date= 1994-07-12] Citation | last=Snyder | first=Michael | title=Janet Jackson Makes All The Right Moves / Singer brings extravaganza to San Jose | newspaper= San Francisco Chronicle| page=p. C1 | year=1994 | date= 1994-02-18]
During this time period, Jackson's brother Michael Jackson was immersed in a child sex abuse scandal, of which he denied any wrongdoing. [Citation |last1=Corliss |first1=Richard |last2=Sachs |first2=Andrea |title=Society: Who's Bad? An age of innocence may be at an end as Michael Jackson, the Peter Pan of pop, confronts accusations that he sexually abused one of his young friends | newspaper=Time| page=p. 54 | year=1993 | date=
1993-09-06] Jackson gave moral support to her brother, and denied allegations made by her sister La Toya Jackson in her book "" (1991) that their parents had abused her and her siblings as children.Citation | last= Hilburn | first= Robert | title= I Think I've Finally Grown Up | newspaper= Newsday | page=p. 10 | year=1993 | date= 1994-06-27] In an interview with Lynn Norment of "Ebony", Jackson commented on her sister's then-estrangement from the family, stating, "her [husband Jack Gordon] has ... brainwashed her so much she keeps herself away from us."Citation |last1=Norment|first1=Lynn |title=Grown-up Janet Jackson talks about racism, sensuality and the Jackson family | newspaper=Ebony|volume=48|issue=11| page=p. 36 | year=1993 | date=September 1993|issn=00129011] Norment reported during the recording of "janet.", "LaToya suddenly showed up and created a scene at the Minneapolis recording studio", despite the fact that " [Jackson's] sister had ignored her calls for four years prior to that." In addition, Jackson criticized her brother Jermaine Jackson for attacking Michael in his 1991 single "Word To The Badd". She later collaborated with her brother Michael on "Scream", the lead single from his 1995 album " HIStory", which was written by both siblings as a response to the media scrutiny he suffered from being accused of child sexual abuse.Citation |last=Boepple |first= Leanne |title = Scream: space odyssey Jackson-style.(video production; Michael and Janet Jackson video) | page = p. 52 |volume=29 | newspaper = Theatre Crafts International | date = 1995-11-01| year = 1995 |issn=1063-9497] The song debuted at number five on the Hot 100 singles chart, becoming the first song ever to debut in the top 5. "Scream" is featured in the "Guinness Book of Records" as the "Most Expensive Music Video Ever Made" at a cost of $7 million. Jackson and her brother won the 1995 Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Videofor "Scream".
In October 1995, Jackson's first compilation album, "
Design of a Decade 1986/1996", was released via A&M Records and debuted at number three on the "Billboard" 200. The lead single "Runaway" peaked at number three on the Hot 100. [Citation| title = Design of a Decade 1986/1996 > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles | publisher = Allmusic | date = 2006 | url = http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:wpftxqehldhe~T31| accessdate = 2008-07-20] "Design of a Decade 1986/1996" was certified two times platinum by the RIAA. [Citation| title = Design of a Decade 1986/1996 | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America | date = 1995-12-18| url = http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=Design&artist=Janet%20Jackson&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2008&sort=Artist&perPage=25| accessdate = 2008-06-07] In January 1996, Jackson renewed her contract with Virgin Records for a reported $80 million dollars.Citation | title=Janet Jackson Hits Big; $80 Million Record Deal | newspaper=Newsday | page=p. A02 | year=1996 | date= 1996-01-13] The contract established her as the then-highest paid recording artist in contemporary music, surpassing the recording industry's then-unparalleled $60 million dollar contracts earned by her brother, Michael Jackson and Madonna. [They don't call it jackpot for nothing. After much speculation, Janet Jackson, 29, clinched a reported four-album, $80 million deal with Virgin Records, making her the musicindustry's highest-paid performer (over brother Michael and Madonna, who each got $60 million deals in the early '90s) Citation |last1=Davidson |first1=Casey | title=News & Notes | newspaper=Entertainment Weekly | page=p. 15 | year=1996 | date= 1996-01-26] [Citation |last1= Farley |first1=Christopher John |last2= Thigpen |first2=David E. |last3= Ressner |first3=Jeffrey | title=Business: Are they worth all that cash? Janet Jackson's record-breaking $80 million contract could set off a new wave of pop-music megadeals | newspaper=Time| page=p. 54 | year=1996 | date= 1996-01-29] [Rock band R.E.M.later signed an $80 million dollar recording contract with Warner Bros. Recordsin August 1996; sources compared the groups record deal with Jackson's contract, but quoted her earning a comparatively lower estimate of $70 million dollars. Citation | title=R.E.M. Signs $80M Deal | newspaper=Newsday | year=1996 | date= 1996-08-26]
1997–1999: "The Velvet Rope"
During the two year period prior to the release of her sixth studio album, "
The Velvet Rope", Jackson reportedly suffered from depression and anxiety.Citation |last= Saunders |first= Michael | title=The 3 Divas Janet Jackson turns her focus inward | newspaper=The Boston Globe | page=p. D13 | year=1996 | date= 1996-10-03] Michael Saunders of " The Boston Globe" considered the album to be an introspective look into Jackson's bout with depression, describing it as a "critical self-examination and an audio journal of a woman's road to self-discovery." According to Jackson, " [w] e've all driven by premieres or nightclubs and have seen the rope separating those who can enter and those who can't. Well, there's also a velvet rope we have inside us, keeping others from knowing our feelings. In The Velvet Rope, I'm trying to expose and explore those feelings ... During my life, I've been on both sides of the rope. At times, especially during my childhood, I felt left out and alone. At times I felt misunderstood." [Citation | title=On concert tour, Janet invites fans inside her Velvet Rope| newspaper=Jet |volume= 94| issue= 15| page=p. 56 |year=1998| date= 1998-09-07|issn=00215996] "The Velvet Rope" also introduced sadomasochisminto Jackson's music. Eric Hendersonof "Slant" wrote, "The Velvet Rope" is a richly dark masterwork that illustrates that, amid the whips and chains, there is nothing sexier than emotional nakedness." [Citation| last= Henderson | first=Eric | title = Slant Magazine Music Review: Janet Jackson: The Velvet Rope| publisher = "Slant" | date = 2006 | url = http://www.slantmagazine.com/music/music_review.asp?ID=973 | accessdate = 2008-07-20]
Released in October 1997, "The Velvet Rope" debuted at number one on the "Billboard" 200 and the RIAA later certified the album three times platinum. [Citation| title = The Velvet Rope | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America | date =
1999-01-15| url = http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinum.php | accessdate = 2008-06-07] In August 1997 the album's lead single, " Got 'Til It's Gone", was released to radio, peaking at number 36 on the "Billboard" Hot 100 Airplay. [Citation| title = Got 'til It's Gone - Hot 100 Airplay | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 1997 | url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/esearch/chart_display.jsp?cfi=350&cfgn=Singles&cfn=Hot+100+Airplay&ci=3028185&cdi=7232362&cid=09%2F13%2F1997 | accessdate = 2008-07-20] The single sampled the Joni Mitchellsong " Big Yellow Taxi", and featured a cameo appearance by rapper Q-Tip. "Got 'Til It's Gone" won the 1997 Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video. The album's second single "Together Again", became Jackson's eighth number one hit on the "Billboard" Hot 100 singles chart, and placing her on par with Elton John, Diana Ross, and The Rolling Stones.Citation| last = Halstead | first = Craig | coauthors = Craig Halstead, Chris Cadman | title = Jacksons Number Ones | publisher = Authors On Line | date = 2003 | pages = 28, 120 | isbn = 0755200985] The single spent a record 46 weeks on the Hot 100, as well as spending 19 weeks on the UK singles chart. " I Get Lonely" peaked at number three on the Hot 100.
Jackson donated a portion of the proceeds earned from "Together Again" to the
American Foundation for AIDS Research. Neil McCormick of " The Daily Telegraph" observed, " [Jackson] even makes a bid for gay iconstatus, delivering a diva-ish performance reminiscent of Diana Ross on 'Together Again' (a post-Aids pop song), singing a paean to homosexuality on the jazzy 'Free Xone' and climaxing (if that's the right word) with a bizarre lesbian reinterpretation of Rod Stewart's 'Tonight's the Night'."Citation |last=McCormick |first=Neil | title=The Arts: Give her enough rope ... Reviews Rock CDs | newspaper= The Daily Telegraph| page=p. 11| year=1997 | date= 1997-10-18] "Rolling Stone" regarded "Free Xone" as the album's "best song", describing it as an "anti-homophobia track [which] shifts moods and tempos on a dime, segueing from a Prince-like jam to a masterful sample from Archie Bell and the Drells' 'Tighten Up'."Citation| title = The Velvet Rope: Janet Jackson: Review: Rolling Stone | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date = 1997-10-30| url = http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/janetjackson/albums/album/116269/review/5942564/the_velvet_rope | accessdate = 2008-07-20] "The Velvet Rope" was honored by the National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum, and received the award for Outstanding Music Album at the 9th Annual GLAAD Media Awards.Citation|url=http://www.glaad.org/media/release_detail.php?id=4308 |title=Janet Jackson to be Honored at 19th Annual GLAAD Media Awards in Los Angeles |accessdate= 2008-06-10|last=McCarthy |first=Marc |publisher= Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation|date= 2008-04-01]
In 1998, Jackson began the
The Velvet Rope Tour, an international trek that included Europe, North America, Africa, Asia, New Zealand and Australia. Robert Hilburn of the "The Los Angeles Times" reported, " [t] here is so much of the ambition and glamour of a Broadway musical in Janet Jackson's new Velvet Rope tour that it's only fitting that the concert program credits her as the show's 'creator and director'."Citation |last=Hilburn |first=Robert | title=Janet Jackson Learns The Ropes Singer Learns To Like Herself On The Way To Creating The Lavishly Staged Velvet Rope Tour | newspaper=Pittsburgh Post-Gazette| page=p. G3| year=1998| date= 1998-09-20|issn=1068624X] Jackson's HBO special, "The Velvet Rope: Live in Madison Square Garden", was watched by more than fifteen million viewers. The two hour concert beat the ratings of all four major networks in homes that were subscribed to HBO. [Citation| title = HBO's Exclusive Live Concert Event Janet: The Velvet Rope | publisher = Time Warner| date = 1998-10-14| url = http://www.timewarner.com/corp/newsroom/pr/0,20812,666900,00.html | accessdate = 2008-03-09] The following month, Jackson separated from Elizondo Jr. [Citation |last1=Ryon |first1=Ruth | title=Hot Property; Westside at End of Her 'Rope'; Home Edition| newspaper= Los Angeles Times| page=p. K1 | year=1999 | date= 1999-04-18] As her world tour came to a close in 1999, Jackson lent guest vocals to a number of songs by other artists, including Shaggy's "Luv Me, Luv Me", for the soundtrack to " How Stella Got Her Groove Back", "God's Stepchild" from the "Down on the Delta" soundtrack, " Girlfriend/Boyfriend" with BLACKstreet, and " What's It Gonna Be?!" with Busta Rhymes. Jackson also performed a duet with Elton John for the song "I Know the Truth". At the 1999 World Music Awards, Jackson received the Legend Award alongside Cherfor "lifelong contribution to the music industry and outstanding contribution to the pop industry."Citation| title = Global Pulse: Smith, Hill Top World Awards | work = Global Pulse | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 1999-05-06| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=947178| accessdate = 2008-09-16] As 1999 ended, "Billboard" magazine ranked Jackson as the second most successful artist of the decade, behind Mariah Carey. [Citation | last1 = Mayfield | first1 = Geoff | title = Totally '90s: Diary of a decade | volume = 111 | issue = 112 | newspaper = Billboard | date = 1999-12-25| year = 1999 | issn = 00062510]
2000–2003: "Nutty Professor II: The Klumps" and "All for You"
In July 2000, Jackson appeared in her second film, "", as Professor Denise Gaines, opposite
Eddie Murphy. The film became Jackson's second to open at number one at the box office, grossing an estimated $42.7 million dollars in its opening weekend. [Citation | last= LaSalle | first=Mick | title=`Professor' Moves Out Smartly / Hollywood's summer better than expected| newspaper= San Francisco Chronicle | page=p. D1 | year=2000 | date= 2000-07-31] [Citation | title=Box Office; Home Edition| newspaper= Los Angeles Times | page=p. F–28 | year=2000 | date= 2000-08-03] Her contribution to the film's soundtrack, " Doesn't Really Matter", became her ninth number one "Billboard" Hot 100 single. In the same year, Jackson's husband filed for divorce. Jeff Gordinier of "Entertainment Weekly" reported that for eight of the thirteen years Jackson and Elizondo had known one another, " [they] were married—a fact they managed to hide not only from the international press but from Jackson's own father."Citation | last=Gordinier | first=Jeff | title=Will the real Janet Jackson please stand up? Is the seductive superstar an enigma wrapped in a riddle? Or just your average nasty girl with a taste for pleasure and pain?| newspaper= Entertainment Weekly | page=p. 36 | year=2001 | date= 2001-05-04] Elizondo filed a multi-million dollar lawsuit against Jackson, estimated between $10–25 million; they did not reach a settlement until 2003. [Citation | last= McElroy | first=Quindelda | title=Ex-hubbies can cash in| newspaper= The Atlanta Journal and Constitution| page=p. E.2 | year=2007 | date= 2007-04-21]
Jackson was awarded a top honor from the
American Music Awards—the Award of Merit—in March 2001 for "her finely crafted, critically acclaimed and socially conscious, multi-platinum albums." [Citation| title = Billboard Bits: AMAs, They Might Be Giants, Ricky Scaggs | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2001-01-04| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=411513| accessdate = 2008-05-03] Jackson became the inaugural honoree of the "mtvICON" award, "an annual recognition of artists who have made significant contributions to music, music video and pop culture while tremendously impacting the MTV generation."Citation| last = Jeckell | first = Barry | title = MTV To Honor Janet Jackson | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2001-01-10| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=415363 | accessdate = 2008-03-16] Jackson's seventh album, "All for You", was released in April 2001, debuting at number one on the "Billboard" 200. Selling 605,000 copies, "All For You" had the highest first-week sales total of Jackson's career. [Citation| last = Martens | first = Todd | title = Janet Reigns Supreme On Billboard Charts | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2001-05-03| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=857415 | accessdate = 2008-04-17] Stephen Thomas Erlewineof Allmusicstated " [Jackson's] created a record that's luxurious and sensual, spreading leisurely over its 70 minutes, luring you in even when you know better", and Jon Parelesof " The New York Times" commented, " [a] s other rhythm and blues strips down to match the angularity of hip-hop, Ms. Jackson luxuriates in textures as dizzying as a new infatuation." [Citation| last = Erlewine | first = Stephen Thomas | title = All for You > Review | publisher = "Allmusic" | date = 2001 | url = http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:ci8ibks9aakx | accessdate = 2008-07-20] [Citation| last = Pareles | first = Jon | title = Album of the Week | publisher = "The New York Times" | date = 2001-05-04| url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DE7D91238F937A35756C0A9679C8B63 | accessdate = 2008-07-20] The album's title-track, "All for You", debuted on the Hot 100 at number fourteen, the highest debut ever for a single that was not commercially available.Citation| last = vanHorn| first = Teri | title = Janet Jackson Single Breaks Radio, Chart Records | publisher = MTV | date = 2001-03-09| url = http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1441454/20010309/jackson_janet.jhtml | accessdate = 2008-05-23] Teri VanHorn of MTV dubbed Jackson "Queen of Radio" as the single made radio airplay history, " [being] added to every pop, rhythmic and urban radio station that reports to the national trade magazine Radio & Records" in its first week. The single peaked at number one, where it topped the Hot 100 for seven weeks. [Citation| last = Martens | first = Todd | title = Seven And Counting For Janet At No. 1 | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2001-05-17| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=869127 | accessdate = 2008-04-17] Jackson received the 2001 Grammy Award for Best Dance Recordingfor "All for You". The second single, " Someone to Call My Lover", which contained a heavy guitar loop of America's " Ventura Highway", peaked at number three on the Hot 100. [Citation| last = Caulfield | first = Keith | title = Ask Billboard | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2006-12-24| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003524980 | accessdate = 2008-04-17] "All For You" sold more than three million copies in America, and was certified double platinum by the RIAA.Citation| last = Hope | first = Clover | title = Together Again: Janet Jackson | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2008-02-04| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003706565 | accessdate = 2008-03-23] [Citation| title = All for You | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America | date = 2001 | url = http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=All%20for%20You&artist=&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2008&sort=Artist&perPage=25 | accessdate = 2008-06-13]
Reviews for Jackson's
All for You Tourdrew comparison to that of her contemporary rivals. "The Los Angeles Times"' David Massey reported that compared to Madonna's Drowned World Tour, "Janet outdid the Material Girl by a mile ... And the gall to bring Britney Spears' name into the picture by saying Janet's show is like Britney's? Hello, it's the other way around!."Citation | last1= Esparza | first1=Rafael | last2= Massey | first2=David| last3= Scalese| first3=Rudy| title=Let Jackson's Energetic Beat Go On| newspaper= The Los Angeles Times | page=p. F–4 | year=2001 | date= 2001-10-06] Similarly, reporter Rudy Scalese complimented Jackson's performance, stating, "Janet Jackson hasn't skipped a beat. She is still the Queen of Pop." In contrast, Charles Passy of " The Palm Beach Post" commented, " [s] eeing Jackson's show after Madonna's 'Drowned World' tour is to realize the limits of the pop-concert format. Madonna pushed those limits and came up with a daring hybrid of circus, theater and music. Jackson, on the other hand, lived within the constraints." [Citation | last= Passy | first=Charles | title=Jackson's Vibrant Show Can't Handle Comparison| newspaper= The Palm Beach Post| page=p. 4D | year=2001 | date= 2001-10-30] Jackson donated a portion of the proceeds from the tour's ticket sales to the Boys & Girls Clubs of America, with President Roxanne Spillett stating, " [t] he increased awareness she will bring to our cause, along with her generous financial contribution, will help us reach an even greater number of young people in search of hope and opportunity." [Citation | title=Janet Jackson Announces 'All for You Tour 2001'; Alliance to Support Boys & Girls Clubs of America; Ticket Proceeds To Be Donated As Part Of Nationwide Campaign| publisher= Business Wire | year=2001 | date= 2001-05-30]
In 2002, Jackson collaborated with
reggaesinger Beenie Manon the song " Feel It Boy". Jackson later admitted regret over the collaboration after discovering Beenie Man's music often contained homophobic lyrics, and she issued an apology to her gay following in an article contained in "The Voice". [Citation| last = Weekes | first = Danielle | title = I'm Sorry, Says Ms Jackson | publisher = "The Voice" | date = 2004-10-16| url = http://www.voice-online.co.uk/content.php?show=5270 | accessdate = 2008-04-05] Jackson also began her relationship with record producer Jermaine Duprithat same year. [Citation | last= Norment | first=Lynn | title=Janet & Jermaine| newspaper= Ebony |volume=63 |issue= 4| page=p. 82 | year=2008 | date= February 2008 |issn=00129011]
2004–2005: Super Bowl XXXVIII and "Damita Jo"
Super Bowl XXXVIIIhalftime show in February 2004, Jackson performed a medley of her singles "All for You" and "Rhythm Nation"; she then performed alongside Justin Timberlake. As Timberlake sang the lyric "gonna have you naked by the end of this song" from his single " Rock Your Body", he tore open Jackson's top, exposing her right breast. After the performance, Jackson apologized, calling it an accident, and said that Timberlake was supposed to pull away the bustierand leave the red-lace bra intact.Citation | title = Apologetic Jackson says 'costume reveal' went awry | publisher = CNN| date = 2004-02-03| url = http://www.cnn.com/2004/US/02/02/superbowl.jackson/ | accessdate = 2006-05-20] She further commented, "I am really sorry if I offended anyone. That was truly not my intention ... MTV, CBS, the NFL had no knowledge of this whatsoever, and unfortunately, the whole thing went wrong in the end." [Citation | title = Jackson's apology can't stem mass anger | publisher = ESPN| url = http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/playoffs03/news/story?id=1724968&partnersite=espn | accessdate = 2008-03-09] Timberlake also issued an apology, calling the accident a " wardrobe malfunction". "Time" magazine reported that the incident became the most replayed moment in TiVohistory and Monte Burke of "Forbes" magazine reported " [t] he fleeting moment enticed an estimated 35,000 new subscribers to sign up." [Citation |last=Burke |first=Monte | title=The Ripple Effect | newspaper=Time |volume=173 |issue=4 | page=p. 46 | year=2004 | date= 2004-03-01|issn=00156914] [Citation | title=Numbers | newspaper=Time |volume=163 |issue=7 | page=p. 19 | year=2004 | date= 2004-02-16|issn=0040781X] Jackson was later listed in the 2007 edition of " Guinness World Records" as "Most Searched in Internet History" and the "Most Searched for News Item". [Citation | title = Star-studded 2007 edition of Guinness World Records released | publisher = CBC News| date = 2006-09-29| url = http://www.cbc.ca/arts/story/2006/09/29/guinness-record-book.html | accessdate = 2006-09-30] CBS, the NFL, and MTV (CBS's sister network, which produced the halftime show), denied any knowledge of, and all responsibility for, the incident. Still, the Federal Communications Commissioncontinued an investigation, ultimately losing its appeal for a $550,000 fine against CBS. [Citation |last=Davidson |first=Paul | title=FCC loses appeal of 'wardrobe malfunction' fine | newspaper=USA Today | page=p. 2b| year=2008 | date= 2008-07-22|issn=07347456]
As a result of the incident, CBS would only allow Jackson and Timberlake to appear during the
46th Grammy Awardsceremony if they each made a public apology to the network, without attributing the incident to a "wardrobe malfunction". Timberlake issued an apology, but Jackson refused. [Citation | last = Leopold | first = Todd | title = Beyonce tops with five Grammys | publisher = CNN | date = 2004-02-09| url = http://www.cnn.com/2004/SHOWBIZ/Music/02/08/grammy.night/index.html | accessdate = 2008-04-03] Jermaine Dupri resigned from his position on the Grammy Awardscommittee as a result. [Citation | last = Gallo | first = Phil |title = Beyonce beats the rap at the Grammys | publisher = "Variety" | date = 2004-02-09| url = http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117899800.html?categoryid=16&cs=1 | accessdate = 2008-04-03] The controversy halted plans for Jackson to star in a made-for-TV biopicon the life on singer Lena Hornefor ABC-TV. Though Horne was reportedly displeased by the Super Bowl incident and insisted that ABC pull Jackson from the project, according to Jackson's representatives, she withdrew from the project willingly. [Citation | title = Horne: Janet Jackson, don't play me | work = Associated Press| publisher = CNN | date = 2004-02-04| url = http://www.cnn.com/2004/SHOWBIZ/TV/02/24/tv.janetjackson.ap/ | accessdate = 2008-04-03]
In March 2004, Jackson's eighth studio album, "Damita Jo", was released debuting at number two on the "Billboard" 200.Citation |last=Caulfield |first=Keith | title = Ask Billboard | publisher = "Billboard" | date =
2004-11-04| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1000706333 | accessdate = 2008-05-03] Steve Jones of " USA Today" reported, " [t] he album, which takes its title from [Jackson's] middle name, shows several sides of her personality."Citation |last1=Jones |first1=Steve | title=Jackson steps out as 'Damita Jo' Apologies over, she promotes sexy CD | newspaper= USA Today| page=p. D1 | year=2004 | date= 2004-03-30] During the interview Jackson commented, " [t] he album is about love ... Damita Jo is one of the characters that lives inside of me." Lorraine Ali of "Newsweek" reported Jackson's album depicts vulnerability. She commented, "and who would know better what it's like to stand exposed? Her Super Bowl debacle/accident/publicity stunt aside, she's the ninth and youngest child of pop culture's most scrutinized celebrity family."Citation |last1=Ali |first1=Lorraine | title=Show Us Your Soul| newspaper=Newsweek |volume=143 |issue=14 | page=p. 56| year=2004 | date= 2004-04-05]
Jackson appeared as a host of "
Saturday Night Live" on April 10, 2004, where she performed a skit that parodied the Super Bowl incident. She also appeared in the television sitcom " Will & Grace" playing herself, interacting with sitcom characters Karen Walker and Jack McFarlandas Jack was auditioning to be one of her back-up dancers. [Citation |last1=Hay |first1=Carla | title=The Billboard Backbeat | newspaper=Billboard |volume=116 |issue=35 | page=pp. 60–61 | year=2004 | date= 2004-08-28] By the end of 2004, "Damita Jo" had sold 942,000 copies in the United States and was later certified platinum by the RIAA. [Citation| title = Damita Jo | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America | date = 2004-05-27| url = http://www.riaa.com/goldandplatinumdata.php?resultpage=1&table=SEARCH_RESULTS&action=&title=Damita%20Jo&artist=&format=&debutLP=&category=&sex=&releaseDate=&requestNo=&type=&level=&label=&company=&certificationDate=&awardDescription=&catalogNo=&aSex=&rec_id=&charField=&gold=&platinum=&multiPlat=&level2=&certDate=&album=&id=&after=&before=&startMonth=1&endMonth=1&startYear=1958&endYear=2008&sort=Artist&perPage=25 | accessdate = 2008-06-13] Although the album debuted at number two, its three singles all failed to become top 40 hits. Keith Caulfield of "Billboard" commented, " [f] or a singles artist like Jackson, who has racked up 27 top 10 Hot 100 singles in her career, including 10 No. 1s, this could probably be considered a disappointment." "Billboard"'s Clover Hope reported "Damita Jo" "was largely overshadowed by the Super Bowl fiasco" and that Jermaine Dupri, the then-president of the urban music department at Virgin Records, expressed "sentiments of nonsupport" from the company.
In November 2004, Jackson was honored as an African-American role model by 100 Black Men of America, Inc., who presented her with the "organization's Artistic Achievement Award saluting 'a career that has gone from success to greater success'." [Citation | title=New York Chapter Of 100 Black Men Honors Janet Jackson, Hank Aaron, Johnnetta Cole, Willie Gary | newspaper=Jet |volume=106 |issue=23 | page=p. 28 | year=2004 | date=
2004-12-06|issn=00215996] Though the " New York Amsterdam News" reported " [t] here were a number of attendees who expressed dismay over presenting an award to the 38-year-old performer" due to the Super Bowl incident, the organization's President Paul Williams responded, " [a] n individual's worth can't be judged by a single moment in that person's life." [Citation |last1=Browne |first1= J. Zamgba | title=Janet Jackson stirs up controversy at annual gala of 100 Black Men | newspaper= New York Amsterdam News|volume=95 |issue=47 | page=p. 8 | year=2004 | date= 2004-11-18|issn=00287121] [Citation |last1= Berry |first1= Steve | title=Janet Jackson stirs up controversy at annual gala of 100 Black Men | newspaper= The Columbus Dispatch|volume=95 |issue=47 | page=p. 12.D| year=2004 | date= 2004-11-11|issn=1074097X] In June 2005, Jackson was honored with a Humanitarian Award by the Human Rights Campaignand AIDS Project Los Angeles, in recognition of her work and involvement in raising money for AIDS charities. [Citation| title = ABC News: Janet Jackson | publisher = ABC News | date = 2005-06-18| url = http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/WinterConcert/popup?id=4299523&contentIndex=1&page=10 | accessdate = 2008-04-09]
2006–2007: "20 Y.O." and "Why Did I Get Married?"
To promote her ninth studio album, "
20 Y.O.", Jackson appeared on the cover of " Us Weekly" in June 2006, which became the magazine's best-selling issue. [Citation| title = Ms. Jackson Visits Us (We Are for Real!) | publisher = " US Weekly" | url = http://www.usmagazine.com/node/1246 | accessdate = 2008-04-09] Virgin Records released "20 Y.O." in September 2006, which debuted at number two on the "Billboard" 200. Janine Coveney of "Billboard" reported the album title, "20 Years Old", represents "a celebration of the joyful liberation and history-making musical style of her 1986 breakthrough album, "Control"."Citation| last = Coveney | first = Janine | title = Janet's Juggernaut | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2006-09-05| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/search/google/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003087367 | accessdate = 2008-03-23] Jackson stated " [t] his album takes me to a place where I haven't been in a while: R&B and dance ... The album also features samples from music that inspired me 20, 25 years ago." [Citation| last = Coveney | first = Janine | coauthors= Gail Mitchell | title = Janet Ready To Dance Again On New Album | publisher = "Billboard" | date = 2006-09-01| url = http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003086326 | accessdate = 2008-06-14]
"Rolling Stone" magazine's Evan Serpick remarked " [t] he title of Janet Jackson's latest album refers to the two decades since she released her breakthrough, Control, with hits like 'Nasty' and 'What Have You Done for Me Lately.' If we were her, we wouldn't make the comparison." [Citation | last = Serpick | first = Evan | title = 20 Y.O. | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date =
2006-10-03| url = http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/album/11571388/review/11942285/20_yo | accessdate = 2008-07-28] However, Glenn Gamboa of "Newsday" gave the album a positive rating, stating that " [o] n '20 Y.O.' she skips all that drama of breaking free and asserting herself. She also keeps most of the tie-me-up, tie-me-down sexual raunch of her recent albums in the closet. This album is all about dancing and returning to her R&B roots." [Citation| last = Gamboa | first = Glenn | title = How Janet got her groove back | publisher = "Newsday" | date = 2006 | url = http://www.newsday.com/entertainment/ny-janet0926,0,1192261.story?coll=ny-entertainment-headlines | accessdate = 2008-07-28] The album's lead single "Call on Me," a duet with rapper Nelly, peaked at number twenty-five on the Hot 100. "20 Y.O." was certified platinum by the RIAA. [Citation| title = 'Tis the Season for Precious Metals | publisher = Recording Industry Association of America | date = 2006-12-11| url = http://www.riaa.com/newsitem.php?news_month_filter=&news_year_filter=2006&resultpage=&id=700F6E73-C33E-660D-47BD-92A21E261144 | accessdate = 2008-05-03] "Billboard" magazine reported the release of "20 Y.O." satisfied Jackson's contract with Virgin Records; Jermaine Dupri, who co-produced "20 Y.O.", left his position as head of urban music at Virgin following the "disappointing performance" of Jackson's album. [Citation |last1=Mitchell |first1=Gail |last2=Garrity |first2=Brian| title=Dupri Exit Fuels Rumors | newspaper=Billboard |volume=118 |issue=44 | page=p. 10 | year=2006 | date= 2006-11-04|issn=00062510]
In January 2007, Jackson was ranked the seventh richest woman in the entertainment business by "Forbes" magazine, having amassed a fortune of over $150 million. [Citation| last = Goldman | first = Lea | coauthors = Kiri Blakeley | title = The 20 Richest Women In Entertainment | publisher = "
Forbes" | date = 2007-01-18| url = http://www.forbes.com/2007/01/17/richest-women-entertainment-tech-media-cz_lg_richwomen07_0118womenstars_lander.html | accessdate = 2008-09-03] Later that year, Jackson starred opposite Tyler Perry as a psychotherapist named Patrica in the feature film " Why Did I Get Married?" The film opened at number one at the box office, grossing $21.4 million in its first week. [Citation| last = Ryan | first = Joal | title = Just Call It Tyler Perry's Box Office | publisher = " E! News" | date = 2007-10-15| url = http://www.eonline.com/news/article/index.jsp?uuid=f2434f0c-455b-44bd-a7cd-0b060a1545bc | accessdate = 2008-04-09] Wesley Morris of "The Boston Globe" commented that Jackson portrayed her character with "soft authority". [Citation| last = Morris | first = Wesley | title = 'Married' is involving, if not blissful | publisher = "The Boston Globe" | date = 2007-10-13| url = http://www.boston.com/movies/display?display=movie&id=10489 | accessdate = 2008-07-29] In February 2008, Jackson won the NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picturefor her role. [Citation |last1= Christian |first1=Margena A | title=NAACP Honors Showbiz Veterans, Newcomers At Image Awards | newspaper=Jet |volume=113 |issue=8 | page=p. 52 | year=2008 | date= 2008-03-03]
In July 2007, Jackson changed labels and signed a record contract with
Island Records. Jackson's tenth studio album, "Discipline", was released in February 2008, by the Island Def Jam Music Group, debuting on the "Billboard" 200 at number one. Jackson and Jermaine Dupri severed as executive producers, long-term collaborators Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis did not contribute, and "Discipline" was the first album on which Jackson did not co-write any of the material since 1984's "Dream Street".Citation|first=Andy |last=Kellman |url=http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&token=&sql=10:w9fqxzwjldke |title=Discipline overview |publisher=Allmusic |accessdate= 2008-04-30] Paul Grein of Yahoo! Musicobserved that with six number one studio albums, Jackson had "surpasse [d] her brother Michael Jackson, who has amassed five [number one] albums."Citation| last = Grein | first = Paul | title = Week Ending March 2, 2008: Jackson Family Drama--Janet Tops Michael In #1 Albums | publisher = Yahoo!| date = 2008-03-02| url = http://new.music.yahoo.com/blogs/chart_watch/5027/week-ending-march-2-2008-jackson-family-dramajanet-tops-michael-in-1-albums | accessdate = 2008-09-03] In an interview with Larry Kingof CNN, Jackson commented, "Discipline. It's the title track on the album ... But I wanted to name the album Discipline because it has a lot of different meanings for me but the most important would be work—to have done this for as long as I have ... And to have had the success that I've had—not excluding God by any means—but it takes a great deal of focus." [Citation | title = Interview with Janet Jackson | series = Larry King Live|publisher=CNN| date= 2008-02-28]
Margeaux Watson of "Entertainment Weekly" referred to the lyrical content as "cheesy", while Dan Cairns of "
The Sunday Times" called the album "bizarre". [Citation | last = Watson | first = Margeaux | title = Discipline Music Review | publisher = "Entertainment Weekly" | date = 2008 | url = http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20178215,00.html | accessdate = 2008-06-14] [Citation| last = Cairns | first = Dan | title = Janet Jackson: Discipline - the Sunday Times review | publisher = " The Sunday Times" | date = 2008-03-02| url = http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/music/cd_reviews/article3453694.ece | accessdate = 2008-06-14] However, Allmusic's Andy Kellman described the album as "innocent, universal inviting as anything else in Janet's past." Prior to the album's debut, the first single from the album, "Feedback", was leaked to select radio stations in the United States in December 2007. The single peaked at number nineteen on the Hot 100. In April 2008, Jackson received the Vanguard Award, a media award from the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamationat the 19th Annual GLAAD Media Awards. The award honors members of the entertainment community who have made a significant difference in promoting equal rights for LGBTpeople. GLAAD President Neil G. Giuliano commented, "Ms. Jackson has a tremendous following inside the LGBT community and out, and having her stand with us against the defamation that LGBT people still face in our country is extremely significant." Jackson's fifth concert tour—the Rock Witchu Tour—began in September 2008. [Citation | last = Moody | first = Nekesa Mumbi | title = Janet Jackson Announces First New Tour in 7 Years | publisher = ABC News | date = 2008-05-19| url = http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/wireStory?id=4888147 | accessdate = 2008-07-23] Amy O'Brian of " The Vancouver Sun" described Jackson's stage show at the GM Placeas a "high-voltage performance".Citation | last = O'Brian | first = Amy | title = Janet Jackson does it right | publisher = " The Vancouver Sun" | date = 2008-09-11| url = http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/story.html?id=e3f64e4b-7e1f-4357-b2f3-bf7d5073ef5a | accessdate = 2008-09-18] According to O'Brian, " [w] ith an ear-piercing blast of pyrotechnics, a fog of thick cloud and dancers that popped up out of the stage and runway, Jackson proved within the first minutes that she didn't choose the low-budget route for her Rock Witchu Tour." Similarly, Jim Harrington of " The Oakland Tribune" offered a positive review, stating: "Like Jackson's previous tours, 'Rock Witchu' was a flashy, high-budget extravaganza built on well-choreographed dance routines and plenty of theatrics." [Citation | last = Harrington | first = Jim | title = Review: The hits kept coming at Janet Jackson's Oakland show | newspaper = The Oakland Tribune| date = 2008-09-14| year = 2008 | issn = 10685936] That same month, Jackson and her record label parted ways through mutual agreement.Citation|first=Mariel |last=Concepcion |url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003853412 |title=Janet Jackson Parts Ways With Island Def Jam |publisher="Billboard" |accessdate= 2008-09-22] In the fourteen months Jackson had been associated with Island Def Jam, her debut album under the label had sold 415,000 copies in the United States and spent fourteen weeks on the "Billboard" charts. "Billboard" reported that due to Jackson's dissatisfaction with her album's promotion, "the label agreed to dissolve their relationship with the artist at her request."
Musical style and performance
Jackson has a
mezzo-sopranovocal range. [Citation | last = Dean | first = Maury | title = Rock-N-Roll Gold Rush | publisher = Algora Publishing | date = 2003 | page = 34| isbn = 0875862071] "Rolling Stone" magazine observed, " [h] er wispy voice was a pale echo of Michael's, but on Janet's albums—and in her videos and live performances, which revealed a crisp, athletic dance technique not unlike her brother's—singing wasn't the point", instead commenting that importance was instead placed on " [h] er slamming beats, infectious hooks, and impeccable production values." Jackson's voice has also been praised on occasion. Eric Henderson of "Slant" claimed critics who judged Jackson harshly for her thin voice "somehow missed the explosive 'gimme a beat' vocal pyrotechnics she unleashes all over 'Nasty' ... Or that they completely dismissed how perfect her tremulous hesitance fits into the abstinence anthem 'Let's Wait Awhile'." [Citation| last=Henderson | first=Eric | title = Slant Magazine Music Review: Janet Jackson: Control | publisher = "Slant" | date = 2003 | url = http://www.slantmagazine.com/music/music_review.asp?ID=367 | accessdate = 2008-06-30] David Ritz of "Rolling Stone" compared Jackson's musical style to that of Marvin Gaye, stating, " [l] ike Marvin, autobiography seemed the sole source of her music. Her art, also like Marvin's, floated over a reservoir of secret pain." Jackson has credited her older brothers Michael and Jermaine as her primary musical influences.Citation| last= Ritz | first= David | title = Sex, sadness & the triumph of Janet Jackson | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date = 1998-10-01| url = http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5938082/sex_sadness__the_triumph_of_janet_jackson | accessdate = 2008-04-23] Other artists attributed as influences on Jackson's music according to "Rolling Stone" are The Ronettes, Dionne Warwick, Tammi Terrelland Diana Ross.Citation| title = Janet Jackson: Rolling Stone | publisher = "Rolling Stone" | date = 2008 | url = http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/janetjackson | accessdate = 2008-04-23]
Jackson's music has encompassed a broad range of genres, including R&B, pop, soul, rap, rock, and dance. Qadree EI-Amin, Jackson's former personal manager, commented, " [s] he's bigger than
Barbra Streisandbecause Streisand can't appeal to the street crowd, as Janet does. But Streisand's rich, elite crowd loves Janet Jackson." When producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis produced Jackson's 1986 album "Control", they introduced the emerging style of new jack swing into her music. Richard J. Ripani documented that Jackson and her producers "crafted a new sound that fuses the rhythmic elements of funk and disco, along with heavy doses of synthesizers, percussion, sound effects, and a rap music sensibility."
Jackson has changed her lyrical focus over the years. Gillian G. Gaar, author of "She's a Rebel: The History of Women in Rock & Roll" (2002), described "Control" as "an autobiographical tale about her life with her parents, her first marriage, and breaking free." Rickey Vincent stated in his book "Funk: The Music, The People, and The Rhythm of The One" (1996) that "Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814" "was the boldest and most successful pop attempt to combine social commentary, celebration, and state-of-the-art dance funk since her brother Michael's efforts to be "Bad"." [Citation| last = Vincent | first = Rickey | coauthors = George Clinton | title = Funk: The Music, The People, and The Rhythm of The One | publisher = Macmillan | date = 1996 | page = 284 | isbn = 0312134991] On "janet.", Jackson began to deal primarily with sexual themes. Joshua Klein wrote in "
The Washington Post" that Jackson's public image over the course of her career had shifted "from innocence to experience, inspiring such carnal albums as 1993's 'Janet' and 1997's 'The Velvet Rope', the latter of which explored the bonds—figuratively and literally—of love and lust."Citation | last= Klein| first=Joshua | title=Janet Jackson's Lighthearted Lament About Lost Love | newspaper= The Washington Post| page= p. C01 | year=2001 | date= 2001-04-25] Jackson explained the recurring themes on her later albums by saying, "I love love and I love sex." [Citation| last = Murray | first = Sonia | title = Atlanta Music Scene: "Classic Janet --- With A Modern Twist" | publisher = " The Atlanta Journal and Constitution" |url= http://www.accessatlanta.com/blogs/content/shared-blogs/accessatlanta/MusicScene/entries/2008/02/06/classic_janet_with_a_modern_tw.html | date = 2008-02-06| accessdate = 2008-04-23] She stated during promotion for "janet.", "I love feeling deeply sexual—and don't mind letting the world know. For me, sex has become a celebration, a joyful part of the creative process."
Jackson drew her inspiration from the musicals she watched in her youth for her music videos and performances, and was heavily influenced by the choreography of
Fred Astaireand Michael Kidd, among others.Citation| last = Mitoma | first = Judy | co-authors= Judith Mitoma, Elizabeth Zimmer, Dale Ann Stieber, Nelli Heinonen, Norah Zuňiga Shaw| title = Envisioning dance on film and video | publisher = Routledge | date = 2002 | page = 16 | isbn = 0415941717] Throughout her career, Jackson has worked with numerous professional choreographers such as Paula Abdul, Michael Kidd, and Tina Landon. Landon also took part in the choreography for Michael and Janet Jackson's 1995 music video "Scream". [Citation| last = Cutcher | first = Jenai | title = Feel the Beat: Dancing in Music Videos | publisher = The Rosen Publishing Group | date = 2003 | pages = 14–16 | isbn = 0823945588] Janine Coveney of "Billboard" observed that "Jackson's musical declaration of independence ["Control"] launched a string of hits, an indelible production sound, and an enduring image cemented by groundbreaking video choreography and imagery that pop vocalists still emulate." Qadree EI-Amin remarked that artists such as "Britney Spears and Christina Aguilerapattern their performances after Janet's proven dance-diva persona."Citation | last1 = Norment | first1 = Lynn | title = Janet: At the crossroads | volume = 56 | issue = 1 | page = p. 180 | newspaper = Ebony | date = 2000-11-01| year = 2000 | issn = 00129011]
"The Independent" writer Nicholas Barber commented in his review for The Velvet Rope Tour that "Janet's concerts are the pop equivalent of a summer blockbuster movie, with all the explosions, special effects, ersatz sentimentality, gratuitous cleavage and emphasis on spectacle over coherence that the term implies."Citation |last=Barber | first=Nicholas | title=Rock music: Janet Jackson gets lost in her own limelight | newspaper=
The Independent| page=p. 6 | year=1998 | date= 1998-06-07] When "The Los Angeles Times" reporter Robert Hilburn asked Jackson " [d] o you understand it when people talk about [The Velvet Rope Tour] in terms of Broadway?", she responded, "I'm crazy about Broadway ... That's what I grew up on." Thor Christensen of the " Dallas Morning News" reported that Jackson lip syncs in concert; he wrote, "Janet Jackson—one of pop's most notorious onstage lip-syncers—conceded ... she uses 'some' taped vocals to augment her live vocals. But she refused to say what percentage of her concert 'voice' is taped and how much is live."Citation| last1 = Christensen | first1 = Thor | title = Loose Lips: Pop Singers' Lip-Syncing In Concert Is An Open Secret| page = p. B.8 | newspaper = Pittsburgh Post-Gazette| date = 2001-09-15| year = 2001 | issn = 1068624X] Jackson's ex-husband and former choreographer René Elizondo Jr. commented, " [i] f Janet sat on the stool and strummed her guitar, she could sing an eight-hour show ... Whoever says they don't use taped vocals doesn't dance."
The baby sister of the "precious Jackson clan", [Citation| last = Strong | first = Martin | title = The Great Rock Discography: Complete Discographies Listing Every Track | publisher = Canongate U.S. | date = 2004 | page = 749 | isbn = 1841956155] Janet Jackson has strived to distance her professional career from that of her older brother Michael and the rest of the Jackson family. Phillip McCarthy of "
Sydney Morning Herald" noted that throughout her recording career, one of her common conditions for interviewers has been that there would be no mention of Michael. [Citation| last = McCarthy | first = Phillip | title = Don't mention Michael | publisher = " Sydney Morning Herald" | date = 2008-02-25| url = http://www.smh.com.au/news/music/dont-mention-michael/2008/02/24/1203788136217.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap2 | accessdate = 2008-03-11] Joshua Klein wrote, " [f] or the first half of her recording career, Janet Jackson sounded like an artist with something to prove. Emerging in 1982 just as big brother Michael was casting his longest shadow, Jackson filled her albums not so much with songs as with declarations, from 'The Pleasure Principle' to the radical-sounding 'Rhythm Nation' to the telling statement of purpose, 'Control'." Steve Huey of Allmusic asserted that despite being born into a family of entertainers, Janet Jackson has managed to emerge a "superstar" in her own right, rivaling not only several female recording artists including Madonna and Whitney Houston, but also her brother, while "successfully [shifting] her image from a strong, independent young woman to a sexy, mature adult." [Citation| last = Huey | first = Steve | title = Janet Jackson > Biography | publisher = Allmusic| date = 2008 | url = http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:fifuxqe5ldae~T1 | accessdate = 2008-06-07] Klein argued that "stardom was not too hard to predict, but few could have foreseen that Janet—Miss Jackson, if you're nasty—would one day replace Michael as true heir to the Jackson family legacy."
Jim Cullen observed in "Popular Culture in American History" (2001) that although it was Michael Jackson's "Thriller" that originally synchronized
music videowith album sales, Janet Jackson saw the visualization of her music elevate her to the status of a pop culture icon. [Citation| last = Cullen | first = Jim | title = Popular Culture in American History | publisher = Blackwell Publishing| date = 2001 | page = 280 | isbn = 0631219587] According to Larry Starr and Christopher Alan Waterman, authors of "American Popular Music : The Rock Years" (2006), when the American music industry began its economic recovery in the mid-1980s from the fall of the disco era, Janet Jackson, among other multi-platinum selling music artists, was acknowledged for stimulating the overall increase in consumer purchasing of LPs, cassette tapes and CDs. [Citation| last = Starr | first = Larry | coauthors = Christopher Alan Waterman | title = American Popular Music : The Rock Years | publisher = New York Oxford University Press | date = 2006 | location = NY | page = 231 | isbn = 9780195300529] In March 2008, Business Wirereported "Janet Jackson is one of the top ten selling artists in the history of contemporary music; ranked by "Billboard" magazine as the ninth most successful act in rock and roll history, and the second most successful female artist in pop music history."
Jackson's musical style and choreography have influenced a number of recording artists. R&B singer Cassie has referred to herself as "die-hard Janet Jackson fan" and elaborated, "I'd love to emulate Janet's career—totally ... She's incredible, from her moves to her voice."Citation | last= Bobbin | first= Jay | title= Imitation nation ; World of pop music filled with copycats | newspaper= Chicago Tribune | page=p. 54 | year=2006 | date=
2006-08-09|issn=10856706] The "Chicago Tribune" reported, "Cassie isn't the first artist to be measured against Janet Jackson, and odds are she won't be the last." "Aaliyah Remembered" (2005) documented that Janet Jackson was someone Aaliyahhad "always desired to work with" and Aaliyah herself commented, "I admire her a great deal. She's a total performer ... I'd love to do a duet with Janet Jackson."Citation | last = Sutherland | first = William | title = Aaliyah Remembered | publisher = Trafford Publishing | date = 2005 | page = 9 | isbn = 9781412050623] Ciarahas acknowledged Janet Jackson as one of her primary influences, stating, "It seems like just yesterday I was watching Janet Jackson on TV; now, some people compare me to her." [Citation | last= Bobbin | first= Jay | title= Evolution into an R&B star Singer Ciara stays on the rise with BET Awards in her sights | newspaper= Newsday | page=p. B.21 | year=2007 | date= 2007-06-26|issn=1323221591] Sonia Murray of "The Atlanta Journal and Constitution" reported Beyoncé Knowles"has been nothing but reverential of the singer"; Knowles expressed "I love Janet Jackson! ... I have nothing but positive things to say about her." [Citation | last= Murray | first=Sonia | title= Janet & Beyonce: Rivals or not, the stars share surprising similarities | newspaper= The Atlanta Journal and Constitution | page=p. F.1 | year=2007 | date= 2006-08-18|issn=15397459] Pam Sitt of " The Seattle Times" reported that "pop stars Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera, among others, have credited Jackson as an influence." [Citation | last= Sitt | first=Pam | title= Happier, sexier Janet Jackson gives a knockout performance | newspaper= The Seattle Times| page=p. E.1 | year=2001 | date= 2001-07-09|issn=07459696]
* "Janet Jackson" (1982)
* "Dream Street" (1984)
* "Control" (1986)
Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814" (1989)
The Velvet Rope" (1997)
* "All for You" (2001)
* "Damita Jo" (2004)
20 Y.O." (2006)
* "Discipline" (2008)
Poetic Justice" (1993)
* "" (2000)
Why Did I Get Married?" (2007)
Honorific titles in popular music
List of best-selling albums (United States)
List of best-selling albums worldwide
List of best-selling music artists
List of best selling music artists in U.S.
List of number-one hits (United States)
*Brackett, Nathan. Hoard, Christian David. "The New Rolling Stone Album Guide".
Simon and Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0743201698
*Cornwell, Jane. "Janet Jackson"
Carlton Books, 2002. ISBN 1842224646
*Cullen, Jim. "Popular Culture in American History".
Blackwell Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0631219587
*Cutcher, Jenai. "Feel the Beat: Dancing in Music Videos". The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. ISBN 0823945588
*Dean, Maury. "Rock-N-Roll Gold Rush". Algora Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0875862071
*Gaar, Gillian G. "She's a rebel: the history of women in rock & roll". Seal Press, 2002. ISBN 1580050786
*Gates, Henry Louis. Appiah, Anthony. "Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American". Basic Civitas Books, 1999. ISBN 0465000711
*Halstead, Craig. Cadman, Chris. "Jacksons Number Ones". Authors On Line, 2003. ISBN 0755200985
*Jaynes, Gerald David. "Encyclopedia of African American Society".
Sage Publications, 2005. ISBN 0761927646
*Kramarae, Cheris. Spender, Dale. "Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge". Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0415920914
*Mitoma, Judy. Mitoma, Judith. Zimmer, Elizabeth. Stieber, Dale Ann. Heinonen, Nelli. Shaw, Norah Zuňiga. "Envisioning dance on film and video". Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0415941717
*Ripani, Richard J. "The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999" Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2006. ISBN 1578068622
*Starr, Larry. Waterman, Christopher Alan. "American Popular Music : The Rock Years". New York Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 9780195300529
*Strong, Martin Charles. "The Great Rock Discography: Complete Discographies Listing Every Track Recorded by More Than 1200 Artists". Canongate U.S., 2004. ISBN 1841956155
*Vincent, Rickey. Clinton, George. "Funk: The Music, The People, and The Rhythm of The One". Macmillan, 1996. ISBN 0312134991
*Bronson, Fred. "The Billboard Book of Number One Hits". Billboard Books, 2003. ISBN 0823076776
*Hyatt, Wesley. "The Billboard Book of Number One Adult Contemporary Hits". Billboard Books, 1999. ISBN 0823076938
*Warner, Jay. "On this Day in Black Music History".
Hal Leonard, 2006. ISBN 0634099264
* [http://www.janetjackson.com/ Official website]
* [http://www.islandrecords.com/site/artist_home.php?artist_id=679 Janet Jackson's official web page at Island Records]
NAME = Jackson, Janet
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Jackson, Janet Damita Jo
SHORT DESCRIPTION = American singer-songwriter and actress
DATE OF BIRTH = May 16, 1966
PLACE OF BIRTH = Gary,
Indiana, United States
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