Erysimum


Erysimum

taxobox
name = Wallflowers



image_caption = Teide wallflower "Erysimum scoparium"
regnum = Plantae
unranked_divisio = Angiosperms
unranked_classis = Eudicots
unranked_ordo = Rosids
ordo = Brassicales
familia = Brassicaceae
genus = "Erysimum"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = Over 220, see text
synonyms = See text|

The genus "Erysimum" (wallflowers) includes more than 220 species, both popular garden plants and many wild forms. They are small, annual, short-lived perennial herbs or sub-shrubs, reaching 10-130 cm tall, with bright yellow to red or pink flowers produced throughout the spring and summer. One species, "Erysimum semperflorens", native to Morocco and Algeria, has white flowers. Wallflowers have t-shaped trichomes.

The genus "Cheiranthus" is sometimes included herein whole or in part.

Distribution

Wallflowers are native to southwest Asia, the Mediterranean region, Europe, Macaronesia (Including Cabo Verde), and North America through Costa Rica. Many wallflowers are endemic to small areas, such as the Teide wallflower "E. scoparium", endemic to the Teide volcano on Tenerife, "E. aetnense" endemic to the Etna volcano in Sicily, the Franciscan wallflower "E. franciscanum", endemic to the northern California coast, the Sierra Nevada wallflower "E. nevadense", endemic to the Sierra Nevada of Spain, "E. moranii" from Guadalupe Island (Mexico), and the endangered Santa Cruz wallflower "E. teretifolium", endemic to the inland sandhills of Santa Cruz County, California. "Erysimum kykkoticum", found only on Cyprus, is nearly extinct.

Ecology

"Erysimum" species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including the Garden Carpet ("Xanthorhoe fluctuata"). In addition, some species of weevils, like "Ceutorhynchus chlorophanus", live inside the fruits feeding on the developing seeds. Many species of beetles, bugs and grasshoppers eat on the leaves and stalks. Some mammalian herbivores, for example Mule Deer ("Odocoileus hemionus") in North America, Red Deer ("Cervus elaphus") in Central Europe, or Spanish Ibex ("Capra pyrenaica") in the Iberian Peninsula, feed on wallflower flowering and fruiting stalks.

Most wallflowers are pollinator-generalists, their flowers being visited by many different species of bees, bee flies, hoverflies, butterflies, beetles, and ants. However, there some specialist species. For example, Teide wallflower is pollinated almost exclusively by "Anthophora alluadii".

elected species


* "Erysimum aetnense" - Etna wallflower
* "Erysimum ammophilum"
* "Erysimum angustatum" - Dawson wallflower
* "Erysimum arenicola" - Cascade wallflower
* "Erysimum asperum"
* "Erysimum baeticum"
* "Erysimum bicolor"
* "Erysimum bonannianum"
* "Erysimum caboverdeanum"
* "Erysimum capitatum" - Sanddune wallflower, Western wallflower
* "Erysimum cazorlense"
* "Erysimum cheiranthoides" - Wormseed wallflower
* "Erysimum cheiri"
* "Erysimum diffusum" - diffuse wallflower
* "Erysimum duriaei"
* "Erysimum durum"
* "Erysimum franciscanum" - Franciscan wallflower
* "Erysimum gomezcampoi"
* "Erysimum hedgeanum" - syn. "Arabidopsis erysimoides"
* "Erysimum helveticum"
* "Erysimum hieracilifolium" - European wallflower
* "Erysimum inconspicuum" - Smallflower prairie wallflower
* "Erysimum insulare"
* "Erysimum kykkoticum"
* "Erysimum linifolium"
* "Erysimum mediohispanicum"
* "Erysimum menziesii"
* "Erysimum moranii"
* "Erysimum myriophyllum"
* "Erysimum nervosum"
* "Erysimum nevadense" - Sierra Nevada wallflower
* "Erysimum occidentale"
* "Erysimum odoratum"
* "Erysimum pallasii" - Pallas' wallflower
* "Erysimum perofskianum"
* "Erysimum pieninicum"
* "Erysimum popovii"
* "Erysimum pulchellum"
* "Erysimum repandum"
* "Erysimum ruscinonensis"
* "Erysimum scoparium" - Teide wallflower
* "Erysimum semperflorens"
* "Erysimum teretifolium" - Santa Cruz wallflower, Ben Lomond wallflower
* "Erysimum wahlenbergii"
* "Erysimum wittmanii"

Cultivation

Most wallflower garden cultivars (e.g. "Erysimum" 'Chelsea Jacket') are derived from "E. cheiri" (often placed in "Cheiranthus"), from southern Europe. Growth is best in dry soils with very good drainage, and they are often grown successfully in loose wall mortar, hence the vernacular name. Their flowers are often purple or brown.

External links

* [http://www.evoflor.org Evoflor, a web page on Erysimum floral evolution]
* [http://www.erysimums.org Erysimums.org, webpage of a UK collector of erysimums]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Erysimum — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? Erysimum Erysimum cheiri Clasificación científica …   Wikipedia Español

  • Erysimum — n. a large genus of annual or perennial herbs of the Old World and North America; some are grown for their flowers and some for their attractive evergreen leaves. Syn: genus {Erysimum}. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Erysĭmum — (E. L., Hederich), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Cruciferae Sisymbrieae, 15. Kl. 2 Ordn. L.; Schoten lineal, mit nur einem vortretenden Klappennerven, vierkantig od. zusammengedrückt vierkantig, Narben stumpf, ganz od. ausgerandet, Samen in …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Erysimum —   [lateinisch griechisch, zu griechisch érysthai »heilen«], wissenschaftlicher Name der Pflanzengattung Schöterich …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Erysimum — Vélar Erysimum …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Erysimum — noun large genus of annual or perennial herbs some grown for their flowers and some for their attractive evergreen leaves; Old World and North America • Syn: ↑genus Erysimum • Hypernyms: ↑dilleniid dicot genus • Member Holonyms: ↑Cruciferae,… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Erysimum L. — Род 134. Желтушник (Сем. Brassicaceae – Крестоцветные) 287. Erysimum cheiranthoides L. – Желтушник левкойный …   Флора Центрально-лесного государственного заповедника

  • Erysimum — ID 32909 Symbol Key ERYSI Common Name wallflower Family Brassicaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity N/A US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN,… …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Erysimum — …   Википедия

  • Erysimum — Erys·i·mum i ris ə məm n a small genus of cruciferous herbs having small yellow flowers and slender pods …   Medical dictionary