- Gander International Airport
name = Gander International Airport
IATA = YQX
ICAO = CYQX
type = Public
Transport Canada[ [http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/Airports/Status/menu.htm Airport Divestiture Status Report] ]
Gander International Airport Authority
city-served = Gander, Newfoundland
elevation-f = 496
elevation-m = 151
coordinates = Coord|48|56|13|N|054|34|05|W|type:airport
website = [http://www.ganderairport.com/ www.GanderAirport.com]
r1-number = 03/21
r1-length-f = 10,200
r1-length-m = 3,109
r2-number = 13/31
r2-length-f = 8,900
r2-length-m = 2,712
r2-surface = Asphalt
r3-number = 09/27*
r3-length-f = 1,875
r3-length-m = 571
r3-surface = Asphalt
stat-year = 2007
stat1-header = Aircraft Movements
stat1-data = 53,175
footnotes = Sources:
Canada Flight SupplementCFS]
Transport Canada. [http://www.tc.gc.ca/pol/EN/Report/TP577/pdf/TP577_07.pdf Aircraft Movement Statistics: NAV CANADA Towers and Flight Service Stations: Annual Report 2007] ]
* Runway closed
1 December- 30 April
Gander International Airport Airport codes|YQX|CYQX is located in Gander,
Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, and is currently run by the Gander Airport Authority. Canadian Forces Base Gander shares the airfield but is a separate entity from the airport.
Construction of the airport began in 1936 and it was opened in 1938, with its first landing on
January 11of that year, by Captain Douglas Fraserflying a Fox Moth of Imperial Airways. Within a few years it had four runways and was the largest airport in the world. Its official name until 1941 was Newfoundland Airport.
In 1940, the operation of the Newfoundland Airport was assigned by the
Dominion of Newfoundlandto the Royal Canadian Air Force(RCAF) and it was renamed RCAF Station Gander in 1941. The airfield was heavily used by Ferry Command for transporting newly built aircraft across the Atlantic Oceanto the European Theatre, as well as for staging operational anti-submarine patrols dedicated to hunting U-boats in the northwest Atlantic. Thousands of aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Corps/ United States Army Air Forcesand the RCAF destined for the European Theatre travelled through Gander.
Royal Canadian Navy(RCN) also established Naval Radio Station Gander at the airfield, using the station as a listening post to detect the transmissions and location of enemy submarines and warships.
Following the war, the RCAF handed operation of the airfield back to the dominion government in March 1946, although the RCN's radio station remained and the military role for the entire facility was upgraded through the
The government named the airport Gander Airport and it came under the administration of Canada's federal Department of Transport following Newfoundland's entry into Confederation. Numerous improvements were made to the runways and terminals, resulting in much of the present-day configuration. The airport grew in importance through the early decades of the jet age in the 1950s-1970s with its importance being amplified by being situated almost precisely on the
great circleroute between the major cities of the U.S. East Coast and London.
The airfield's location was sufficiently close to
Europeto allow the piston-engined planes of the 1940s to make a non-refueled transatlanticflight and the same qualities made it ideal for the fuel-inefficient jet aircraftof the post-war decades.
Consequently, Gander retained its prominence due to the need for a refueling point for early jet aircraft. Airlines such as
Trans-Canada Air Lines(later Air Canada), British Overseas Airways Corporation(later British Airways), and Pan American World Airwaysmade Gander their main refueling point.
With the advent of jet aircraft with extended ranges in the late 1960s, the need for a refueling point ceased on most flights. Gander has steadily decreased in importance since then, but it remains the home of
Gander Control, one of the two air traffic controls (the other being Shanwick Oceanic Controlin western Scotland) which direct the high-level airways of the North Atlantic. Every plane travelling to and from Europe or North Americamust talk to either or both of these air traffic controls (ATC).
During the Cold War Gander was also notable for the number of persons from the former
Warsaw Pactnations who defected there. It was one of the few refueling points where airplanes could stop en route from eastern Europe or the Soviet Unionto Cuba.
December 12 1985 Arrow AirFlight 1285 crashed on take-off from runway 21. The disaster claimed the lives of 8 crew and 248 soldiers from the United States Army's 101st Airborne Division who were returning home for Christmasfrom a peacekeepingdeployment in the Middle East. The impact on the south side of the Trans-Canada Highwayon the shore of Gander Lakeleft a charred clearing in the forest where a memorial now stands to those who lost their lives in Canada's most deadly air crash.
Operation Yellow Ribbon
September 11 2001, with United States airspace closed due to the terrorist attacks, Gander International played host to 39 airliners, totaling 6,122 passengers and 473 crew, as part of Operation Yellow Ribbon. Gander International received more flights than any other Canadian airport involved in the operation apart from Halifax (The airport that received the highest number of passengers was Vancouver, with 8,500).
A major reason that Gander received so much traffic was partly due to its ability to handle large aircraft, but primarily because
Transport Canadaand NAV CANADAinstructed pilots coming from Europe to avoid the airports in major urban centers of Central Canada, like Lester B. Pearson in Torontoand Montréal-Dorval. The reception these travellers received in the central Newfoundland communities near the airport has been one of the most widely reported happy stories surrounding that day.
To honour the people of Gander and Halifax for their support during the operation,
Lufthansanamed a new Airbus A340-300 "Gander-Halifax" on May 16 2002. That airplane is listed with the registration D-AIFC, [ [http://www.airliners.net/search/photo.search?front=yes&maxres=500&keywords=D-AIFC D-AIFC at] airliners.net] and is the first and sole aircraft of the whole fleet with a city name outside of Germany.
The airport was the site for Canada's memorial service to mark the first anniversary of the attack, which Prime Minister
Jean Chrétien, Transport Minister David Collenette, US Ambassador to Canada Paul Cellucci, and provincial and local officials presided over. 2,500 of the 6,600 people that were diverted there the year before also attended the ceremony.
Currently, Gander has two active
runways: runway 13/31 of 8,900 x 200 feet (2,712 x 61 m), and runway 03/21 (changed from 04/22 in August 2004) which measures 10,200 x 200 feet (3,109 x 61 m). Runway 09/27 at 1,875 x 50 feet (571 x 15 m) is for daytime, visual flight rulesuse only and is closed from 1 Decemberuntil 30 April.
The airport's runway 03/21 is designated as an emergency landing runway for the
Competition for Trans-Atlantic Flights
Gander competes with
Bangor International Airport, located in Bangor, Maine, for transatlantic flights. Although Gander has a slight edge over Bangor in the number of daily transatlantic flights, Bangor has become more and more active due to the Iraq Warwith troops going to and coming home from Iraq. A common visitor to Gander is Evergreen International Airlines.
Officials at Gander International Airport have stated that the future for the airport is grim unless the federal government provides funding to cover costs. Currently over 50% of all aircraft operating from the air field are military, and do not pay
landing fees. [ [http://www.cbc.ca/canada/newfoundland-labrador/story/2006/07/20/gander-airport.html Gander airport warns it could close without Ottawa's help] ] However, domestic passenger traffic increased by over seven percent in 2006, while weekly cargo flights from Iceland show some promise of expansion.
Airlines and destinations
Air Canada Jazz(Halifax)
Air Canadaoperated by Exploits Valley Air Services(St. John's)
Sunwing Airlines(Punta Cana, Toronto-Pearson, Varadero)
* [http://www.ganderairport.com/ Gander International Airport]
* [http://www.snopes.com/rumors/gander.htm Tales of Gander hospitality on September 11 (snopes.com)]
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