# Trapezohedron

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Trapezohedron
Set of trapezohedra
Faces 2n kites
Edges 4n
Vertices 2n+2
Face configuration V3.3.3.n
Symmetry group Dnd, [2+,2n], (2*n)
Dual polyhedron antiprism
Properties convex, face-transitive

The n-gonal trapezohedron, antidipyramid or deltohedron is the dual polyhedron of an n-gonal antiprism. Its 2n faces are congruent kites (also called trapezia in the US, trapezoids in Britain, or deltoids). The faces are symmetrically staggered.

The n-gon part of the name does not reference the faces here but arrangement of vertices around an axis of symmetry. The dual n-gonal antiprism has two actual n-gon faces.

An n-gonal trapezohedron can be decomposed into two equal n-gonal pyramids and an n-gonal antiprism.

## Name

These figures, sometimes called deltohedra, must not be confused with deltahedra, whose faces are equilateral triangles.

In texts describing the crystal habits of minerals, the word trapezohedron is often used for the polyhedron properly known as a deltoidal icositetrahedron.

## Forms

1. Trigonal trapezohedron - 6 (rhombic) faces - dual octahedron
• A cube is a special case trigonal trapezohedron with square faces
• A trigonal trapezohedron is a special case rhombohedron with congruent rhombic faces
2. Tetragonal trapezohedron - 8 kite faces - dual square antiprism
3. Pentagonal trapezohedron - 10 kite faces - dual pentagonal antiprism
4. Hexagonal trapezohedron - 12 kite faces - dual hexagonal antiprism
5. Heptagonal trapezohedron - 14 kite faces - dual heptagonal antiprism
6. Octagonal trapezohedron - 16 kite faces - dual octagonal antiprism
7. Enneagonal trapezohedron - 18 kite faces - dual enneagonal antiprism
8. Decagonal trapezohedron - 20 kite faces - dual decagonal antiprism
• ...n-gonal trapezohedron - 2n kite faces - dual n-gonal antiprism

In the case of the dual of a regular triangular antiprism the kites are rhombi, hence these trapezohedra are also zonohedra. They are called rhombohedron. They are cubes scaled in the direction of a body diagonal. Also they are the parallelepipeds with congruent rhombic faces.

A special case of a rhombohedron is one of the which the rhombi which form the faces have angles of 60° and 120°. It can be decomposed into two equal regular tetrahedra and a regular octahedron. Since parallelepipeds can fill space, so can a combination of regular tetrahedra and regular octahedra.

## Examples

• Crystal arrangements of atoms can repeat in space with trapezohedral cells.
• The pentagonal trapezohedron is the only polyhedron other than the Platonic solids commonly used as a die in roleplaying games such as Dungeons and Dragons. Having 10 sides, it can be used in repetition to generate any decimal-based uniform probability desired. Two dice of different colors are typically used for the two digits to represent numbers from 00 to 99.

## Symmetry

The symmetry group of an n-gonal trapezohedron is Dnd of order 4n, except in the case of a cube, which has the larger symmetry group Od of order 48, which has four versions of D3d as subgroups.

The rotation group is Dn of order 2n, except in the case of a cube, which has the larger rotation group O of order 24, which has four versions of D3 as subgroups.

## In popular culture

• H.P. Lovecraft's short story "The Haunter of the Dark" features a "crazily angled stone" of extraterrestrial origin called the "Shining Trapezohedron".
• In the PlayStation 3 game Disgaea 3: Absence of Justice, the most powerful emblem equipment in the game is called 'Trapezohedron'
• In Final Fantasy XIII as the catalyst required to create any of the six ultimate weapons.
• In the PlayStation game Wild Arms 2, the 'Trapezohedron' is used to imprison the Kuiper Belt but is not actually Trapezohedron shaped.

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### Look at other dictionaries:

• Trapezohedron — Trap e*zo*he dron, n. [NL., from trapezium + Gr. ? seat, base, fr. ? to sit.] (Crystalloq.) (a) A solid bounded by twenty four equal and similar trapeziums; a tetragonal trisoctahedron. See the Note under {Trisoctahedron}. (b) A tetartohedral… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• trapezohedron — [trə pē΄zō hē′drən, trap΄i zōhē′drən] n. [ModL: see TRAPEZIUM & HEDRON] a solid figure, esp. a crystal, all of whose faces are trapeziums …   English World dictionary

• trapezohedron — Trisoctahedron Tris*oc ta*he dron, n. [Gr. ? thrice + FE. octahedron.] (Crystallog.) A solid of the isometric system bounded by twenty four equal faces, three corresponding to each face of an octahedron. [1913 Webster] {Tetragonal trisoctahedron} …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• trapezohedron — noun (plural drons or trapezohedra) Etymology: New Latin, from trapezium + o + hedron Date: circa 1822 a crystalline form whose faces are trapeziums …   New Collegiate Dictionary

• trapezohedron — trapezohedral, adj. /treuh pee zeuh hee dreuhn, trap euh /, n., pl. trapezohedrons, trapezohedra / dreuh/. 1. Crystall. a crystal form having all faces trapeziums. 2. Geom. a trapezoid trisoctahedron. [1810 20; TRAPEZ(OID) + O + HEDRON] * * * …   Universalium

• trapezohedron — noun Any of several forms of crystal with trapezia as faces …   Wiktionary

• trapezohedron — trape·zo·he·dron …   English syllables

• trapezohedron — tra•pe•zo•he•dron [[t]trəˌpi zəˈhi drən, ˌtræp ə [/t]] n. pl. drons, dra [[t] drə[/t]] cry a crystal form having all faces trapeziums • Etymology: 1810–20 …   From formal English to slang

• trapezohedron — /trəpizoʊˈhidrən/ (say truhpeezoh heedruhn) noun (plural trapezohedrons or trapezohedra /trəpizoʊˈhidrə/ (say truhpeezoh heedruh)) a three dimensional shape with all its faces trapeziums, as in some crystals. {trapez(ium) + o + hedron} …   Australian English dictionary

• trapezohedron — noun a polyhedron whose faces are trapeziums • Hypernyms: ↑polyhedron …   Useful english dictionary