- Jiménez dynasty
The Jiménez or Ximenes (pronounced "š
imeneʂ") were a Spanish ruling family from the 10th centuryto the 13th century. They were the first Europeanisers of Spain ( Ramón Menéndez Pidal) and brought her back within the wider European political scene while also giving her the political character and division that persisted until the end of the Middle Ages.
The first Jimenas, in the
9th century, were dukes or regents of parts of Navarre beyond the area of direct control of the Íñiguez of Pamplona. Probably the frontier areas of Álavaand the western Pyrenees given the list of their landholdings preserved in a charter. It was long believed that their origins lay in Gascony.
905, one of their own, Sancho Garcés, used foreign assistance to displace the Íñiguez ruler Fortún Garcés and consolidated the monarchy in his dynasty's hands. Based on this, for several subsequent generations the family was sometimes called the "Banu Sanyo" ( _ar. بن سني) in Iberian Muslim sources.
The first great ruler of the dynasty was
Sancho the Great, who ruled from 1000to 1035in Pamplona, but also ruled Aragon, Castile, and Ribagorzaby right and eventually León (but not Galicia) by conquest. He received the homage of the Count of Barcelonaand possibly of the Duke of Gascony. After his coronation in León, he even took up the imperial title over all Spain. His vast domains were divided amongst his heirs at his death and each of the medieval kingdoms of Spain was thus inaugurated with a Jiménez monarch. Ferdinand the Greatconquered León and Galicia in 1037bringing them fully into the orbit of his ruling clan. He achieved a sort of hegemony over his brothers which he passed on to his sons, who fought for supremacy in his domains, which he had divided between them in his family's fashion. One of these, Alfonso VI, reclaimed the imperial title and even pretended to rule over both Christian and Moslem Spain. Alfonso the Battlerbriefly reunited the holdings of the family through his father's acquisition of Navarre and his own marriage to Urraca, Queen of Castile and León, claiming the title "emperor". However, with the failing of this marriage and Alfonso's subsequent death, the kingdoms of Castile, Aragon and Navarre again went their separate ways, each eventually passing to other dynasties through heiresses: Urraca (Castile and León); Petronilla (Aragon), who married the ruler of Barcelona and thus united those two realms into the Crown of Aragon; and finally Blanca, sister of Sancho VII of Navarre, whose 1234 death brought Jiménez rule to an end.
Emperors in bold. Date of assumption of imperial title in parentheses.
905– 925Sancho I
925– 931Jimeno Garcés
925– 970García Sánchez I
970– 994Sancho II
994– 1000García Sánchez II
1000– 1035Sancho III ( 1034)
1035– 1054García Sánchez III
1054– 1076Sancho IV:"United with Aragon 1076 to 1134".
1134– 1150García Ramírez
1150– 1194Sancho VI
1194– 1234Sancho VII:"Navarre to House of Champagne in 1234".
Castile, León, and Galicia
1035– 1065Ferdinand I ( 1056):"Took León and Galicia in 1037."
**Sancho II in Castile
**Alfonso VI in León
**García II in Galicia and Portugal
1072– 1109Alfonso VI ( 1077) in Castile, León, and Galicia
1109– 1126Urraca:"Galicia to House of Burgundy in 1111".
obrarbe and Ribagorza
1035– 1043Gonzalo:"Sobrarbe and Ribagorza merged into Aragon in 1043".
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