Progressive Adventism

Progressive Adventism

Progressive Adventists are members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church who disagree with certain beliefs traditionally held by mainstream Adventism and officially by the church. They are often described as liberal Adventism by other Adventists, the term "progressive" is generally preferred as a self-description. This article describes terms such as evangelical Adventism, cultural Adventism, charismatic Adventism, and progressive Adventism and others, which are generally related but have distinctions.

Progressives typically disagree with one or more of the church's basic beliefs such as the Sabbath or "distinctive" beliefs such as the investigative judgment, the remnant, a future global Sunday-law, or a use of Ellen G. White's writings. They also tend to question some of the denomination's 28 fundamental beliefs: with debate arising on the nature of the Trinity, the Gift of Prophecy, Creation or observance of the seventh-day Sabbath."[1] A major factor in its rise was as a result of Adventists going to for some studies ti many non-theological universities, which was sparked by the need for government accreditation for its educational institutions. It also has many similarities with the ecumenical emerging church movement.[2] Perceptions and definitions of it may differ somewhat depending on the author, although much in common is also clearly discernible.



The movement emerged from interactions with evangelical Christians in the 1950s, which included the publication of Questions on Doctrine. This period marked a shift in the broader Christian world's perception of Adventists, from being viewed as a sect to being more commonly accepted as a legitimate Christian denomination. The label "progressive Adventist" was created in the mid-1960s by Spectrum magazine, according to one author.

One scholar wrote in 2001,

"It is only within the last few decades that the Adventist Review has recognized editorially that there exists within the Seventh-day Adventist Church, at least in North America, 'liberals,' 'liberal churches,' 'liberal colleges/universities' and 'liberal conferences.' Depending on the author and his/her agenda, Adventist liberals are compared and/or contrasted with 'conservative Adventists,' 'historic Adventists,' 'Bible-believing (or EGW-believing) Adventists,' 'traditional Adventists,' 'evangelical Adventists,' 'cultural Adventists,' and/or 'ecumenical Adventists.'"[3]

Beliefs and practices

Progressives tend to agree on some beliefs, while there is greater variation on others. According to one author, Progressive Adventism "regrets the anti-intellectual, authoritarian and obscurant tendencies that characterize a significant segment of traditional, historic Adventism, along with the attempts at creating a creed out of the "27 Fundamental Doctrines.""[3]

Ron Corson identifies four common areas of progressive belief:[4]

  • Investigative judgment. A different view of the investigative judgment, or a denial of its biblical basis.
  • Remnant. An inclusion of other Christians in the term remnant.
  • Ellen White. A less rigid view of the Inspiration of Ellen White, from recognizing her fallibility to perhaps even denying her prophetic gift.
  • Sabbath. An emphasis on the benefits of the Sabbath, but a denial that it is the "seal of God" or that Sunday keeping will ever become the mark of the beast.[5]


Progressives are inclusive of other types of Adventists, and believe different beliefs and types should be welcomed as part of the community.[3][4] An example is Alden Thompson's 2009 book Beyond Common Ground: Why Liberals and Conservatives Need Each Other.[6]


Progressive Adventists emphasize some of the positive aspects of the Sabbath such as it being made for human benefit (Mark 2:27), but deny that Sunday keeping is or ever will be the mark of the beast.[7]


They tend to challenge traditional teachings such as young earth creationism and accept some aspects of evolution. Clifford Goldstein and other Adventists have argued that evolution and Adventism are incompatible.[8]

Church structure

Progressive Adventists typically believe the present church structure is very "top heavy" with too many levels of leadership, and possibly too much hierarchical control.[3] (Many mainstream Adventists such as George Knight have also called for change in this area.)

Free press

Progressive Adventists typically believe in candid reporting of news and information about the church whether positive or negative. They believe in open discussion in a free press.[3] (This view is also shared by many more mainstream Adventists such as former editors of the Australian Record James Coffin[9] and Bruce Manners.[citation needed] Coffin was also on the staff of the Adventist Review.)


Progressive Adventists are typically open to a variety of styles of worship music in church including contemporary Christian music.[10][11]


For instance, Spectrum regularly reviews films. William G. Johnsson shared his concern that "the great majority of our youth, and increasing numbers of older members, pastors included, reject the church’s standard of not going to the movies. To me, this is a serious matter. Many Adventists have lower viewing standards than evangelical Christians. Large numbers of our people, I fear, are being seduced by the all-pervasive media. Instead of the Bible, movies, television, and music are shaping their values and attitudes. They are becoming conformed to the world, rather than living as new beings in Christ transformed by His grace."[12]

Varieties of evangelical/progressive Adventism

Cultural Adventism

A similar group have been referred to as "cultural Adventists".[13] This term may be used of the majority of Adventists who are not overly concerned with theology, such as evangelical Kenneth Samples' description of "a segment that is atheological in nature and reflects what [he] would call a cultural Adventism."[14] It may also refer to those who feel an attachment towards the Adventist church for cultural reasons rather than strict theological conformity. Some authors have commented that the Adventist cultural is a strong binding force.

Clifford Goldstein has declared,

"A cultural Adventist? The concept's incomprehensible to me... I'm an Adventist for one reason: the beliefs, the teachings, the doctrines that this church — and this church alone — espouses. If it were not for them, I'd be gone faster than the junk food at church potlucks. The Seventh-day Adventist culture had nothing to do with bringing me here. On the contrary, coming as I did from a secular Jewish background, the culture was the biggest obstacle."[15]

Compare "Cultural Christian".

Charismatic Adventism

While Adventist church worship is commonly conservative, a minor segment of the church is charismatic in nature. Phenomena of this nature have been present throughout Adventist history, resulting in such things as the Holy Flesh movement.

Liberal Adventism

The term liberal Adventist or left-wing Adventist usually means "progressive Adventist" (the preferred self-designation; see above).[3][16] This is appropriate because most progressive Adventists are still "conservative" or evangelical Christians, for example most do believe in the resurrection of Jesus.[4] They do not hold to a "libertine" or "anything goes" attitude which the term "liberal" sometimes implies.[3] They also do not believe in the foundational or fundamental beliefs of the Adventist church. A small number of Adventists are actually liberal Christians, accepting such things as homosexuality.

According to evangelical Kenneth Samples, "It should also be mentioned that, though small, there was and is a segment in Adventism which could be described as being theologically liberal"[17] or even "very liberal".[14] He claims it rejects Christ's vicarious substitutionary atonement.

Ron Corson wrote,

"[Progressive Adventists] could be termed liberal, except that the term 'liberal Christian' generally refers to those who don't believe that Christ was resurrected nor that he performed miracles, and who hold other tenets with which most Progressive SDA's would not agree. These 'liberals' are often involved in the Jesus Seminars.[4]

Social action

Some Adventists describe themselves as "liberal" to mean they are liberal or left-wing politically, and have a concern for social action.

Other terms

Also compare to the "Evangelical left" and "Progressive Christianity". Also compare to the "Christian/religious left" (although this term is associated with left-wing politics).

Other terms such as ecumenical Adventist and evangelical Adventist have been used, with presumably related meaning.[16] (Compare the much broader movements "Ecumenism" and "Evangelicalism" within Christianity as a whole).

Moves toward mainstream Christianity

The 1957 publication of Questions on Doctrine (QOD) as a result of dialog with critic Walter Martin is seen as a beginning for liberal Adventism. According to one author, the roots of evangelical Adventism can be traced to scholars who met with Martin and Barnhouse,[17] or earlier.[14] "The seeds of this movement were sown within the denomination via the book QOD in 1957, and the seed-plot was watered by the public ministries of such men as R. A. Anderson, H. M. S. Richards, Sr., Edward Heppenstall, Robert Brinsmead, Desmond Ford, Smuts van Rooyen, and others."[18][19] This book precipitated the different factions. The movement emerged with Ford and Brinsmead as its main spokesmen.[17] Desmond Ford apostatized from the church's viewpoint in the 1970s, with issues with church doctrine similar to A. F. Ballenger.[20] Many liberals left the church in this period and liberals still follow and cite his viewpoints.

According to one author, liberals are united by belief in the pre-fallen ature of Jesus (and hold he was primarily our substitute not our example), assurance of salvation, overcoming sin or perfectionism is impossible, that Jesus ascended straight to the most holy place in heaven at his ascension (although opinions varied on a pre-advent judgment), Ellen White had the gift of prophecy but was not infallible nor should be used for doctrine.[17]



Progressive Adventists such as Raymond Cottrell, was responsible for much of today's independent media within the Adventist Church. These include Spectrum (archives), a newsmagazine published by Adventist Forums, that has been the premier progressive Adventist magazine since its founding in 1969. In addition to its quarterly journal, Spectrum also runs a regularly updated website with commentary and reports on the latest news and developments within the Church and other areas. Progressive Adventists also established Adventist Today (archives), a bimonthly magazine first published in 1993. Unlike Spectrum it is more focussed on news reporting. In 2008 Adventist Today made a renewed commitment to reporting on a greater diversity of Adventist views.

Also started by Progressives was Adventist Heritage: A Journal of Adventist History (archives), "which provided an important liberal platform"[21] from 1974 to 1998 in roughly 18 volumes.[22] It was supported by the Association of Seventh-day Adventist Historians and other groups.[23] Gary Land was a founding editor,[24] as was Ronald Numbers. Jonathan M. Butler served as editor for a decade.[25] Published twice yearly, it was acquired by Loma Linda University.[26]


A number of Progressive Adventist publications have gone out of print. These include Present Truth Magazine (archives) founded by Robert Brinsmead in 1972 with a grace/gospel-centered focus. In 1978 Brinsmead changed its title to Verdict, to reflect his move away from evangelical Christianity. The material on the Present Truth Magazine website is produced by the "Gospel Friends Christian Fellowship", which they explain to be an association of evangelical Seventh-day Adventists. It does not necessarily represent Brinsmead's current views.[27] 52 issues were apparently published.[28]

The Good News Unlimited magazine (archives) is published by Desmond Ford's ministry of the same name. It began in 1981 as a bimonthly, switched to monthly publication in mid-2003, and continues to be published as of 2008.[29] A related magazine is Good News for Adventists.

Adventist Professional was an Australian magazine published quarterly from 1989 to 1999 by the Association of Business and Professional Members (formerly "[...] Men") based in Sydney, an organization of Australia and New Zealand Adventist business and professional laypeople established in 1961.[30][31] Eleven volumes were published,[30] and Trevor Lloyd is a former editor.[32]

The magazine Adventist Currents (archives) was published from 1983 to 1988 in California[33][34] as a response to Ford's dismissal.[35] Three volumes totaling 11 issues were published,[34] as well as several issues of a newsletter in 1990.[36]

The magazine Evangelica was published from 1980 until 1987 in 8 volumes[37] and promoted the cause of evangelical Adventism.[38][39][40] It was started in reaction to Desmond Ford's dismissal from the ministry.


The internet is having an increasing role with various Adventist blogs which are progressive. One non-Adventist author believes "Adventism is currently in a conservative phase, and... a new liberal epoch in Adventism is due anytime from now... Maybe it has already started with [Julius Nam and his] fellow progressive bloggers—the Julius-Monte-Alex-Ryan-Johnny axis!"[21] This presumably refers to the blogs Progressive Adventism (Julius Nam), Faith in Context (Monte Sahlin), Spectrum Blog (Alexander Carpenter), intersections (Ryan J. Bell), and Johnny's Cache (Johnny A. Ramirez).[41]

John McLarty, former editor of Adventist Today and a self-described "liberal Adventist pastor", blogs at "Liberal Adventist".


Numerous Adventist conferences and meetings have a progressive flavor. Possibly see also the International Conference on Innovation.[42][43]

Adventist Society for Religious Studies

The Adventist Society for Religious Studies (ASRS) is the more progressive of the two main Adventist theological societies. (The other, the Adventist Theological Society was a conservative spinoff, and has more members in total from its involvement of lay people, but less scholars.) The ASRS meets annually as a part of the Society of Biblical Literature meetings.

Adventist Forums Conference

Adventist Forums hosts an annual conference.

Adventist Forum groups meet regularly around the world.

Adventist Today Conference

The first camp meeting was held in 1998 in Riverside.[44]

Adventist Today hosted meetings in Monterey, California in December 2005, which featured Desmond Ford as speaker.

Spiritual Renaissance Retreat

The Spiritual Renaissance Retreat is an annual event hosted by John and Joan Hughson of Pacific Union College Church, and co-sponsored by Adventist Forums and Adventist Today.[45] Held in Monterey, California, it is based partly on a yearly retreat concept popularized by Bill Clinton.[46] Desmond Ford has been invited as a speaker, but after complaints to church leadership this invitation was withdrawn.[47]

Relations with others

Relations with other Christians

Progressive Adventists display an open and inclusive attitude towards other Christians and other beliefs. Other Christians have often had positive experiences interacting with progressive Adventists. Tony Campolo has had positive experiences speaking on numerous Adventist university campuses.[48] Clark Pinnock gave very favourable reviews of Alden Thompson's Inspiration, despite the significant attention given to Ellen White in the content, and Richard Rice's theology textbook Reign of God.[49] Pinnock was also impressed by Richard Rice's book The Openness of God, and later was the editor for another work of the same name, contributed by authors Rice, John E. Sanders and others.

The evangelical Christian Research Institute has offered "a hand of fellowship and encouragement" to what they describe as Evangelical Adventism.[17]

They emphasize or appreciate those statements by Ellen White which affirm other Christians, such as the instruction to come near to ministers of other denominations, to pray with and for them.[50]

Some authors report increased mixing of Adventists with other Christians worshiping on Sunday. For instance in North America, "It’s not uncommon to find a member in church on Sabbath morning who, on another day, joins a study group of a different denomination or no denomination."[12]


Clifford Goldstein has criticized cultural Adventists and the Adventist left, as described above. He had a blog on the Adventist Today website for nearly one year.[51] See particularly the blogs, "Will the Real 'Thinking' Adventist Please Stand Up?" part one and part two. He applies an Ellen White to liberal Adventists, "We have far more to fear from within than from without."[52][53]

Samuel Koranteng-Pipim displays a strong concern about "liberal" Adventist scholars.[54] By Alden Thompson's count, "The footnotes label some 66 Adventist scholars, authors, administrators as being on the wrong side of the divide."[55]

Former General Conference president Robert S. Folkenberg wrote "Will the real evangelical Adventist please stand up?".[56] An article in Proclamation!, a magazine produced by former Adventists critical of Adventism, criticizes progressive Adventism in particular, claiming that evangelicalism and Adventism are incompatible.[57] The authors of Seeking a Sanctuary have argued that a common theology keeps Adventists together. They claim religions usually remain unified by ethnicity, but this doesn't hold for Adventism which is very culturally diverse.[58]

Former Adventist J. Mark Martin gave talks entitled, "An Evangelical Adventist?"[59]

Andy Nash encountered some within the Adventist Today and Spectrum groups who had a liberal view of Scripture. Some rejected the Bible's position on homosexuality, or believed Adam and Eve or Daniel were not real people. He commented,

"Do you see the irony here? At times, this movement has struggled to make room for those who took a high view of Scripture, who grappled with the biblical text but arrived at different conclusions. Yet today we have “thought leaders” willing to set aside major teachings of Scripture altogether."

He argues for an atmosphere of tolerance of different perspectives, as long as there is respect for the authority of the Bible.[60]

One book claims qualities of liberal "break-off congregations" as: "1. Call your congregation something besides 'Seventh-day Adventist.'" "2. Mute and muffle distinctive Adventist doctrines." "3. And don't call the SDA Church 'the remnant.'" "4. Downplay our well-defined and long-held standards." "5. Keep the tithes and offerings in your own congregation." "6. Reduce Ellen White's role merely to 'wise old woman.'" "7. Resist any authority from the conference level or higher."[61]

University controversies

At times there has been intense discussion between church educators, and church administrators and lay people. Progressives believe in academic freedom for the church's theologians and scientists.[3] The church administrators are known as generally more conservative, which has led to differences of opinion with academics, who are known as generally more liberal. The Spectrum editors have said, "Every ten years or so another witch hunt occurs" in Adventist higher education.[62]

Historians have sometimes found themselves embroiled in dispute. Michael Campbell writes, Adventist "history teachers and the use of historical method became especially suspect as Adventism became more Fundamentalist during the 1920s," during which time its history teachers were "on the front line of those who were pushed out of the church"[63]

According to Terrie Dopp Aamodt, one of the first major "purges" was at Walla Walla College in 1938.[62]

Raymond Cottrell, who some see as a "progressive Adventist", as he disagreed with certain traditional positions of the church, including the investigative judgment,[64] says that for the first hundred years in the Seventh-day Adventist Church, administrators and not scholars controlled the church's theology. He sees the 1930s and perhaps earlier as a time church administrators effectively controlled theology, and the 1950s as a time of openness.[64] F. D. Nichol stated that the Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary would not have been possible without the theologically open climate in the church during the 1950s and 60s.[65] Cottrell says, "Anyone who attended an 'outside' [non-Adventist] university for training in such subjects as biblical languages, archeology, ancient history, and chronology was automatically considered persona non grata ["not welcome"] by every Adventist college board."[64] Some of the first Adventist "Bible teachers" to attend non-Adventist universities were R. E. Loasby, E. C. Banks, Siegfried Horn, W. G. C. Murdoch, E. R. Thiele, L. H. Wood, and Graham Maxwell. They tended to avoid theology classes, for biblical languages, archaeology and so on.[64] Benjamin G. Wilkinson may have been the first Adventist to earn a PhD.[citation needed] According to Cottrell, the mid-20th century was an "era of good will and cooperation" for Adventists. R. R. Figuhr was president of the General Conference from 1954–1966, and showed much openness. Bible scholars and administrators had a good working relationship. He describes harmony amongst the scholars, which he attributes to the Bible Research Fellowship and the Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary. He believes that by the late 1960s, the "brief mid-century era of openness" eroded into a "closed-minded, polarized" attitude which continued till at least his time of writing (2002). Cottrell described "the decade of obscurantism (1969–1979)", listing three "architects of obscurantism" as a "triumvirate" consisting of General Conference President Robert H. Pierson, Gordon M. Hyde, and Gerhard Hasel, responsible for attempting to gain control of Adventist biblical studies.[64] Robert H. Pierson was General Conference president from 1966 to 1979, during which time Cottrell says he replaced the scholar–administrator dialogue with stricter administrative control, reverting to the 1930s attitudes he knew before he left the United States as an overseas missionary. According to Cottrell, he was supported by Gordon M. Hyde and Gerhard Hasel. Hyde attempted to promote Hasel as the church's leading theologian. Hasel did eventually become dean of the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary at Andrews University. Cottrell says Hasel used his position to make Drs. Sakai Kubo, Ivan Blazen, Fritz Guy, and Larry Geraty feel very unwelcome[64] (see: History), and replaced them with former students who accepted his views.[64][66] Fred Veltman, who was called to closely investigate "literary parallels" in Ellen White's writings, was concerned about his ongoing employment in the church, and whether the results of his study would be publicized. He wrote that General Conference President Neal C. Wilson that both his employment was secure and that his work would not be in vain.[67] His study is now available online from Adventist Archives. Repeated articles in Spectrum critiquing the church's structure were met with opposition.[62][68]

According to Cottrell, the "prooftext" method of Bible study, in which passages are linked but possibly out of context, was utilized by most Adventist Bible scholars since about 1940, according to one author.[64] Since around 1970, a "historical-grammatical method" has been used by some. Cottrell describes it as a hybrid of the prooftext method and the historical method (which considers full context), and says it is used by only a limited number of scholars, but finds strong support amongst church administrators.[64]

Cottrell says the "International Board for Ministerial Training and Endorsement", along with its various local sub-boards, is an attempt to create "the closed, obscurantist, fundamentalist church" envisioned by Pierson-Hyde-Hasel.[64] Instead, Cottrell envisions a scholarly society with a particular nature.[69]

In the early 1980s, the presidents of Southern Missionary College and Pacific Union College were given leave of absence, after criticisms.[62] The 1980 Adventist Review article "Colleges in Trouble" by editor Kenneth Wood,[70] was seen by some as a contributing factor. Employees were fired at Southern.[71] One significant figure was Jerry A. Gladson, a lecturer who was dismissed by the church.[72]

In the 1990s, Walla Walla College saw controversy.[62]

Scholars have reacted against certain proposals to introduce centralized oversight of theological education, such as former General Conference president Robert Folkenberg's "Total Commitment to God" initiative, which was voted by the Annual Council at Costa Rica in 1996. In 1998 Folkenberg's action to establish an overseeing "Board of Ministerial and Theological Education" in every Division of the church to oversee its theological seminaries "evoked significant criticism in some areas, including North America",[73] and was put on hold.[74] There was concern over the document "International Coordination and Supervision of Seventh-day Adventist Ministerial and Theological Education".[75]

According to one article, at the 2001 annual meeting of the Andrews Society for Religious Studies, "not a single person had anything good to say about this program. No one. Perhaps there was secret support for it, but no one spoke out loud expressing the slightest support". This is despite a range of people being present.[76]

See also 2003 Conference on Religious and Theological Education, Adventist Today article. Alden Thompson and John Brunt at what is now Walla Walla University, "continued to promote the virtues of reason",[77] prompting an official investigation of the educational institution.[78]

Debates over origins or creation/evolution have been significant. Since 2009, some criticised La Sierra University because some lecturers have allegedly affirmed biological evolution. Criticism came in 2009 from an open letter by pastor David Asscherick, and a website "Educate Truth" founded by graduate Shane Hilde, who also collected over 5000 signatures in a petition.[79] As of 2009, church and university leaders had declined to discipline those involved.[62][80][81][82] General Conference president Jan Paulsen made "An Appeal" supporting Creation, and also affirmed the work of Adventist lecturers.[83] The board of trustees of the university affirmed creationism.[84] The debate was reported in the Adventist Review in 2010.[85] The university president responded that a student would never be disciplined for upholding Adventist beliefs, but rather for inappropriate conduct. Others said the student was not disruptive.[86] The immediate past (and emeritus) president affirmed, "LSU continues to be a sound, loyal Seventh-day Adventist institution where victories for Christ happen every day."[87] The local Conference president affirmed both "recent six-day creation", and strongly affirmed the university.[88]

See the 1987 official church statement "A Statement on Theological and Academic Freedom and Accountability".

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Brenton Reading, "Summer Reading Group: Deep Church". Spectrum Blog, 10 July 2010. Quote: "It should be evident that there are many similarities between the Emerging Church and Progressive Adventism as well as between the Traditional Evangelical Church and Traditional Adventism."
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Jones-Haldeman, Madelynn (September 2001). "Progressive Adventism". Adventist Today (Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation) 9 (5). ISSN 1079-5499. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  4. ^ a b c d Corson, Ron (November–December 2002). "Progressive and Traditional Adventists Examined". Adventist Today (Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation) 10 (6): 18–19. ISSN 1079-5499. Retrieved 2008-11-20.  Unedited version, and manifesto on Corson's website
  5. ^ On the latter, see also "The Mark of the Beast and Me" blog by Clifford Goldstein on the Adventist Today website, 10 July 2008
  6. ^ Pacific Press; publisher's page
  7. ^ Ron Corson. Progressive and Traditional Adventists Examined. Adventist Today. Retrieved 2010-08-24 
  8. ^ Christianity & Creation: Can Darwin's Theory Be Reconciled With The Bible?
  9. ^ James Coffin, A Different Church for a Different World, p.23 (probably also published in the Adventist Review)
  10. ^ "Beating Up on Upbeat Music". Adventist Today (Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation) 9 (5). September 2001. ISSN 1079-5499. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  11. ^ "When cK isn't Calvin Klein" by Alissa Rouse, who describes attending an Audio Adrenaline concert.
  12. ^ a b William G. Johnsson, "Four Big Questions". Adventist Review 183 (May 25, 2006), p8–13
  13. ^ Ervin, Taylor (January 2005). "An Interview with Clifford Goldstein". Adventist Today (Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation) 13 (1). ISSN 1079-5499. Archived from the original on 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  14. ^ a b c Samples, Kenneth (2007). "Evangelical Reflections on Seventh-day Adventism: Yesterday and Today". Questions on Doctrine 50th anniversary conference
  15. ^ Goldstein, Clifford (April 28). "Cultural Adventists". Adventist Review (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald) 182: 17. ISSN 0161-1119. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  16. ^ a b Progressive Adventism: A Nonfundamentalist Vision by Ervin Taylor
  17. ^ a b c d e Samples, Kenneth R. (Summer 1988). "From Controversy to Crisis: An Updated Assessment of Seventh-day Adventism". Christian Research Journal (San Juan Capistrano, CA: Christian Research Institute) 11 (1): 9–?. ISSN 1082-572X. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  18. ^ Alan Crandall, "Whither Evangelical Adventism". Evangelica, May 1982, 23; as quoted by Samples
  19. ^ For information on Rooyen, see Graybill, Ronald (December 1991). "Where Are They Now? The Movers, The Shakers, And The Shaken" (PDF). Spectrum (Roseville, California: Adventist Forums) 21 (5). ISSN 0890-0264. Retrieved 2008-09-22.  (see p22–23)
  20. ^
  21. ^ a b Interview of Keith Lockhart by Julius Nam. Lockhart is the coauthor of Seeking a Sanctuary with Malcolm Bull
  22. ^ Online archives
  23. ^ Fay, Jocelyn (January 1979). "Seventh-day Adventist Professional Organizations" (PDF). Spectrum (Roseville, California: Adventist Forums) 9 (4): 10–16. ISSN 0890-0264. Retrieved 2008-04-15. 
  24. ^ Historical Dictionary of Seventh-day Adventists by Gary Land, p421
  25. ^ The Disappointed: Millerism and Millenarianism in the Nineteenth Century, edited by Ronald L. Numbers and Jonathan M. Butler
  26. ^ Adventist Review July 3, 1975, p19
  27. ^ Charter Statement of Present Truth Magazine. Accessed 2007-11-21
  28. ^ Archives of Present Truth Magazine
  29. ^ Good News Unlimited entry in the Andrews University library catalog. Also archives
  30. ^ a b Adventist Professional entry in the Andrews University library catalog
  31. ^ For additional resources see: "SDA women become involved in renamed ABPM" [Association of Business and Professional Members]. Record 15 December 1990, v95, p12. "Magazine encourages discussion" by Trevor G. Lloyd. Record 25 July 1992, v97, p12. "Magazine tackles hard issues" by Wal Simmonds. Record 9 March 1996, v101, p11. "Adventist Professional folds". Record 20 November 1999, v104, p4
  32. ^ Authors in Spectrum. Accessed 2008-04-15
  33. ^ Seeking a Sanctuary: Seventh-day Adventism and the American Dream, p323
  34. ^ a b Adventist Currents entry in the Andrews University library catalog
  35. ^ "The Israel Dammon Trial" blog post by Adventist lecturer Jeff Crocombe
  36. ^ Adventist currents: the newsletter entry in the Andrews University library catalog
  37. ^ Library catalog entry at Andrews University
  38. ^ Tarling, Lowell R. (1981). The Edges of Seventh-day Adventism: A Study of Separatist Groups Emerging from the Seventh-day Adventist Church (1844–1980). Barragga Bay, Bermagui South, NSW: Galilee Publications. p. 230. ISBN 0 9593457 0 1. 
  39. ^ Leaving the Adventist Ministry: A Study of the Process of Exiting by Peter H. Ballis, p3
  40. ^ Ostling, Richard N.; Jim Castelli, Dick Thompson (1982-08-02). "The Church of Liberal Borrowings". Time (Time Inc.). ISSN 0040-781X.,8816,925600,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  41. ^ On the latter, see also "Meeting the Team: Johnny Ramirez: An Interview with the Editor of Cafe Hispano" by Rachel Davies. Spectrum website, c. October 1, 2009
  42. ^
  43. ^ "Can We Adventists Learn from Others?" by Loren Seibold. Spectrum blog, c. 23 October 2009
  44. ^
  45. ^ "Families Retreat to Reflect on New Year". Adventist Today 5:1. See also "Fourth Spiritual Renaissance Retreat a success" Pacific Union Recorder June 1, 1998, p29
  46. ^ "The Spiritual Renaissance Retreat" by David Pendleton. Adventist Today May-Jun 2004, p9
  47. ^ Adventist Today Mar/Apr 2006: Letters to the editor (p5–7), and "Dr. Desmond Ford and the Twelfth Spiritual Renaissance Retreat" by John and Joan Hughson, p12–14, "Reflections by Adventist Today: political power versus the gospel" p13. See also [1] and [2](not yet available for non-subscribers)
  48. ^ Tony Campolo, foreword to Adventism for a New Generation by Steve Daily
  49. ^ Pinnock, Clark H. "Rice's Reign of God: An SDA Theology for the Masses?" (review of Richard Rice, The reign of God: an introduction to Christian theology from a Seventh-day Adventist perspective) in Spectrum 18:3 (1988), p. 56–58
  50. ^ Thompson, Alden (September 1993). "The Great Controversy is Dated but True". Adventist Today (Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation) 1 (3): 14–15, 19. ISSN 1079-5499.  Whole magazine issue (6Mb). RTF version of article only from Thompson's website. Thompson claims mainstream Adventism has this perspective, on p15
  51. ^ Blogs by Clifford Goldstein on the Adventist Today website. His first blog was "The Great Controversy From an Unlikely Source", 11 May 2008; and his last, "Objective Truth" on 15 March 2009
  52. ^ 1SM 122.3
  53. ^ "More To Fear From Within" by Clifford Goldstein. Adventist Today blog, 1 November 2008
  54. ^ Koranteng-Pipim, Samuel (1996). Receiving the Word: How New Approaches to the Bible Impact Our Biblical Faith and Lifestyle. Berrien Springs, MI: Berean Books. pp. 198–200. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/1-890014-00-1, OCLC 36080195|1-890014-00-1, OCLC 36080195]].  See particularly the section "Liberals are not bad people" on pages 198-200
  55. ^
  56. ^ Adventist Review 174, 3 April 1997, p16–19
  57. ^ "Giving up the family altar" by Ramone Romero. Proclamation! May/June 2007, p18
  58. ^ Diller, Lisa Clark (Jan/February 2008). "Bull’s and Lockhart’s Challenge to Adventist Progressives" ([dead link]Scholar search). Adventist Today (Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation) 16 (1): 9. ISSN 1079-5499. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-13.  See possibly Julius Nam, "All That Jazz about Theology: What Is the Tie That Binds Adventism?". Blog entry, 22 December 2006
  59. ^
  60. ^ Andy Nash, "Meet @ the Text: The Case for a Strong Adventist Center". Adventist Review 187 (April 15, 2010), p18–21. Article featured on magazine cover
  61. ^ Philip W. Dunham with Maylan Schurch, Blinded by the Light: The Anatomy of Apostasy. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 2001, p155–156
  62. ^ a b c d e f "Unraveling a Witch Hunt: La Sierra Under Siege" by the Spectrum editors, in the Spectrum blog, 29 May 2009
  63. ^ Michael W. Campbell, "The 1919 Bible Conference and Its Significance for Seventh-day Adventist History and Theology". PhD dissertation, Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary, Andrews University, 2008, p190. As quoted elsewhere.
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The 'Sanctuary Doctrine' – Asset or Liability?" by Raymond Cottrell, presented publicly in 2001 and 2002
  65. ^ Cottrell, Raymond (August 1985). "The Untold Story of the Bible Commentary" (PDF). Spectrum (Roseville, California: Adventist Forums) 16 (3): 35–51. ISSN 0890-0264. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  66. ^ Cottrell's main paper is "Architects of Crisis: A Decade of Obscurantism", 40 pages
  67. ^ Fred Veltman, The Life of Christ Research Project, introduction
  68. ^ See Spectrum special issue, "A Call for an Open Church" 14:4 (1984). Earlier examples include "Need for Organizational Change in the Adventist Church" and "The Case for an Independent North American Division"
  69. ^ Section "13. A Permanent Remedy for Doctrinal Obscurantism" of "...Asset or Liability" by Cottrell
  70. ^ "Colleges in Trouble" by Kenneth H. Wood. Adventist Review 157 (February 21, 1980), p3
  71. ^ See the section "Adventist Colleges Under Siege" of Spectrum issue 13:2 (December 1982); one article reprint on the Spectrum blog with an introduction by Bonnie Dwyer, 2 June 2009
  72. ^ Gladson describes conflict with administrators over the sanctuary in A Theologian's Journey from Seventh-day Adventism to Mainstream Christianity, 2001; one webpage. "Difficult Time and Enormous Loss: The Case of Jerry Gladson" by Gary Patterson; Adventist Today 3:6 (November 1995); also "An Adventist in Exile" by Gladson, from the same issue. "Convert to Scholar: An Odyssey in Humility" by Gladson, Spectrum 21:5 (December 1991), p43–51. See also Articles by Gladson and about Gladson as cataloged in the Seventh-day Adventist Periodical Index (SDAPI)
  73. ^ Man on the Move by Bill Knott
  74. ^ Besieged President Resigns by Mark A. Kellner. Christianity Today
  75. ^ Douglas Morgan, "Targeting Higher Education" Spectrum 29:4 (2001): 69–73. GC (General Conference) Sets Standards for Ministerial and Theologic Education See a response "Toward Spiritual Assessment in Seventh-day Adventist Colleges and Universities" by Duane C. McBride, which appeared in the April/May 1998 issue of Adventist Education.
  76. ^ Adventist Society of Religious Scholars: Adventist ?Core? Discussed **check site for text rendering at a later date** by John McLarty. Adventist Today. November 15, 2001
  77. ^ Seeking a Sanctuary, 332
  78. ^ Adventist Today 6:1 (January–February 1998) issue. Includes "WWC Religion Faculty Exonerated" by Amy Fisher. See also "Walla Walla Religion Faculty Under Fire" by Rosemary Bradley Watts. Spectrum 26:3 (September 1997)
  79. ^ David Olson, "More than 5,600 people sign petition in favor of creationism". The Press-Enterprise November 6, 2009
  80. ^ The website is critical. Sean Pitman, whose website is, is one critic: see also "Fundamentalist Creationist Gets Lukewarm Reception at La Sierra University" by Ervin Taylor, Adventist Today.
  81. ^ A sequel to the Witch Hunt blog is "Perhaps It Really Is About Adventist Higher Ed" by Alexander Carpenter. Spectrum blog, 4 June 2009
  82. ^ "Educate Truth" articles by Jared Wright, part one and part two. Later "Educate Truth and Consequences", 11 September 2009 by Wright
  83. ^ "Paulsen speaks on issue of origins". Adventist News Network, June 19, 2009. "An Appeal" by Jan Paulsen, Adventist News Network
  84. ^ "La Sierra University Board of Trustees Affirms University’s Support for Church’s Creation Doctrine". La Sierra University website, accessed May 2010
  85. ^ Mark A. Kellner, "Evolution Controversy Stirs La Sierra Campus". Adventist Review (March 25, 2010)
  86. ^ "Readers respond to the Evolution Controversy at La Sierra University". Adventist Review website
  87. ^ Lawrence T. Geraty, "There Is More to the La Sierra Story". Spectrum Blog 28 May 2010. Quote continues, "I wish its critics would also circulate the fact that enrollment (including in biology) is at an all time high. It continues to send out student missionaries and baptize students (the latest group this last weekend), defend the church and stand for truth around the world, including in many professional settings where the Michigan Conference would not be recognized nor have a voice, etc."
  88. ^ Ricardo Graham, Pacific Union Recorder July 2010

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