Sagrada Família


Sagrada Família
Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família
Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family (English)
Basílica y Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia (Spanish)

View of the Passion Facade (Western side) in September  2009
(cranes digitally removed)

Basic information
Location Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Geographic coordinates 41°24′13″N 2°10′28″E / 41.40361°N 2.17444°E / 41.40361; 2.17444
Affiliation Roman Catholic
District Barcelona
Year consecrated 7 November 2010
Ecclesiastical or organizational status Minor basilica
Heritage designation 1969, 1984
Leadership Archbishop Lluís Martínez Sistach
Website sagradafamilia.cat
Architectural description
Architect(s) Antoni Gaudí
Architectural style Modernisme
General contractor Construction Board of La Sagrada Família Foundation
Direction of façade Northeast
Groundbreaking 1882
Completed 2026-2028[1] (estimate)
Specifications
Capacity 9,000
Length 90 metres (300 ft)[2]
Width 60 metres (200 ft)[2]
Width (nave) 45 metres (148 ft)[2]
Spire(s) 18 (8 already built)
Spire height 170 metres (560 ft) (planned)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official name: Works of Antoni Gaudí
Criteria: i, ii, iv
Designated: 1984[3]
Reference #: 320bis
Type: Cultural
State Party: Spain
Region: Europe and North America
Spanish Property of Cultural Interest
Official name: Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia
Designated: 24-07-1969
Reference #: (R.I.)-51-0003813-00000[4]
Type: Monument

The Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família (Catalan pronunciation: [səˈɣɾaðə fəˈmiɫiə]; English: Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family, Spanish: Basílica y Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia), commonly known as the Sagrada Família, is a large Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926). Although incomplete, the church is a UNESCO World Heritage Site,[5] and in November 2010 was consecrated and proclaimed a minor basilica by Pope Benedict XVI.[6][7][8]

Though construction of Sagrada Família had commenced in 1882, Gaudí became involved in 1883,[5] taking over the project and transforming it with his architectural and engineering style—combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau forms.

Gaudí devoted his last years to the project and at the time of his death in 1926, less than a quarter of the project was complete.[9] Sagrada Família's construction progressed slowly as it relied on private donations and was interrupted by the Spanish Civil War—only to resume intermittent progress in the 1950s. Construction passed the mid-point in 2010 with some of the project's greatest challenges remaining[9] and an anticipated completion date of 2026—the centennial of Gaudí's death. The basílica has a long history of dividing the citizens of Barcelona—over the initial possibility it might compete with Barcelona's cathedral, over Gaudí's design itself,[10] over the possibility that work after Gaudí's death disregarded his design,[10] and the recent possibility that an underground tunnel of Spain's high-speed train could disturb its stability.[11]

Describing Sagrada Familia, art Critic Rainer Zerbst said "it is probably impossible to find a church building anything like it in the entire history of art"[12] and Paul Goldberger called it 'the most extraordinary personal interpretation of Gothic architecture since the Middle Ages'.[13]

Contents

History

Background

Gaudi's model of the completed church

The Basilica of the Sagrada Família was the inspiration of a Catalan bookseller, Josep Maria Bocabella, founder of Asociación Espiritual de Devotos de San José (Spiritual Association of Devotees of St. Joseph).[14] After a visit to the Vatican in 1872, Bocabella returned from Italy with the intention of building a church inspired by that at Loreto.[14] The crypt of the church, funded by donations, was begun 19 March 1882, on the festival of St. Joseph, to the design of the architect Francisco de Paula del Villar, whose plan was for a Gothic revival church of a standard form.[14] Antoni Gaudí began work on the project in 1883. On 18 March 1883 Villar retired from the project, and Gaudí assumed responsibility for its design, which he changed radically.[14]

Construction

Newly constructed stonework at the Sagrada Família is clearly visible against the stained and weathered older sections.

On the subject of the extremely long construction period, Gaudí is said to have remarked, "My client is not in a hurry."[15] When Gaudí died in 1926, the basilica was between 15 and 25 per cent complete.[9][16] After Gaudí's death, work continued under the direction of Domènec Sugrañes i Gras until interrupted by the Spanish Civil War in 1936. Parts of the unfinished basilica and Gaudí's models and workshop were destroyed during the war by Catalan anarchists. The present design is based on reconstructed versions of the lost plans as well as on modern adaptations. Since 1940 the architects Francesc Quintana, Isidre Puig Boada, Lluís Bonet i Gari and Francesc Cardoner have carried on the work. The illumination was designed by Carles Buigas. The current director and son of Lluís Bonet, Jordi Bonet i Armengol, has been introducing computers into the design and construction process since the 1980s. Mark Burry of New Zealand serves as Executive Architect and Researcher. Sculptures by J. Busquets, Etsuro Sotoo and the controversial Josep Subirachs decorate the fantastical façades.

The central nave vaulting was completed in 2000 and the main tasks since then have been the construction of the transept vaults and apse. As of 2006, work concentrated on the crossing and supporting structure for the main tower of Jesus Christ as well as the southern enclosure of the central nave, which will become the Glory façade.

Construction status

Sagrada Familia's roof under construction (2009)

One projection anticipates construction completion around 2026, the centennial of Gaudí's death—while the project's information leaflet estimates a completion date in 2028, accelerated by additional funding from visitors to Barcelona following the 1992 Barcelona Olympics.

Computer-aided design technology has been used to accelerate construction of the building, which had previously been expected to last for several hundred years, based on building techniques available in the early 20th century.[citation needed] Current technology allows stone to be shaped off-site by a CNC milling machine, whereas in the 20th century, the stone was carved by hand.[17]

In 2008, some renowned Catalan architects advocated a halt to construction,[18] to respect Gaudí's original designs, which, although they were not exhaustive and were partially destroyed, have been partially reconstructed in recent years.[19]

A 2010 exhibition, Gaudí Unseen, Completing La Sagrada Familia at the German Architecture Museum, Frankfurt am Main, describes the current construction methods and future plans for the Sagrada Familia.[19]

AVE Tunnel

On 26 March 2010, the Ministry of Public Works of Spain (Ministerio de Fomento) began constructing an AVE (high-speed train) tunnel beneath the center of Barcelona, saying the project poses no risk to the church.[20][21] Project engineers and architects disagreed, saying there was no guarantee that the tunnel would not affect the stability of the building.

Subsequently, the Board of the Sagrada Família (Patronat de la Sagrada Família) and the neighborhood association AVE pel Litoral (AVE by the Coast) initiated a campaign against the AVE. In October 2010, the tunnel boring machine reached the church underground under the location of the building's principal façade.[20]

Construction of the Sagrada Família
An artist at work in the gypsum workshop  
Construction workers and aerial work platforms in the nave  
Construction workers in climbing gear on a tower  
A crane over a tower of the Glory façade  
The Glory façade in scaffolding  

Consecration

The main nave was covered and an organ installed in mid-2010, allowing the still unfinished building to be used for religious services.[22] The church was consecrated by Pope Benedict XVI on 7 November 2010 in front of a congregation of 6,500 people,[23] including King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia of Spain.[24] A further 50,000 people followed the consecration Mass from outside the basilica, where more than 100 bishops and 300 priests were on hand to offer Holy Communion.[25]

Fire

On 19 April 2011, an arsonist started a small fire in the sacristy which forced the evacuation of tourists and construction workers, but caused minimal damage.[26] The sacristy itself, however, was destroyed by the fire, which took 45 minutes to contain.[27]

Design

Nativity facade

The style of la Sagrada Familia is variously likened to Spanish Late Gothic, Catalan Modernism and to Art Nouveau or Catalan Noucentisme. While the Sagrada Família falls within the Art Nouveau period, Nikolaus Pevsner points out that, along with Charles Rennie Macintosh in Glasgow, Gaudí carried the Art Nouveau style far beyond its usual application as a surface decoration.[28]

Plan

While never intended to be a cathedral (seat of a bishop), the Sagrada Família was planned from the outset to be a cathedral-sized building. Its ground-plan has obvious links to earlier Spanish cathedrals such as Burgos Cathedral, Leon Cathedral and Seville Cathedral. In common with Catalan and many other European Gothic cathedrals, the Sagrada Familia is short in comparison to its width, and has a great complexity of parts, which include double aisles, an ambulatory with a chevet of seven apsidal chapels, a multitude of towers and three portals, each widely different in structure as well as ornament. Where it is common for cathedrals in Spain to be surrounded by numerous chapels and ecclesiastical buildings, the plan of this church has an unusual feature: a covered passage or cloister which forms a rectangle enclosing the church and passing through the narthex of each of its three portals. With this peculiarity aside, the plan, influenced by Villar's crypt, barely hints at the complexity of Gaudí's design or its deviations from traditional church architecture.

Spires

Gaudí's original design calls for a total of eighteen spires, representing in ascending order of height the Twelve Apostles, the four Evangelists, the Virgin Mary and, tallest of all, Jesus Christ. Eight spires have been built as of 2010, corresponding to four apostles at the Nativity façade and four apostles at the Passion façade.

According to the 2005 Works Report of the project's official website, drawings signed by Gaudí and recently found in the Municipal Archives, indicate that the spire of the Virgin was in fact intended by Gaudí to be shorter than those of the evangelists. The spire height will follow Gaudí's intention, which according to the Works Report will work with the existing foundation.

The Evangelists' spires will be surmounted by sculptures of their traditional symbols: a bull (St Luke), a winged man (St Matthew), an eagle (St John), and a lion (St Mark). The central spire of Jesus Christ is to be surmounted by a giant cross; the spire's total height (170 metres (560 ft)) will be one metre less than that of Montjuïc hill in Barcelona. The lower spires are surmounted by communion hosts with sheaves of wheat and chalices with bunches of grapes, representing the Eucharist.

The completion of the spires will make Sagrada Família the tallest church building in the world.

Façades

The Church will have three grand façades: the Nativity façade to the East, the Passion façade to the West, and the Glory façade to the South (yet to be completed). The Nativity Façade was built before work was interrupted in 1935 and bears the most direct Gaudí influence. The Passion façade is especially striking for its spare, gaunt, tormented characters, including emaciated figures of Christ being scourged at the pillar; and Christ on the Cross. These controversial designs are the work of Josep Maria Subirachs. The Glory façade, on which construction began in 2002, will be the largest and most monumental of the three and will represent one's ascension to God. It will also depict various scenes such as Hell, Purgatory, and will include elements such as the Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven Heavenly Virtues.

Nativity Façade

Tortoise at the base of column

Constructed between 1894 and 1930, the Nativity façade was the first façade to be completed. Dedicated to the birth of Jesus, it is decorated with scenes reminiscent of elements of life. Characteristic of Gaudí's naturalistic style, the sculptures are ornately arranged and decorated with scenes and images from nature, each a symbol in their own manner. For instance, the three porticos are separated by two large columns, and at the base of each lies a turtle or a tortoise (one to represent the land and the other the sea; each are symbols of time as something set in stone and unchangeable). In contrast to the figures of turtles and their symbolism, two chameleons can be found at either side of the façade, and are symbolic of change.

The façade faces the rising sun to the northeast, a symbol for the birth of Christ. It is divided into three porticos, each of which represents a theological virtue (Hope, Faith and Charity). The Tree of Life rises above the door of Jesus in the portico of Charity. Four towers complete the façade and are each dedicated to a Saint (Matthias the Apostle, Saint Barnabas, Jude the Apostle, and Simon the Zealot).

Originally, Gaudí intended for this façade to be polychromed, for each archivolt to be painted with a wide array of colours. He wanted every statue and figure to be painted. In this way the figures of humans would appear as much alive as the figures of plants and animals.[29]

Gaudí chose this façade to embody the structure and decoration of the whole church. He was well aware that he would not finish the church and that he would need to set an artistic and architectural example for others to follow. He also chose for this façade to be the first on which to begin construction and for it to be, in his opinion, the most attractive and accessible to the public. He believed that if he had begun construction with the Passion Façade, one that would be hard and bare (as if made of bones), before the Nativity Façade, people would have withdrawn at the sight of it.[30]

Passion Façade

Short video showing architectural features of Sagrada Familia in 2001

In contrast to the highly decorated Nativity Façade, the Passion Façade is austere, plain and simple, with ample bare stone, and is carved with harsh straight lines to resemble a skeleton if it were reduced to only bone. Dedicated to the Passion of Christ, the suffering of Jesus during his crucifixion, the façade was intended to portray the sins of man. Construction began in 1954, following the drawings and instructions left by Gaudí for future architects and sculptors. The towers were completed in 1976, and in 1987 a team of sculptors, headed by Josep Maria Subirachs, began work sculpting the various scenes and details of the façade. They aimed to give a rigid, angular form to provoke a dramatic effect. Gaudí intended for this façade to strike fear into the onlooker. He wanted to "break" arcs and "cut" columns, and to use the effect of chiaroscuro (dark angular shadows contrasted by harsh rigid light) to further show the severity and brutality of Christ's sacrifice.

Facing the setting sun, indicative and symbolic of the death of Christ, the Passion Façade is supported by six large and inclined columns, designed to resemble sequoia trunks. Above there is a pyramidal pediment, made up of eighteen bone-shaped columns, which culminate in a large cross with a crown of thorns. Each of the four towers is dedicated to an apostle (James, Thomas, Philip, or Bartholomew) and, like the Nativity Façade, there are three porticos, each representing the theological virtues, though in a much different light.

The scenes sculpted into the façade may be divided into three levels, which ascend in an 'S' form and reproduce the Calvary, or Golgotha, of Christ.[2] The lowest level depicts scenes from Jesus' last night before the crucifixion, including The Last Supper, Kiss of Judas, Ecce Homo, and the Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus. The middle level portrays the Calvary, or Golgotha, of Christ, and includes The Three Marys, Saint Veronica, and Saint Longinus. In the third and final level the Death, Burial and the Resurrection of Christ can be seen. A bronze figure situated on a bridge creating a link between the towers of Saint Bartholomew and Saint Thomas represents the Ascension of Jesus.[31]

Glory Façade

Glory Facade under construction (October 2011).
Interior view with columns and spiral staircase

The largest and most striking of the facades will be the Glory Façade, on which construction began in 2002. It will be the principal façade and will offer access to the central nave. Dedicated to the Celestial Glory of Jesus, it represents the road to God: Death, Final Judgment, and Glory, while Hell is left for those who deviate from God's will. Aware that he would not live long enough to see this façade completed, Gaudí made only a general sketch of what the façade would look like. He intended for the temple, like many cathedrals and facades throughout history, not only to be completed by other architects but also to incorporate other architectural and artistic styles.[32]

To reach the Glory Portico, there will be a large staircase, which will create an underground passage beneath Carrer Mallorca, representing Hell and vice. It will be decorated with demons, idols, false gods, heresy and schisms, etc. Purgatory and death will also be depicted, the latter using tombs along the ground. The portico will have seven large columns dedicated to spiritual gifts. At the base of the columns there will be representations of the Seven Deadly Sins, and at the top, The Seven Heavenly Virtues.

Interior

Above the main altar

The church plan is that of a Latin cross with five aisles. The central nave vaults reach forty-five metres while the side nave vaults reach thirty metres. The transept has three aisles. The columns are on a 7.5 metre grid. However, the columns of the apse, resting on del Villar's foundation, do not adhere to the grid, requiring a section of columns of the ambulatory to transition to the grid thus creating a horseshoe pattern to the layout of those columns. The crossing rests on the four central columns of porphyry supporting a great hyperboloid surrounded by two rings of twelve hyperboloids (currently under construction). The central vault reaches sixty metres. The apse is capped by a hyperboloid vault reaching seventy-five metres. Gaudí intended that a visitor standing at the main entrance be able to see the vaults of the nave, crossing, and apse, thus the graduated increase in vault loftiness.

At the center of the church, looking up at the ceiling

There are gaps in the floor of the apse, providing a view down into the crypt below.

The columns of the interior are a unique Gaudí design. Besides branching to support their load, their ever-changing surfaces are the result of the intersection of various geometric forms. The simplest example is that of a square base evolving into an octagon as the column rises, then a sixteen-sided form, and eventually to a circle. This effect is the result of a three-dimensional intersection of helicoidal columns (for example a square cross-section column twisting clockwise and a similar one twisting counter-clockwise).

Essentially none of the interior surfaces are flat; the ornamentation is comprehensive and rich, consisting in large part of abstract shapes which combine smooth curves and jagged points. Even detail-level work such as the iron railings for balconies and stairways are full of curvaceous elaboration.

Organ

In 2010 an organ was installed in the presbytery by the Blancafort Orgueners de Montserrat organ builders. The instrument has 26 stops (1,492 pipes) on two manuals and a pedalboard.[33]

Pedal C–f1

1. Contrabajo 16'
2. Subajo 16'
3. Contras 8'
4. Bajo 8'
5. Coral 4'
6. Fagot 16'
I Organo Mayor C–g3
7. Flautado de cara 8'
8. Flautado Armonica 8'
9. Flautado Chimenea 8'
10. Octava 4'
11. Docena 4'
12. Quincena 2'
13. Decisetena 8'
14. Corneta V 8'
15. Lleno III-IV 11/3'
16. Trompeta Real 8'
II Expressivo C–g3
17. Gran Principal 8'
18. Gamba 8'
19. Violon 8'
20. Voz Celeste 8'
21. Flautado Conica 4'
22. Tapadillo 4'
23. Nasardo 12a 22/3'
24. Flabiolet 2'
25. Nasardo 17a 13/5'
26. Oboe 8'
  • Couplers: II/I, I/P, II/P

To overcome the unique acoustical challenges posed by the church's architecture and vast size, several additional organs will be installed at various points within the building. These instruments will be playable separately (from their own individual consoles) and simultaneously (from a single mobile console), yielding an organ of some 8000 pipes when completed.[34]

Geometric details

Alpha and Omega carving at Sagrada Família entrance

The towers on the Nativity façade are crowned with geometrically shaped tops that are reminiscent of Cubism (they were finished around 1930), and the intricate decoration is contemporary to the style of Art Nouveau, but Gaudí's unique style drew primarily from nature, not other artists or architects, and resists categorization.

Gaudí used hyperboloid structures in later designs of the Sagrada Família (more obviously after 1914), however there are a few places on the nativity façade—a design not equated with Gaudí's ruled-surface design—where the hyperboloid crops up. For example, all around the scene with the pelican there are numerous examples (including the basket held by one of the figures). There is a hyperboloid adding structural stability to the cypress tree (by connecting it to the bridge). And finally, the "bishop's mitre" spires are capped with hyperboloid structures.[35] In his later designs, ruled surfaces are prominent in the nave's vaults and windows and the surfaces of the Passion facade.

Symbolism

Themes throughout the decoration include words from the liturgy. The towers are decorated with words such as "Hosanna", "Excelsis", and "Sanctus"; the great doors of the Passion façade reproduce words from the Bible in various languages including Catalan; and the Glory façade is to be decorated with the words from the Apostles' Creed. The three entrances symbolize the three virtues: Faith, Hope and Love. Each of them is also dedicated to a part of Christ's life. The Nativity Façade is dedicated to his birth; it also has a cypress tree which symbolizes the tree of life. The Glory façade is dedicated to his glory period. The Passion façade is symbolic of his suffering. All in all, the Sagrada de Família is symbolic of the lifetime of Christ.

Areas of the sanctuary will be designated to represent various concepts, such as saints, virtues and sins, and secular concepts such as regions, presumably with decoration to match.

Burials

Appraisal

Nikolaus Pevsner, writing in the 1960s, referred to Gaudi's buildings as growing "like sugar loaves and anthills" and describes the ornamenting of buildings with shards of broken pottery as possibly "bad taste" but handled with vitality and "ruthless audacity".[28]

The building's design itself has been polarizing. While Time Magazine called it 'sensual, spiritual, whimsical, exuberant'[15]George Orwell called it 'one of the most hideous buildings in the world'[36] and James A. Michener called it "one of the strangest-looking serious buildings in the world".[37] The building's distinctive silhouette has nevertheless become symbolic of Barcelona itself,[9] drawing an estimated 2.5 million visitors annually.[10]

World Heritage status

With six other Gaudi buildings in Barcelona, la Sagrada Familia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as testifying "to Gaudí’s exceptional creative contribution to the development of architecture and building technology", "having represented el Modernisme of Catalonia" and "anticipated and influenced many of the forms and techniques that were relevant to the development of modern construction in the 20th century."[5]

Visiting

Visitors can access the Nave, Crypt, Museum, Shop, and the Passion and Nativity towers. While visitors could previously access the towers directly at no cost, their access is possible only by lift and a walk up the remainder of the towers, over the bridge between the towers and descent via the opposite tower by spiral staircase.

As of August 2010, there is a service for faster entry whereby visitors can buy an entry code either at Servicaixa ATM kiosks (part of 'La Caixa') or online.[citation needed]

Funding

Construction on Sagrada Família is not supported by any government or official church sources. Private patrons funded the initial stages.[38] Money from tickets purchased by tourists is now used to pay for the work, and private donations are accepted through the Friends of the Sagrada Família.

The construction budget for 2009 was €18 million.[22]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sagrada Familia gets final completion date – 2026 or 2028". The Guardian. 22 September 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/sep/22/sagrada-familia-final-completion-date. Retrieved 2011-10-13. 
  2. ^ a b c d Gómez Gimeno, María José (2006). La Sagrada Familia. Mundo Flip Ediciones. pp. 86–87. ISBN 84-933983-4-9. 
  3. ^ "Unesco, Works of Antoni Gaudí". Whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/320/. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  4. ^ "Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia" (in Spanish). Patrimonio Historico – Base de datos de bienes inmuebles. Ministerio de Cultura. http://www.mcu.es/bienes/buscarDetalleBienesInmuebles.do?brscgi_DOCN=000011542. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c Works of Antoni Gaudi, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, accessed 14-11-2010
  6. ^ Drummer, Alexander (23 July 2010). "Pontiff to Proclaim Gaudí's Church a Basilica". ZENIT. http://www.zenit.org/article-29981?l=english. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  7. ^ "The Pope Consecrates The Church Of The Sagrada Familia". Vatican City: Vatican Information Service. 7 November 2010. Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5uAAUTwy8. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  8. ^ Delaney, Sarah (4 March 2010). "Pope to visit Santiago de Compostela, Barcelona in November". Catholic News Service. http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/1000887.htm. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d Minder, Raphael (3 November 2010). "Polishing Gaudi's Unfinished Jewel". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/04/arts/04iht-sacred.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=gaudi%20sagrada%20familia&st=cse. 
  10. ^ a b c Schumacher, Edward (1 January 1991). "Gaudi's Church Still Divides Barcelona". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1991/01/01/arts/gaudi-s-church-still-divides-barcelona.html?scp=16&sq=gaudi%20sagrada%20familia&st=cse. 
  11. ^ Burnett, Victoria (11 June 2007). "Warning: Trains Coming. A Masterpiece Is at Risk.". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/11/world/europe/11spain.html?scp=20&sq=gaudi%20sagrada%20familia&st=cse. 
  12. ^ Rainer Zerbst, Gaudi- a Life Devoted to Architecture, pp.190–215
  13. ^ Goldberger, Paul (28 Jan 1991). "Barcelona". National Geographic. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/traveler/articles/1003barcelona.html. 
  14. ^ a b c d The Gaudi & Barcelona Club Sagrada Família
  15. ^ a b Hornblower, Margo (28 Jan 1991). "Heresy Or Homage in Barcelona?". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,972215,00.html. 
  16. ^ Gladstone, Valerie (22 August 2004). "ARCHITECTURE: Gaudí's Unfinished Masterpiece Is Virtually Complete". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/22/arts/architecture-gaudi-s-unfinished-masterpiece-is-virtually-complete.html?scp=10&sq=gaudi%20sagrada%20familia&st=cse. 
  17. ^ Daniel, Paul (January 2009). Diamond tools help shape the Sagrada Familia[dead link](PDF). Industrial Diamond Review. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  18. ^ Fancelli, Agustí (4 December 2008). "¿Por qué no parar la Sagrada Familia? [Why not stop the Sagrada Familia?]" (in Spanish). http://www.elpais.com/articulo/cultura/parar/Sagrada/Familia/elpepicul/20081204elpepicul_4/Tes. Retrieved 7 July 2010.  (English tr.)
  19. ^ a b Burry, Mark; Gaudí, Antoni (2007). Gaudí Unseen. Berlin: Jovis Verlag. ISBN 978-3-939633-78-5. 
  20. ^ a b Comorera, Ramon (13 October 2010). "La tuneladora del AVE perfora ya a cuatro metros de la Sagrada Família [The tunnel boring machine of the AVE is already excavating four meters from the Sagrada Família]" (in Spanish). El Periódico de Catalunya. http://www.elperiodico.com/es/noticias/barcelona/20101013/sagrada-familia-pasa-primer-test-del-ave/530676.shtml. Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  21. ^ ADIF (Administrator of Railway Infrastructures). "Madrid – Zaragoza Barcelona – French Border Line Barcelona Sants-Sagrera – high-speed tunnel". http://www.adif.es/en_US/infraestructuras/lineas_de_alta_velocidad/madrid_barcelona_frontera_francesa/tunel_sagrera.shtml. Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  22. ^ a b Montañés, José Ángel (13 March 2009). "La Sagrada Familia se abrirá al culto en septiembre de 2010" (in Spanish). El País. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/cataluna/Sagrada/Familia/abrira/culto/septiembre/2010/elpepuespcat/20090313elpcat_2/Tes. Retrieved 19 June 2009.  (English tr)
  23. ^ Pope Benedict consecrates Barcelona's Sagrada Familia. BBC News. 7 November 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11705036 
  24. ^ "Los Reyes agradecen la visita al Papa durante el cordial encuentro en la Sagrada Família". La Vanguardia. 7 November 2010. http://www.lavanguardia.es/politica/noticias/20101107/54065763614/los-reyes-agradecen-la-visita-al-papa-durante-el-cordial-encuentro-en-la-sagrada-familia.html 
  25. ^ "Visita histórica del Papa a Barcelona para dedicar la Sagrada Família". La Vanguardia. 7 November 2010. http://www.lavanguardia.es/ciudadanos/noticias/20101107/54065744060/visita-historica-del-papa-a-barcelona-para-dedicar-la-sagrada-familia.html 
  26. ^ Woolls, Daniel (19 April 2011). "Fire in Barcelona church sees tourists evacuated". The Star (Toronto). http://www.thestar.com/news/world/article/976956--fire-in-barcelona-church-sees-tourists-evacuated?bn=1. 
  27. ^ Mentally Ill Arsonist Suspected in Disastrous Blaze at Gaudi's Sagrada Familia ARTINFO.com
  28. ^ a b Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture, Penguin Books, (1963), pp.394–5 ISBN ?
  29. ^ Bergós i Massó, Joan (1999). Gaudí, l'home i l'obra. Barcelona: Ed. Lunwerg. p. 40. ISBN 84-7782-617-X. 
  30. ^ Barral i Altet, Xavier (1999). Art de Catalunya. Arquitectura religiosa moderna i contemporània. Barcelona: L'isard. p. 218. ISBN 84-89931-14-3. 
  31. ^ "La Sagrada Familia abrirá al culto en 2008, según sus responsables (The Sagrada Familia opens for worship in 2008, according to its leaders)" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Europa Press (Mundinteractivos, SA). 2 June 2005. http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2005/06/02/cultura/1117725182.html. Retrieved 7 July 2010.  (English tr.)
  32. ^ Fargas, Albert (2009). Simbología del Templo de la Sagrada Familia. Barcelona: Triangle Postals. p. 180. ISBN 978-84-8478-405-0. 
  33. ^ Blancafort Orgueners de Montserrat, Organ of the Sagrada Familia (Spanish)
  34. ^ Blancafort Orgueners de Montserrat, [1] (Spanish)
  35. ^ M.C. Burry; J.R. Burry, G.M. Dunlop and A. Maher (2001). Drawing Together Euclidean and Topological Threads. The 13th Annual Colloquium of the Spatial Information Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080625010337/http://www.business.otago.ac.nz/SIRC05/conferences/2001/05_burry.pdf. Retrieved 5 August 2008.  The paper explores the assemblies of second order hyperbolic surfaces as they are used throughout the design composition of the Sagrada Família Church building.
  36. ^ Orwell, George (1938). Homage to Catalonia. Secker and Warburg. "[the anarchists] showed bad taste in not blowing it up when they had the chance." 
  37. ^ Delaney, Paul (24 October 1987). "Gaudi's Cathedral: And Now?". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE7DD173AF937A15753C1A961948260&scp=6&sq=sagrada%20familia%20gaudi&st=cse. 
  38. ^ Fletcher, Tom. "Sagrada Familia "Church of the Holy Family"". Essential Architecture. http://www.essential-architecture.com/SPAIN/SP-BA/BA-006.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 

Further reading

  • Zerbst, Rainer (1988). Antoni Gaudi- A Life Devoted to Architecture. trans. from German by Doris Jones and Jeremy Gaines. Hamburg, Germany: Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-0074-0. 
  • Nonell, Juan Bassegoda (2004). Antonio Gaudi: Master Architect. New York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-7892-0220-4. 
  • Crippa, Maria Antonietta (2003). Peter Gossel. ed. Antoni Gaudi, 1852–1926: From Nature to Architecture. trans. Jeremy Carden. Hamburg, Germany: Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-2518-2. 
  • Schneider, Rolf (2004). Manfred Leier. ed. 100 most beautiful cathedrals of the world: A journey through five continents. trans. from German by Susan Ghanouni and Rae Walter. Edison, New Jersey: Chartwell Books. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7858-1888-5. 

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