- Campaign against Dong Zhuo
Campaign against Dong Zhuo Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms
A mural in Fragrant Hills depicting the famous joust between the three sworn brothers and Lü Bu at Hulao Pass in a fictional encounter.
Date February 190 - 191 CE Location Henan, China Result Inconclusive;
Dong Zhuo retreats west, Coalition disbanded
Belligerents Guandong Coalition Dong Zhuo Commanders and leaders Yuan Shao Dong Zhuo Strength 100,000+ Described as less than coalitions'Yellow Turbans – Liang Province – Dong Zhuo (Xingyang) – Yangcheng – Jieqiao – Xiangyang – Fengqiu – Xu Province – Yan Province – Jiangdong – Wancheng – Xiapi – Yijing – Yuan Shu – Guandu – Bowang – Xiakou – Ye – White Wolf Mtn. – Jiangxia – Red Cliffs – Jiangling – Tong Pass – Yi Province – Yangping – Hanzhong – Xiaoyao Ford – Ruxukou – Fancheng – Jing Province – Xiaoting – Southern Campaign – Northern Expeditions – Shiting – Liaodong – Xingshi – Goguryeo – Jiang's Expeditions (Didao) – Shouchun – Fall of Shu – Fall of Wu Campaign against Dong Zhuo Traditional Chinese 董卓討伐戰 Simplified Chinese 董卓讨伐战 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Dǒng Zhuó Tǎofá Zhàn
The Campaign against Dong Zhuo was a punitive expedition initiated by a coalition of regional officials and warlords against Dong Zhuo, Chancellor of State, in 190 during the late Han Dynasty of Chinese history. The members of the coalition claimed that Dong had the intention of usurping the throne by holding the Emperor Xian hostage and by establishing a strong influence in the imperial court. They justified their campaign as to remove Dong from power. The campaign led to the evacuation of the capital Luoyang and the shifting of the imperial court to the new capital of Chang'an. It was a prelude to the end of the Han Dynasty and, subsequently, the Three Kingdoms period.
In Luo Guanzhong's historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the campaign is memorable for at least two famous incidents: one is Guan Yu's slaying of Hua Xiong; the other is the three-on-one duel between the three sworn brothers (Liu Bei, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei) and Lü Bu. The two scenes are often reenacted in Chinese opera along with other famous scenes from the novel. Both incidents however, are fictional; Hua was killed in a battle against Sun Jian. Liu, Guan and Zhang were not active in the campaign. Instead, they were fighting remnants of the Yellow Turban rebels in the north and thus did not duel with Lü Bu, who, historically, was defeated by Sun Jian in battle.
- 1 Background
- 2 Course of events
- 3 In fiction
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Following the death of Emperor Ling in 189, General-in-Chief He Jin summoned the frontier general Dong Zhuo from the northwest into the capital city of Luoyang. Dong was ordered to lead his troops into the capital city to aid He in eliminating the eunuch faction, the Ten Attendants, from the imperial court. However, before Dong Zhuo's arrival, He Jin's plan was revealed and he was assassinated by the eunuchs. He Jin's associates led by Yuan Shao stormed the palace after the assassination and started massacring eunuchs. The young Emperor Shao and his younger brother, the Prince of Chenliu, were brought out of the palace by the surviving eunuchs during the chaos. The emperor lost the Imperial Seal during his escape. They were eventually discovered by a search party and escorted back to the palace safely by Dong Zhuo and his men.
In 190, Dong Zhuo deposed Emperor Shao and installed the Prince of Chenliu on the throne. The prince became historically known as Emperor Xian. Dong appointed himself as Chancellor of State, an official post abolished almost 200 years ago. On March 26 in the same year, Dong had the Prince of Hongnong (the former Emperor Shao) and Empress Dowager He killed.
Since then, Dong Zhuo had established a strong influence in the imperial court. He was authoritarian and showed no regard for the absolute monarchy as he made the final decisions on policies without consulting or seeking approval from the emperor. He eliminated several of his opponents in the imperial court to further strengthen his grip over the feudal system. Yuan Shao fled from Luoyang after openly disagreeing with Dong Zhuo's decision to depose Emperor Shao. Dong Zhuo feared that Yuan Shao might rise in revolt against him as Yuan was also an influential figure in politics as well. Dong heeded his advisor's suggestions and proposed to the emperor to appoint Yuan as Grand Administrator of Bohai as an act of appeasement.
Course of events
Formation of the coalition
While in Bohai, Yuan Shao was not appeased by Dong Zhuo's proposal to appoint him as Grand Administrator. He planned to start a coup d'etat to remove Dong from power by rising in revolt but he was kept in check by Han Fu, the Governor of Ji Province (冀州).
At the same time, the Grand Administrator of Dong Commandery (東郡), Qiao Mao, forged letters of accusation against Dong Zhuo, denouncing him as a traitor with the intention of usurping the throne, calling for a punitive expedition against Dong. These letters were distributed all around the nation in the name of officials from the capital. Regional officials and warlords all around China received the letters and responded to the call to remove Dong Zhuo from power.
In February 190, the Guandong Coalition (關東聯軍, literally: Coalition East of the Pass) was formed after several regional officials and warlords gathered east of Hangu Pass with their armies in response to the call for a punitive war against Dong Zhuo. Yuan Shao was elected to be the leader of the coalition. The forces of Sun Jian and Cao Cao also participated in the campaign under the banners of Yuan Shu and Zhang Miao respectively. The participants of the campaign included:
The coalition forces encamped in several locations east of the capital city of Luoyang, effectively surrounding it. The locations of the coalition members in relation to Luoyang are as follows:
- To the north, in Henei (河內): Yuan Shao, Wang Kuang, Zhang Yang, Yufuluo
- To the east, in Suanzao (酸棗): Zhang Miao, Liu Dai, Qiao Mao, Yuan Yi
- To the south, in Luyang (魯陽): Yuan Shu
- To the southeast, in Yingchuan (穎川): Kong Zhou
- To the northeast, in Ye: Han Fu
The blockade had the effect of cutting supplies from the eastern part of the Han empire from the capital, which drastically reduced the government's tax revenue. In response, Dong Zhuo melted statues and treasures for all the bronze he could find to mint more coinage, flooding the market, with the ultimate effect of rampant inflation throughout the empire.
Despite the impressive showing of force, most of the coalition's armies were hurriedly rallied family retainers and opportunists for loot with little battle experience. The leader of the coalition Yuan Shao himself had not seen action in much of the 180s since he had been in six years mourning for first his mother and then his adoptive father, during which he could not participate in military matters. This is contrasted with Dong Zhuo's battle-hardened frontiersmen, who had previously fought in the Liang Province Rebellion.
Razing of Luoyang
Dong Zhuo was alarmed by the formation of the Guandong Coalition against him. He proposed that the capital of Luoyang be evacuated immediately and the imperial court be shifted to Chang'an in the west. All civilians were to evacuate Luoyang as well and move to Chang'an, with only Dong and his military staying behind to defend Luoyang from the coalition forces.
Dong Zhuo's proposal was met with strong criticisms from other court officials but Dong silenced them by deposing anyone who opposed him. On April 9, Dong's proposal was implemented. He ordered his soldiers to loot and rob the rich households of Luoyang and drive Luoyang's civilian population towards Chang'an. Emperor Xian, nobles, aristocrats and officials followed the civilians and Dong's troops as they made their long journey towards Chang'an. Anyone who refused to obey orders to evacuate Chang'an was killed immediately on the spot. Dong Zhuo also ordered Lü Bu to lead men to raid ancient tombs and burial mounts for their valuables and treasure. After the evacuation, Luoyang was set on fire and razed to the ground. Chen Shou's Records of Three Kingdoms described the event as "the numbers of the innocent dead were beyond measurement".
In Suanzao (酸棗), Cao Cao led his men westward to attack Dong Zhuo's forces. He was followed by a contingent from Zhang Miao's army led by Wei Zi. Cao Cao's army was defeated by Dong's forces, led by Xu Rong, in the Battle of Xingyang, and Cao Cao himself was injured in battle. Cao Hong offered his steed to him and he followed Cao Cao on foot, and they managed to escape from the battlefield. Xu withdrew his troops after the battle.
When Cao Cao returned to Suanzao, he suggested that the coalition pursue Dong Zhuo's retreating forces to threaten Dong by showing him that the coalition was still on the move. However, Zhang Miao and the others present dismissed his suggestion. Cao Cao then led his men to join Yuan Shao in Henei together with Xiahou Dun. After Cao's departure, the coalition forces stationed in Suanzao ran out of supplies and dispersed. Liu Dai seized the opportunity to kill Qiao Mao, whom he held a grudge against.
At the same time, Dong Zhuo sent reputable men such as Han Rong (韓融), Yin Xiu (陰修), Humu Ban (胡毋班), Wu Xiu (吳修), and Wang Gui (王瑰) to see Yuan Shao and negotiate for an armistice. However, Yuan had all the negotiators detained and killed except for Han Rong. Seeing peace was impossible, Dong Zhuo rapidly surrounded Wang Kuang's encampment in Heyang Ford (河陽津) north of Luoyang and dealt a defeat so severe that Wang Kuang abandoned the coalition and fled back to his home in Taishan commandery (泰山郡).
Sun Jian's advances
In Luyang to the south, Sun Jian, who had joined Yuan Shu with 20,000 - 30,000 men, was given the rank General Who Quells Rebels (破虜將軍) and Governor of Yu Province by Yuan. Yuan made Sun the vanguard, and Sun started to train his men in Luyang.
In the winter of 190, Dong Zhuo sent a force of some ten thousands to attack Luyang. At the time, Sun Jian's men were having a drinking party, but Sun did not stir upon hearing the news; instead, he calmly continued to pass his wine around while his troops gathered into formation. Seeing such discipline, Dong Zhuo's men turned around and retreated.
In March 191, Sun Jian moved his camp north to Liangdong (梁東), but he was outnumbered by Xu Rong there. With several dozen men, he broke through the encirclement. Seeing that his red scarf could easily identify him, Sun gave it to his trusted general Zu Mao, whom Xu Rong's soldiers chased while Sun escaped. Zu Mao later hung the scarf onto a half-burnt pillar, and hid himself in the tall grasses nearby. The enemies surrounded the pillar and approached cautiously till they realized they had been fooled, whereupon they retreated.
Gathering his scattered armies, Sun Jian went forward to camp in Yangren (陽人). This time, Dong Zhuo sent Hua Xiong, Hu Zhen, and Lü Bu with 5000 men to attack Sun. However, Lü Bu, who was in charge of cavalry, was not in good terms with Hu Zhen and quarrelled with him. Sun Jian seized the opportunity to attack them, and Dong Zhuo's forces were defeated in a rout. Hua Xiong was captured by Sun and promptly executed.
At this time, someone told Yuan Shu that if Sun Jian defeated Dong Zhuo and took over the capital, he would not be controllable anymore. The doubtful Yuan then ceased providing supplies to Sun. Sun rode the hundred odd li from Yangren to Luyang in the night to see Yuan, whereupon he said to the latter, "I put myself in danger during battle, with a primary purpose to eliminate a traitor (Dong Zhuo) for the country and second to avenge the deaths of your kinsmen (Yuan Shu's uncle was killed by Dong Zhuo). I have no personal grudge against Dong Zhuo. Yet you believed slanderous talks and suspect me!" The words put Yuan to shame and he immediately ordered the food supply to be delivered.
Fearing Sun Jian, Dong Zhuo sent his subordinate Li Jue as an emissary to seek peace and cement an alliance. Li Jue also promised Sun Jian appointments in the government service for his sons. To this, Sun replied, "Dong Zhuo opposes Heaven and defies the law. Until I have killed you and all your clan, and shown your heads to the four seas, I shall not be able to die in peace. How can I ally with you?"
Sun Jian then led his forces to Dagu Pass (大谷關), a fortified pass guarding Luoyang to the south, 90 li away from Luoyang. Dong Zhuo personally fought in the battle at the Later Han tombs, but was defeated and fled to Mianchi and Shan (陝), west of Luoyang. Sun Jian then continued to march into Luoyang, where he met and routed the forces of Lü Bu. Settling in, Sun ordered his men to reseal the tombs of former emperors that were excavated by Dong Zhuo. It was said in Wei Zhao's Book of Wu (吳書) that Sun Jian found the lost Imperial Seal in a well south of Luoyang and kept it for himself.
Sun Jian then sent part of his force forward to Xin'an and Mianchi to threaten Dong Zhuo's defense positions. Dong now sent Dong Yue (董越) to camp at Mianchi, Duan Wei (段煨) to camp at Huayin, and Niu Fu to camp at Anyi (安邑). His other commanders were spread out among the counties to block any attack from the east of the mountains. After these arrangements, Dong Zhuo led his own troops away to Chang'an.
Having repaired the imperial tombs, Sun Jian led his army back to Luyang as the ruined Luoyang was vulnerable to possible counterattacks by Dong Zhuo. The former capital of Luoyang was now abandoned by both contending forces.
Despite Sun Jian's successes, the coalition did not build upon them due to poor communication and coordination among the leaders. The warlords in the east were unaware that Emperor Xian was still alive as they were isolated by the passes separating Luoyang from the east. Yuan Shao and Han Fu proposed to enthrone Liu Yu, the Inspector of You Province (幽州) and a member of the imperial clan, as the new emperor. Cao Cao and Yuan Shu disagreed with the proposal. When Yuan Shao and Han Fu sent a messenger to Liu Yu to inform him, Liu rebuked the messenger sternly and refused the offer flatly. Liu expressed his loyalty to the current Emperor Xian and threatened to head north into Xiongnu territory if Yuan Shao insisted that he become the new emperor. After repeated failed attempts, Yuan Shao decided to give up. In addition, the warlords turned their attention from Dong Zhuo back to themselves and started to pursue their individual interests again instead of uniting against Dong Zhuo.
Han Fu, who was in charge of provisions, gradually stopped supplying the coalition army. His subordinate Qu Yi rebelled against him and defeated him before defecting over to Yuan Shao. The incident alerted Yuan of his need to secure his sources of supply and he plotted to seize Han's lands. Yuan collaborated with Gongsun Zan secretly to attack Han Fu's Ji Province (冀州) and eventually Han surrendered Ji Province to Yuan.
Yuan Shao sent Zhou Yu (Renming) to attack Sun Jian, who was returning from Luoyang to join Yuan Shu. In the Battle of Yangcheng, Zhou made a surprise attack on Sun's camp at Yangcheng and captured it. Yuan Shu sent Gongsun Yue to assist Sun Jian in fighting Zhou Yu. Gongsun Yue was killed in the battle even though it was a victory for Sun Jian. Gongsun Zan held Yuan Shao responsible for Gongsun Yue's death and declared war on Yuan Shao, which led to the Battle of Jieqiao subsequently.
By then, the coalition had failed and collapsed, existing only in name.
Death of Dong Zhuo
For the following year, the warlords ceased to take any action against Dong Zhuo. Dong occasionally sent an army to attack the warlord Zhu Jun and plundered his territory.
Dong Zhuo returned to his tyrant status in the imperial court, but he had become less tolerant towards dissent, as any official who uttered a slight offensive remark would be killed immediately. He installed all members of his clan and relatives by marriage in high-ranking official posts. Even his infant sons were conferred titles of marquises and played with gold seals and purple tassels.
Court officials Wang Yun, Huang Wan (黃琬), Shisun Rui (士孫瑞) and Yang Zan (楊瓚) plotted to assassinate Dong Zhuo. They persuaded Lü Bu to join their cause because Lü's relationship with Dong was becoming increasingly strained after Dong threw a hand-axe at him and due to his affair with one of Dong's chambermaids.
On 22 May 192, Dong Zhuo was on the way to an assembly in his chariot when Li Su advanced towards him and stabbed him. Dong shouted for Lü Bu to protect him, but Lü killed him instead. Dong's relatives were executed after his death while his corpse was left exposed on the streets of Chang'an. The officer guarding the corpse lit a wick on the navel and it burned for days on the fats of the corpse.
After Dong Zhuo's death, several of his loyalists, such as Fan Chou, Guo Si and Li Jue, escaped as they believed that their loyalty towards Dong Zhuo would be considered as treason. Wang Yun, who had taken control of the government after Dong Zhuo's death, heard their appeal for amnesty and said, "Of all those who should be pardoned, they are the exceptions." Dong's loyalists were outraged by Wang's remarks and waged war. However, they were defeated by Lü Bu and the imperial forces. Eventually, Dong Zhuo's remnant forces managed to outwit Lü Bu by distracting him and they seized control of Chang'an. Wang Yun was killed.
The power of the Eastern Han Dynasty fell into the hands of Dong Zhuo's remnants after that and gradually evolved into a struggle for power, which spread throughout the nation progressively.
In the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the author Luo Guanzhong employed artistic license rather freely as he changed some details of this campaign to better portray the main characters. For example, there is no historical evidence that Liu Bei, Guan Yu, and Zhang Fei participated in the campaign, yet their achievements eclipse that of Sun Jian's in the novel. Luo Guanzhong also simplified some of the historical events, invented fictional battles, and changed the sequence of events. However, due to the popularity of the novel, many people hold the events detailed in the novel to be true, not knowing the true history as presented in definitive sources such as the Book of the Later Han, Records of Three Kingdoms, or Zizhi Tongjian. This fictional account of history is also adopted by many Chinese operas and video games.
Uprising against Dong Zhuo
In chapter 5 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao attempted to assassinate Dong Zhuo by failed and escaped to his hometown in Chenliu. Subsequently, Cao sent secret imperial decrees, in the name of the emperor, to various regional warlords and officials, ordering them to rise up against Dong Zhuo and remove him from power. Many responded to the call and they formed the Anti-Dong Zhuo Coalition (反董卓聯合軍).
The novel has a slightly different list of participants in the coalition:
- Cao Cao, Colonel of Resolute Cavalry
- Yuan Shu, General of the Rear, Grand Administrator of Nanyang
- Han Fu, Governor of Ji Province
- Kong Zhou, Inspector of Yu Province
- Liu Dai, Inspector of Yan Province
- Wang Kuang, Grand Administrator of Henei
- Zhang Miao, Grand Administrator of Chenliu
- Qiao Mao, Grand Administrator of Dong Commandery
- Yuan Yi, Grand Administrator of Shanyang
- Bao Xin, Chancellor of Jibei
- Kong Rong, Grand Administrator of Beihai
- Zhang Chao, Grand Administrator of Guangling
- Tao Qian, Inspector of Xu Province
- Ma Teng, Grand Administrator of Western Liang
- Gongsun Zan, Grand Administrator of Beiping
- Zhang Yang, Grand Administrator of Shangdang
- Sun Jian, Grand Administrator of Changsha, Marquis of Wucheng
- Yuan Shao, Grand Administrator of Bohai, Marquis of Qixiang
With eighteen warlords participating in the novel, the campaign is thus popularly known as "The eighteen warlords' campaign against Dong Zhuo" (十八路諸侯討董卓). In this campaign, Liu Bei, with his sworn brothers Guan Yu and Zhang Fei, offered their service to Gongsun Zan, Liu's friend and former classmate. After the warlords pledged allegiance to the coalition, they insisted to have Yuan Shao as the commander-in-chief, a role which Yuan Shao reluctantly accepted. Yuan Shao then put Yuan Shu in charge of provisions, and appointed Sun Jian as the vanguard to attack Sishui Pass.
Battle of Sishui Pass
Dong Zhuo placed Hua Xiong with 50,000 men at the fortified Sishui Pass to ward off the attack. Having repelled Sun Jian and singlehandedly slain four generals of the coalition – Bao Zhong, Zu Mao, Yu She and Pan Feng – Hua seemed indomitable. Despite mistrust from many warlords of the coalition, Guan Yu, a mere mounted archer then, volunteered to duel Hua Xiong. To convince them to grant him an opportunity, Guan announced that he would give up his head to the coalition if he failed to defeat Hua. Cao Cao, one of the coalition leaders, was impressed with Guan's bravery and poured him a cup of warm wine, but Guan declined, claiming that he would be back soon. Moments later, Guan returned with Hua Xiong's head as promised, and gulped down the wine, which was still warm.
Alarmed by Hua Xiong's death, Dong Zhuo had Li Jue and Guo Si guard Sishui Pass with 50,000 men while he himself went to Hulao Pass with Lü Bu with a force of 150,000. Seeing this, the coalition then turned around to attack Hulao Pass, hoping to strike Dong Zhuo directly.
Battle of Hulao Pass
Eight coalition leaders were sent to confront Lü Bu at his camp in front of Hulao Pass. Wang Kuang was the first to strike, and Lü Bu led 3,000 men to meet Wang. Fang Yue, one of Wang's generals, rode out to duel Lü Bu but was soon killed by him. Lü Bu continued on, dashing Wang's army apart. Zhang Yang's general Mu Shun, Kong Rong's general Wu Anguo (武安國), and Gongsun Zan, consecutively took turns to fight Lü, but none of them was able to win - Mu Shun was slain; Wu Anguo lost a hand; Gongsun Zan retreated.
Riding forth on his steed, the Red Hare, with halberd in hand, Lü Bu taunted for more challengers to duel him. Wielding his Serpent Spear, Zhang Fei galloped out to fight Lü Bu. Neither could gain an advantage over the other for more than 50 bouts. Then Guan Yu, brandishing his Green Dragon Crescent Blade, dashed out to assist his oath brother. The three fighters were engaged in another 30 bouts or so when Liu Bei, holding up his Twin Swords, also joined in the fray.
Like a merry-go-round, the three brothers galloped in a circle caging Lü Bu inside. Unable to face the combined efforts of his three opponents, Lü then made a feign at Liu Bei and retreated through the resulting gap back to the pass gate. The trio pursued Lü but were unable to catch up as the Red Hare was faster than their horses. They turned their attention to Dong Zhuo after spotting him, but were unsuccessful in the chase.
Battle of Xingyang
In light of his recent defeat, Dong Zhuo asked his aide Li Ru for advice. Li responded that the whole army should retreat to Chang'an, bringing Luoyang's citizens and the imperial court with them. Dong Zhuo applauded the idea, and, despite heavy objection, carried on with the move, and razed Luoyang to the ground. Zhao Cen, the guard for Sishui Pass at the time, abandoned the pass once he knew of Dong Zhuo's retreat.
The coalition pressed on to Luoyang, where Sun Jian ordered his men to put out the fire while the warlords settled in the former capital, which was now in ruins. Cao Cao proposed to pursue Dong Zhuo's retreating army, but was rejected by Yuan Shao, who said that their troops needed rest. Cao ignored Yuan and proceeded to lead his own men in pursuit of Dong Zhuo.
At Xingyang, Cao Cao encountered Lü Bu and they engaged in fighting, but Dong Zhuo's other generals Li Jue and Guo Si appeared from behind Cao and surrounded him. Cao's forces were eventually overwhelmed and retreated. As Cao Cao's troops were preparing to settle for the night, Dong's general Xu Rong launched a surprise attack and routed Cao's camp. During his escape, Cao Cao was hit in the shoulder by an arrow and lost his horse; however, due to the heroics of Cao Hong, Cao Cao was able to return safely to the coalition headquarters. Xu Rong gave chase to Cao Cao but was intercepted by Xiahou Dun and killed. Dong Zhuo's remaining forces then left Xingyang to follow their lord to Chang'an.
While restoring order in Luoyang, Sun Jian was alerted by his men that there is light faintly emitting from a well. He ordered to retrieve whatever was in the well, and they found a dead woman with the Imperial Seal in a silk bag around her neck. As advised by Cheng Pu, Sun kept the Seal for himself and warned his men not to reveal anything about the discovery.
Unfortunately for Sun Jian, one of his soldiers went and told Yuan Shao about it, and was heavily rewarded. During a meeting on the following day, Sun cited health problems as a excuse to return to Changsha, to which Yuan remarked sarcastically, "I know you're ill because of the Imperial Seal", causing Sun to be stunned. After rounds of accusations and denials, Yuan Shao and Sun Jian's men drew swords in preparation for a fight, but the conflict was defused by the rest of the coalition members. Sun then quickly fled from Luoyang with his men. In anger, Yuan Shao sent a letter to Liu Biao of Jing Province, asking Liu to intercept Sun on the way and take him into custody. This gave rise to the conflict between Sun Jian and Liu Biao, which eventually culminated in the death of Sun at the Battle of Xiangyang.
The next day, Cao Cao returned to the main camp from his defeat in Xingyang. He lamented at the lack of motivation within the coalition and left as well. Gongsun Zan told Liu Bei, "Yuan Shao is an incapable leader, and together there will be strife, we should leave", and so they also pulled their forces from the alliance and retreated north. Seeing everyone had dispersed, Yuan Shao dismantled the camps and led his army back to his base.
- Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms.
- de Crespigny, Rafe (1990). "Generals of the South" Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra. Internet edition 2004.
- de Crespigny, Rafe (1996). "To Establish Peace: being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 189 to 220 AD as recorded in Chapters 59 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang". Volume 1. Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra. ISBN 0-7315-2526-4.
- de Crespigny, Rafe (2010). Imperial warlord : a biography of Cao Cao 155-220 AD. Leiden Boston: Brill. ISBN 9789004185227.
- Luo Guanzhong. Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
- Sima Guang. Zizhi Tongjian.
- PDF (62.6 KiB)
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