- Cornelius Drebbel
name = Cornelius Drebbel
image_size = 200px
caption = Cornelius Drebbel
birth_date = 1572
death_date = 7 November 1633
occupation = inventor
spouse = Sophia Jansdochter
Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel (
Alkmaar, Holland, 1572 - London, November 7 1633) was the Dutch inventorof the first navigable submarinein 1620.
Drebbel became famous for his 1619 invention of a
microscopewith two convex lenses. It was the first microscope with two optical lenses.
He also built the first navigable
submarinein 1620 while working for the English Royal Navy. Using William Bourne's design from 1578, he manufactured a steerable submarine with a leather-covered wooden frame. Between 1620 and 1624 Drebbel successfully built and tested two more submarines, each one bigger than the last. The final (third) model had 6 oars and could carry 16 passengers. This model was demonstrated to King James I in person and several thousand Londoners. The submarine stayed submerged for three hours and could travel from Westminsterto Greenwichand back, cruising at a depth of from 12 to 15 feet (4 to 5 metres). Drebbel even took James in this submarine on a test dive beneath the Thames, making James I the first monarch to travel underwater. [ [http://www.royal.gov.uk/OutPut/Page1673.asp KING JAMES VI and I] ] This submarine was tested many times in the Thames, but it couldn't attract enough enthusiasm from the Admiralty and was never used in combat. Drebbel's most famous written work was "Een cort Tractat van de Naturae de Elementen" ( Leiden, 1608). He was also involved in the invention of mercury fulminate. [ [http://22.214.171.124/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_1.html Advanced Main Group Chemistry (I) - Rings, Chains, Clusters ] ]
Drebbel also invented a chicken
incubatorand a mercury thermostatthat automatically kept it at a constant temperature. This is one of the first recorded feedback-controlled devices. He also attempted to develop a working air conditioningsystem. The invention of a working thermometeris also ascribed to Drebbel [ [http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/ncps:@field(DOCID+@lit(ABF2204-0005-51)):: Scientific American. / Volume 5, Issue 50, August 31, 1850] ]
It has also been speculated that Drebbel made use of a way to produce
oxygen, possibly from a nitrate. Drebbel had been taught by the alchemist Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) (perhaps when both were at the court of Rudolf II) that warming "nitre" (saltpeter) produced oxygen (considered the food of life). [Michael Sendivogius, The Alchemical Letters of Michael Sendivogius to the Rosicrucian Society, Holmes Pub Group Llc, ISBN 155818404X] The most reliable source suggesting the use of oxygen is a note by Robert Boyle. In 1662 Boyle wrote that he had spoken with "an excellent mathematician", who was still alive and had been on the submarine, who said that Drebbel had a "chemical liquor" that would replace that "quintessence of air" that was able to "cherish the vital flame residing in the heart".
Near the end of his life, in 1633, Drebbel was living in virtual poverty running an ale house in England.
lunar craterDrebbel has been named after him.
A theory in Renaissance Magazine (issue #53, March 2007) speculates that the
Voynich Manuscriptmay be Drebbel's cipher notebook on microscopy and alchemy.
While making a coloured liquid for a thermometer Cornelius dropped a flask of
Aqua regiaon a tinwindow sill, and as the story goes, discovered that stannous chloride makes the color of carminemuch brighter and durable. Though the inventor himself never made much money from his work, his daughters Anna and Catharina and his sons-in-law Abraham and Johannes Sibertus Kufflerset up a very successful dye works. The recipe for "color Kufflerianus" was kept a family secret and the new bright red color was all the rage in Europe. [Amy Butler Greenfield,A Perfect Red,Harper Collins 2005,ISBN 0-06-052275-5] [ [http://www.pepysdiary.com/p/3962.php Diary of Samuel Pepys] ]
Drebbel in popular culture
Drebbel was honored in an episode of the cartoon "
Sealab 2021" during a submarine rescue of workers on a research station in the Arctic. A German U-boatcaptain, who mysteriously "came with the sub", fired a pistol in celebration at the mention of Drebbel, to shouts of, "SIEG HEIL! CORNELIUS DREBBEL!" Also, on the Sealab 2021 Season 3 DVD, Cornelius Drebbel has two DVD commentaries devoted to the story of his life. However, the first is highly inaccurate and the narratorof the second gets easily distracted, so much so that he spends most of the eleven minutes of commentary talking about the languages of northern Europe and the domestic policies of the Swiss.
Also, a portrayal of Cornelius Drebbel and his submarine can be briefly seen in "The Four Musketeers" (1974). A small leatherclad submersible surfaces off the coast of England, and the top opens clamshell-wise revealing Cornelius Drebbel and the
Duke of Buckingham.
In the Dutch Eighty Years War comic
Gilles de Geus, Drebbel is a supporting character to the comics warhero Gilles. He is drawn as a typical crazy inventor, simillar to Q in the Bond-series. His submarine plays a role in the comic.
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/drebbel_cornelis.shtml BBC bio]
* Brett McLaughlin, Cornelis Drebbel and the First Submarine (1997)
* L.E. Harris, The Two Netherlanders, Humphrey Bradley and Cornelis Drebbel (Cambridge, 1961)
*nl F.M. Jaeger, Cornelis Drebbel en zijne tijdgenooten, (Groningen, 1922)
* [http://www.drebbel.utwente.nl/main_en/Information/History/History.htm Who was Cornelis J. Drebbel ?]
* [http://www.drebbel.utwente.nl/main_en/Information/History/History.htm Drebbel Institute for Mechatronics: Who was Cornelis J. Drebbel?]
* [http://www.dutchsubmarines.com/specials/special_drebbel.htm Cornelius Drebbel:inventor of the submarine]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/drebbel_cornelis.shtml Cornelis Drebbel (1572 - 1633)]
* [http://www.santa-coloma.net/voynich_drebbel/voynich.html The Voynich Manuscript: Drebbel's lost notebook?]
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