Presidente Hayes Department


Presidente Hayes Department

Presidente Hayes is a department in Paraguay. The capital is the city of Pozo Colorado. The department was named after U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, who was the arbitrator in a boundary dispute between Paraguay and Argentina after the War of the Triple Alliance.

Districts

The department is divided in 6 districts:

# Benjamín Aceval
# Jose Falcon
# Nanawa (Puerto Elsa)
# Pozo Colorado
# Puerto Pinasco
# Villa Hayes

History

In the colonial period conflict between settlers and native tribes resulted in the abandonment of towns and missions including Melodía, Timbó, Naranajay and Remolinos.

Only Fort Borbon, today called Fort Olimpo, survived. Founded during the government of Alos and Bru, the garrison contained the southern advance of the Portuguese.

French settlers tried but failed to settle the area, with the exception of “Villa Occidental”.

It was named Presidente Hayes after the War against the Triple Alliance, in honor of the United States president Rutherford B. Hayes, whose intervention resulted in Paraguay retaining the territory.

In 1906, during the political division of Paraguay, it was split in two regions, Oriental and Occidental. The latter was divided in military headquarters that depended on the War and Marine Ministry.

Important dates for this department include June 12 (Chaco’s Peace Day), September 29 (Boquerón Victory Day) and November 12 (Laudo Hayes Firm Day).

Limits

Located between parallels 22º 03’ and 25º 20’ of South latitude and the meridians 57º 15’ and 61º 00’ of longitude West.

To the North: Alto Paraguay department, from which is separated by the road of the railway from “km 160” to “km 20”, from this point by an imaginary straight line until Paraguay River.

To the South: Argentina, from which is separated by the Pilcomayo River, all the way since its flow into the Paraguay River until the San Lorenzo Mission.

To the East: the departments Concepción, San Pedro, Cordillera and Central, separated from them by the Paraguay River, from its flow into the La Paz River until the Pilcomayo River.

To the West: Boquerón department, separated by the road that communicates the San Lorenzo Mission with the Forts Gral. Díaz, Avalos Sánchez, Zenteno, Dr. Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, Boquerón, Isla Poí and Casanillo, and from this point with an imaginary straight line until “km 160”.

Climate

The temperature reaches 44°C in summer and drops to 0°C in winter, the average temperature is 26°C. The average amount of precipitation is about 900 and 1200 millimeters annually.

Orography and soil

The type of soil can be classified in two kinds: to the east, saline soil, to the south, to Pilcomayo River, calcareous soil, to the Paraguay River.

The hills Confuso, Siete Cabezas and Galván are small elevations.

Hidrography

The Paraguay River borders the entire department, the rivers Pilcomayo, San Carlos, Siete Puntas, Negro, Verde, Montelindo, Aguaray Guazú and Confuso also flow through this territory. To the south there is the Patiño Swamp.

The Tinfunqué National Park is a great touristic attraction; it has an extension of 280.000 hectares.

In Presidente Hayes inundations are frequent because of the overflow of the rivers, but just in Villa Hayes city, the land in other parts of the department is higher.

None of the rivers that part from Paraguay River are navigable for big ships.

Natural environment

In Chaco territory can be found 4 special ecosystems: the Plain of inundation of the Paraguay River, Pozo Azul, Laguna Salada and the Plain of inundation of the Pilcomayo River.

The deviation of the Pilcomayo River towards Argentina has produced several changes in the habits of the people; the drought causes the migration of the jacarés to most humid areas, and also the spreading of diseases.

Some species of plants in danger are: timbó, samu’u, white and red quebracho and karanday. Among the animal species in danger are: carpincho, jurumi, jacaré and tapir.

Economy

Presidente Hayes has the first place in production of bovine cattle, and second in production of equine cattle.

The population dedicates to the agriculture, and is third place in production of sorghum. They also cultivate cotton and sweet cane.

Villa Hayes and Benjamín Aceval are noticeable for the production of sweet cane.

In Villa Hayes works the sugar factory Censi and Pirota. Sawmills, ceramic factories and steel mills are installed in the city. ACEPAR, Aceros del Paraguay, is an important iron and steel industry and is also located in Villa Hayes.

In addition, in Villa Hayes is installed Astillero Chaco Paraguayo S.A., dedicated to the construction of launches for heavy loads, fuel and vegetable oil transportation. There is also soap and lime factories and an ESSO plant of fuel and lubricants.

Puerto Falcón is an area of very intense economic trading with Argentina and of touristic attractive.

Communication and services

The most important way of communication is Route No. 9 “Carlos Antonio López” also known as “Transchaco”, which cross the Paraguay River through the Remanso Brindge and extends to Bolivia.

The Route No. 12 “Vice Presidente Sánchez” borders Pilcomayo River, but is not passable when raining.

The road Pozo Colorado-Puerto Milirar, reaches Concepción, crossing the Paraguay River through a bridge.

The different roads that communicate the localities of the department have the inconvenience of not being passable in season of rains.

Paraguay River is the most used way to communicate with Puerto Pinasco.

In Puerto Falcón, is possible the communication with the Argentine city Clorinda. The cattle establishments use aerial ways.

The department has two radio stations in FM, Radio Villa Hayes and Dyon. About 3.200 people count with phone service.

There are 16.865 housings in the department, 6.165 in the urban area and 10.700 in the rural area. The percentage of which count with basic facilities are the following:

* Electric power: 39,9%
* Running water: 19,1%
* Trash recollection: 4,3%

Health and education

The region counts with 96 institutions of elementary education, 192 of basic education and 29 of high school education.

There are 38 health establishments, counting hospital and health care centers.

References

* Geografía Ilustrada del Paraguay, Distribuidora Arami SRL; 2007. ISBN 99925-68-04-6
* Geografía del Paraguay, Primera Edición 1999, Editorial Hispana Paraguay SRL
* EVP - Wikipedia
* [http://www.evp.edu.py/index.php?title=Portada Enciclopedia Virtual Paraguaya - Portal]

External links

* [http://www.senatur.gov.py/index.php?language=2 SENATUR]
* [http://www.ventacamposparaguay.com/photos2.htm photos of ranches in Pde Hayes Province]


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