List of socialist countries

List of socialist countries

thumb|right|350px|This is a combined map of all countries who declared themselves to be socialist states under any definition, color-coded for the number of years that the country in question claimed to be socialist:Click on image to magnify. This is a list of countries, past and present, that declared themselves socialist either in their names or their constitutions. No other criteria are used; thus, some or all of these countries may not fit any specific definition of socialism. Their only common feature is using the label "socialist" for themselves, under any interpretation. There are few, if any, definitions of socialism that could fit all the countries on this list. However, most definitions of socialism fit at least "some" of these countries at some points in their histories.

There are many countries that have been ruled by socialist political parties for extended periods of time without ever adopting socialism as an official ideology in their names or constitutions. Such countries are not listed here. However, see the article on the Socialist International for an up-to-date list of countries that are currently ruled by member parties of the SI (the largest present day organization of socialist political parties).

Conversely, there are some countries that maintain constitutional references to socialism without being currently ruled by a socialist political party. Those countries are included on this list.


These countries are generally known as "Communist states" in the West, because their ruling parties typically use the name "Communist Party of [country] ." However, the countries themselves are referred to as "socialist republics", not "communist", in their own constitutions. They are defined by a form of government in which the state operates under a one-party system and declares allegiance to the ideology of Marxism-Leninism. In accordance with Marxism-Leninism, the constitutions of these countries claim that all power belongs to the working class, that a democratic dictatorship of the proletariat has been implemented within their borders, and that they are building socialism, with the goal of achieving communism one day. "It should be noted that even though North Korea claims to follow another ideology, the roots of its own brand called Juche does still have elements of it."


* - People's Republic of China ("Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó") (October 1, 1949 -)
* - Republic of Cuba ("República de Cuba") (January 1, 1959 -)
* - Democratic People's Republic of Korea ("Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk") (September 9, 1948 -)
* - Lao People's Democratic Republic ("Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao") (December 2 1975 -)
* - Socialist Republic of Vietnam ("Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam") (July 2, 1976 -)


* Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (April 27, 1978 - April 18, 1992)
* People's Socialist Republic of Albania ("Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë") (January 1, 1946 - April 30, 1991)
* People's Republic of Angola ("República Popular de Angola") (November 11, 1975 - August 27, 1992)
* People's Republic of Benin ("République Populaire du Bénin") (November 30, 1975 - March 1, 1990)
* People's Republic of Bulgaria ("Narodna Republika Balgariya") (September 15, 1946 - December 7, 1990)
* People's Republic of the Congo ("République Populaire du Congo") (January 3, 1970 - March 15, 1992)
* Republic of Czechoslovakia ("Československá republika") (May 9, 1948 - July 11, 1960)
* Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ("Československá socialistická republika") (July 11, 1960 - March 29, 1990)
* People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (September 10, 1987 - May 27, 1991)
* )
* German Democratic Republic ("Deutsche Demokratische Republik") (October 7, 1949 - October 3, 1990)
* Political Committee of National Liberation (Greece) (December 24, 1947 - August 28, 1949)
* People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada (March 13, 1979 - October 25, 1983)
*flagicon|HUN People's Republic of Hungary ("Magyar Népköztársaság") (August 20, 1949 - October 23, 1989)
* Hungarian Soviet Republic ("Magyar Tanácsköztársaság") (March 21 - August 6, 1919)
* Democratic Kampuchea (April 17, 1975 - January 7, 1979)
* People's Republic of Kampuchea (January 10, 1979 - September 24, 1993)
* Mongolian People's Republic (November 24, 1924 - February 12, 1992)
* People's Republic of Mozambique ("República Popular de Moçambique") (June 25, 1975 - December 1, 1990)
* People's Republic of Poland ("Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa") (June 28, 1945 - July 19, 1989)
* )
* Socialist Republic of Romania ("Republica Socialistă România") (August 21, 1965 - December 22, 1989)
* Somali Democratic Republic ("Jamhuuriyadda Dimoqraadiga Soomaaliya") (October 20, 1970 - January 26, 1991)
* Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ("Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik") (December 30, 1922 - December 26, 1991)
* Tuvinian People's Republic ("Tuva Arat Respublik") (August 14, 1921 - October 11, 1944)
* Democratic Republic of Vietnam ("Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa") (September 2, 1945 - July 2, 1976)
* People's Democratic Republic of Yemen ("Jumhūrīyah al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāţīyah ash-Sha'bīyah")(November 30, 1967 - May 22, 1990)
* Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ("Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija", "Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија","Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija) (November 29, 1943 - April 27, 1992)


These are countries whose constitutions make references to socialism, but do not subscribe to Marxist-Leninist ideology. As such, they represent a wide variety of different interpretations of the term "socialism".


* People's Republic of Bangladesh ("Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh") (retains constitutional references to socialism)
* Arab Republic of Egypt ("Gumhūriyyet Maṣr el-ʿArabiyyah") (retains constitutional references to socialism)
* Cooperative Republic of Guyana (retains constitutional references to socialism)
* Republic of India (retains constitutional references to socialism)
* Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
* Portuguese Republic ("República Portuguesa") (retains constitutional references to socialism)
* Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (retains constitutional references to socialism)
* Syrian Arab Republic (de facto single-party state ruled by the Ba'ath Party, retains constitutional references to socialism)
* United Republic of Tanzania (retains constitutional references to socialism)
* Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ("República Bolivariana de Venezuela") (informal)


* People's Democratic Republic of Algeria ("Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Jazā’irīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha’bīyah")
* Republic of Bolivia ("República de Bolivia")
* Burkina Faso
* Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
* Republic of Cape Verde ("República de Cabo Verde")
* Republic of Ghana
* Republic of Guinea ("République de Guinée")
* Republic of Guinea-Bissau ("República da Guiné-Bissau")
* Republic of Indonesia ("Republik Indonesia")
* Republic of Iraq ("Al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʿĪrāqiyah")
* Democratic Republic of Madagascar ("Repoblika Demokratika Malagasy")
* Republic of Mali ("République du Mali")
* Republic of Nicaragua ("República de Nicaragua")
* Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe ("República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe")
* Republic of Senegal ("République du Sénégal")
* Republic of Seychelles ("Repiblik Sesel")
* Democratic Republic of Sudan ("Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah")
* Republic of Suriname ("Republiek Suriname")
* Tunisian Republic ("Al-Jumhūriyyah at-Tūnisiyyah")
* Republic of Uganda

Former states

* Socialist Republic of Chile ("República Socialista de Chile")
* United Arab Republic ("Al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah") now Syrian Arab Republic and Egyptian Arab Republic
* People's Republic of Zanzibar ("Jamhuri ya Watu wa Zanzibar") now part of Tanzania.


These are short-lived political entities that emerged during wars or revolutions (mostly in the aftermath of World War I) and declared themselves to be "socialist" under some interpretation of the term, but did not survive long enough to create a stable government or achieve international recognition.

* Alsace Soviet Republic (November 9 - November 22, 1918)
* Azerbaijan People's Government (November 1945 - December 1946)
* Bavarian Soviet Republic ("Bayerische Räterepublik") (April 6 - May 3, 1919)
* Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic "(May - September 1919)"
* Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (October 8, 1920 - February 17, 1925)
* Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic (February 12 - May 1918)
* Asturian Socialist Republic (de facto) (October 5-18 1934)
* Estonian Workers' Commune ("Eesti Töörahva Kommuun") (November 29, 1918 - June 5, 1919)
* Far Eastern Republic ("Dalnevostochnaya Respublika") (April 6, 1920 - November 15, 1922)
* Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (January 28 - April 29, 1918)
* Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (July 8 - September 21, 1920)
* German Socialist Republic ("Räterepublik") "(November 9, 1918 - ?)"
* Hunan Soviet "(1927)"
* Chinese Soviet Republic ("Zhōnghuá Sūwéi'āi Gònghéguó") (November 7, 1931 - October 1934)
* Khorazmian People's Soviet Republic (April 26, 1920 - October 20, 1923)
* Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic ("Lietuvos-Baltarusijos Tarybinė Socialistinė Respublika") (February 27 - August 25, 1919)
* Republic of Mahabad ("Komarî Mehabad") (January 22 - December 15, 1946)
* Mughan Soviet Republic (March - June 1919)
* Soviet Republic of Naissaar (December 1917 - February 26, 1918)
* Paris Commune ("La Commune de Paris") (March 18 - May 28, 1871) (first socialist republic in history)
* Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (June 9, 1920 - September 1921)
* Republic of South Vietnam ("Cộng Hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam") (April 30, 1975 - June 2, 1976)
* Slovak Soviet Republic ("Slovenská Republika Rád") (June 16 - July 7, 1919)
* Turkestan Socialist Federative Republic (April 30, 1918 - October 27, 1924)
* Democratic Republic of Yemen (May 21 - July 7, 1994)

See also

* Communist state
* List of current communist states

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