- Multiple sub-nyquist sampling Encoding system
MUSE (Multiple Sub-nyquist Sampling Encoding System), also known as Hi-Vision for marketing purposes, was an early high-definition analog television standard developed in Japan. Japan had the earliest working HDTV system, with design efforts going back to 1979. The country began broadcasting analog HDTV signals in the late 1980s using an interlaced resolution of 1035 or 1080 active lines ("1035i") or 1125 total lines.
The Japanese system, developed by
NHK"Science and Technical Research Laboratories" ( STRL) in the 1980s, employed filtering tricks to reduce the original source signal to decrease bandwidth utilization. MUSE was marketed as "Hi-Vision" by NHK.
* Japanese broadcast engineers immediately rejected conventional vestigial sideband broadcasting for well-founded technical reasons.
* It was decided early on that MUSE would be a satellite broadcast format as Japan economically supports satellite broadcasting.
* The idea of FM modulation of a conventionally constructed composite (Y+C, like
NTSCand PAL) signal was first tested.
* MUSE initially had a signal structure similar to NTSC. Early MUSE had with the Y at the lower frequencies and the C at higher frequencies just like NTSC. This worked moderately well and was adopted for initial satellite trials in the 1980s.
* Separate transmission of Y and C components was then explored. The MUSE format that is transmitted today uses separated component signalling. The improvement in picture quality was so great that the original test systems were recalled.
* One more power saving tweak was made: Lack of visual response to low frequency noise allows significant reduction in transponder power if the higher video frequencies are emphasized prior to modulation at the transmitter and de-emphasized at the receiver.
*Scanlines (active/total): 1,035/1,125
*Pixels per line (approximately): 1060 (still image)/530 (moving)
*Horizontal lines per picture height: 598 (black-and-white)/209 (chroma)
*Interlaced ratio: 2:1
*Refresh rate :59.94 (as with NTSC).
*Sampling frequency for broadcast: 16.2 MHz
*Vector motion compensation: horizontal ± 16 samples (32.4 MHz clock) / frame, a vertical line ± 3 / Field
*Audio:48 kHz 16bit（2ch）／32 kHz 12bit（4ch:3.1）
DPCM Audio compression format: DPCM quasi-instantaneous companding
MUSE is a 1125 line system (1035 visible), and is not pulse and sync compatible with the digital 1080 line system used by modern HDTV. Originally, it was a 1125 line, interlaced, 60 Hz, system with a 5/3((1.66:1) aspect ratio and an optimal viewing distance of roughly 3.3H.
For terrestrial MUSE transmission a bandwidth limited FM modulation system was devised. A satellite transmission system uses uncompressed FM modulation.
The pre-compression bandwidth for Y is 20 MHz, and the pre-compression bandwidth for chrominance is a 7 MHz carrier.
The Japanese initially explored the idea of FM modulation of a conventionally constructed composite signal. This would create a signal similar in structure to the Y/C NTSC signal - with the Y at the lower frequencies and the C above. Approximately 3 kW of power would be required, in order to get 40 dB of
signal to noiseratio for a composite FM signal in the 22 GHz band. This was incompatible with satellite broadcast techniques and bandwidth.
To overcome this limitation, it was decided to use a separate transmission of Y and C. This reduces the effective frequency range and lowers the required power. Approximately 570 W (360 for Y and 210 for C) would be needed in order to get a 40 dB of signal to noise ratio for a separate Y/C FM signal in the 22 GHz satellite band. This was feasible.
There is one more power saving that appears from the character of the human eye. The lack of visual response to low frequency noise allows significant reduction in transponder power if the higher video frequencies are emphasized prior to modulation at the transmitter and then de-emphasized at the receiver. This method was adopted, with crossover frequencies for the emphasis/de-emphasis at 5.2 MHz for Y and 1.6 MHz for C. With this in place, the power requirements drop to 260 W of power (190 for Y and 69 for C).
Sampling systems and ratios
The subsampling in a video system is usually expressed as a three part ratio. The three terms of the ratio are: the number of brightness ("luminance" "luma" or Y) samples, followed by the number of samples of the two color ("chroma") components: U/Cb then V/Cr, for each complete sample area. For quality comparison, only the ratio between those values is important, so 4:4:4 could easily be called 1:1:1; however, traditionally the value for brightness is always 4, with the rest of the values scaled accordingly.
Sometimes, four part relations are written, like 4:2:2:4. In these cases, the fourth number means the sampling frequency ratio of a key channel. In virtually all cases, that number will be 4, since high quality is very desirable in keying applications.
The sampling principles above apply to both digital and analog television.
"MUSE implements a variable sampling system of ~4:2:1 ... ~4:0.5:0.25 depending on the amount of motion on the screen."
Exotic digital audio broadcasting subsystem
MUSE had a discrete 2- or 4-channel digital audio system called "DANCE", which stood for "D"igital "A"udio "N"ear-instantaneous "C"ompression and "E"xpansion. It used differential audio transmission (DPCM) that was not psychoacoustics-based like
MPEG-1 Layer II. It used 1350 kbp/s and was not nearly as 'mysterious' or 'complex' as some peoplewho have claimed. Like the PAL NICAM stereo system, it used near-instantaneous companding (as opposed to Syllabic-companding like the dbx system uses) and non-linear 13-bit digital encoding at a 32 kHz sample rate. It could also operate in a 48 kHz 16-bit mode. The DANCE system was well documented in numerous NHK technical papers and in a NHK-published book issued in the USA called "Hi-Vision Technology".
The DANCE audio codec was superseded by Dolby AC-3 (a.k.a Dolby Digital), DTS Coherent Acoustics (a.k.a DTS Zeta 6x20 or ARTEC), MPEG-1 Layer III and many other audio coders. The methods of this codec are described in the IEEE paper: [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/30/2796/00085585.pdf?arnumber=85585]
Real world performance issues
In the typical setup, three picture elements on a line were actually derived from three separate scans. Stationary images were transmitted at full resolution. However, as MUSE lowers the horizontal and vertical resolution of material that varies greatly from frame to frame, moving images were blurred in a manner similar to using 16 mm movie film for HDTV projection. In fact, whole-camera pans would result in a loss of 50% of horizontal resolution.
MUSE's "1125 lines" are an analog measurement, which includes non-video "scan lines" during which a CRT's electron beam returns to the top of the screen to begin scanning the next field. Only 1035 lines have picture information. Digital signals count only the lines (rows of pixels) that have actual detail, so NTSC's 525 lines become 480i, PAL's 625 lines become 576i, and muse would be 1035i. To convert the bandwidth of Hi-Vision MUSE into 'conventional' lines-of-horizontal resolution (as is used in the NTSC world), multiply 29.9 lines per MHz of bandwidth. (NTSC and PAL/SECAM are 79.9 lines per MHz) - this calculation of 29.9 lines works for all current HD systems including Blu-ray and HD-DVD. So, for MUSE, during a still picture, the lines of resolution would be: 598-lines of luminance resolution per-picture-height. The chroma resolution is: 209-lines. This 'seems' the same as Standard Def but remember, HD has a wider aspect ratio and more vertical scanning lines. The horizontal luminance measurement approximately matches the vertical resolution of a 1080 interlaced image when the Kell Factor and Interlace Factor are taken into account.
Shadows and multipath still plague this analog frequency modulated transmission mode.
Considering the technological limitations of the time, MUSE was a very cleverly-designed system. One thing most people don't seem to realize however is that MUSE, except for the actual transmission over the air, was a 100% digital system - ALL encoding/decoding was done in the digital domain. ONLY the actual transmission was analog and used Pulse Amplitude Modulation. So, it's rather unfair to call MUSE "analog", when it really was a digital compression system. Japan has since switched to a digital HDTV system based on ISDB, but the original MUSE-based BS Satellite channel 9 (NHK BS Hi-vision) was broadcast until
September 30, 2007.
There were a few MUSE
laserdiscplayers available in Japan (Panasonic LX-HD10/20 and Sony HIL-C2EX). These could play Hi-Vision as well as standard NTSC discs.
Sega Saturncould output a Hi-Vision signal (352×480p or 704×480p ) with special cables.
The analog TV systems these systems were meant to replace
NICAM-like audio coding is used in the HD-MAC system.
Chroma subsamplingin TV indicated as 4:2:2, 4:1:1 etc...
* [http://www.laserdiscarchive.co.uk/laserdisc_archive/panasonic/panasonic_lx-hd20/panasonic_lx-hd20.htm Example of an early MUSE Laserdisc player]
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