- Jug band
A jug band is a band employing a jug player and a mix of traditional and home-made instruments. These home-made instruments are ordinary objects adapted to or modified for making of sound, like the
washtub bass, washboard, spoons, stovepipe and comb & tissue paper ( kazoo). The term jug band is loosely used in referring to ensembles that also incorporate home-made instruments but that are more accurately called " skiffle" bands, "spasm" bands or "juke" (or "jook") bands (see juke joint) because they are missing the required jug player.Fact|date=June 2008
In the early days of jug band music, guitar and mandolins were sometimes made from the necks of discarded guitars fastened to large gourds. The gourds were flattened on one side, with a sound-hole cut into the flat side, before drying. Banjos were sometimes made from a discarded guitar neck and a metal pie plate.
eponymous jug is made by taking a jug (usually made of glass or stoneware) and buzzing the lips into its mouth from about an inch away. As with brass instruments, changes in pitch are controlled by altering lip tension, and an accomplished jug player could have a two octave range. The stovepipe (usually a section of tin pipe, 3" or 4" in diameter) is played in much the same manner, with the pipe rather than the jug being the resonating chamber. There is some similarity to the didgeridoo, but there is no contact between the stovepipe and the player's lips. Some jug and stovepipe players utilize throat vocalization along with lip buzzing, as with the didgeridoo.
The swooping sounds of the jug fill a musical role halfway between the
tromboneand sousaphoneor tubain Dixielandbands, playing mid- and lower-range harmonies in rhythm.
Early jug bands were typically made up of
African American vaudevilleand medicine showmusicians. Beginning in the urban south, they played a mixture of Memphis blues(even before it was formally called the blues), ragtime, and jazz music. The history of jug bands is related to the development of the blues. The informal and energetic music of the jug bands also contributed to the development of rock and roll.
The well known
Memphisjug bands were small street groups, generally on Beale Street, and had their own blues style, using guitar, harmonica, banjoand a jug to accompany their blues and dance songs. [cite book| last = Charters| first = Samuel| title = The Blues Makers| publisher = Da Capo Press| date = 1977| location = New York| pages = p. 11, Part II| isbn = 0-306-80438-7 ]
Original jug bands
The first jug bands to record were the Louisville and Birmingham jug bands. These bands played popular dance band jazz, using the jug as a novelty element. Vaudeville-blues singer
Sara Martinand America's blue yodeler Jimmie Rodgers both employed these groups on their recordings.
The Memphis area jug bands were more firmly rooted in country blues and earlier African-American traditions.
Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers and Will Shade's Memphis Jug Bandrecorded the great songs that became the basis for the later jug band revival: "Stealin'", "Jug Band Music", "Whoa, Mule", "Minglewood Blues", " Walk Right In" and many others.
Other Memphis area bands were Jack Kelly and His South Memphis Jug Band, Jed Davenport's Beale Street Jug Band, and Noah Lewis's Jug Band.
Ma Rainey's tub-jug band featured the first recordings of slide guitar performer Tampa Red, who later formed his own Hokum Jug Band. Big Bill Broonzyand Memphis Minniecut a few sides each backed up by their own jug bands; Memphis Minnie also sang and played with the Memphis Jug Band.
The 1930s depression and the devastating effect of radio on record sales reduced the output of jug band music to a trickle. The last sides by Cannon and the Memphis Jug Band were from 1930 and 1934 respectively. Cannon and Will Shade were recorded again in 1956 by
Sam Charterson a field trip for Folkways Records. The sound of the washboard and tub bass, however, lasted well into the 1940s as an integral part of the "Bluebird beat" in Chicago. Bukka White's "Fixin' to Die", recorded in Chicago in 1940, is driven by a syncopated washboard backup.
Jug band revival
One of the first recordings of the 'folk era' jug band revival was by The Orange Blossom Jug Five, made in 1958 for the poorly-distributed Lyrichord label, "Skiffle in Stereo". It was also the first recording by New York folksinger
Dave Van Ronk, and featured Sam Charters, author of 'The Country Blues',and his wife Ann as well as Len Kunstadt, co-owner of the Spivey Recordslabel. Another early recording group was Jolly Joe's Jug Band, led by record collector Joe Bussard, and released on his own Fonotone label-as 78 rpm records. Eventually these were collected on LP by the Piedmont label.
Jim KweskinJug Band of Boston, who recorded for the Vanguard label, featured the washtub bass and jug player Fritz Richmond, who later played jug on Warren Zevon's "I'll Sleep When I'm Dead". The New York based Even Dozen Jug Bandwas the Elektra label's answer to the Kweskin band and featured (among others) [http://www.cookephoto.com/kweskin6.html Maria D'Amato (Muldaur)] , Joshua Rifkin, David Grisman, Stefan Grossman, and John Sebastian. D'Amato then moved to the Jim Kweskin Jug Band, and married guitarist Geoff Muldaur. The Austin, Texas band The 13th Floor Elevatorsformed as an electric jug band, featuring Tommy Hallas electric jug player. A similar revival began in the UKin the 1960s possibly as an offshoot of the USA revival. A number of jug bands appeared there in the late 60s in addition to the skifflebands including the Anglo-American Ffilharmonious Jug Band.
The musicians playing in jug music revival groups went on to form other bands. John Sebastian founded the pop music group
The Lovin' Spoonful. Country Joe and the Fishcame from The Instant Action Jug Band. Mungo Jerry, who had evolved from an earlier blues group Good Earth, were in effect a jug band on their first live performances and recordings, thanks to their use of jug (played by the group's banjo player Paul King, who left in 1972), and washboard, contributed by regular 'extra member' Joe Rush. Another group with jug band roots was the Grateful Dead: key personnel were together in [http://www.dirtylinen.com/linen/83/mccree.html Mother Mcree's Uptown Jug Champions] before forming the Warlocks, which evolved into the Dead. A self-titled CD of Mother McCree's jug band music was released in 1999.
Pop-rock tributes to jug band music include "Willie and the Poor Boys" by
Creedence Clearwater Revivaland "Jug Band Music" by The Lovin' Spoonful. The 'Spoonful also mined the old songs: for instance, "Younger Girl" uses the melody of Gus Cannon's "Prison Wall Blues". Cannon's "Walk Right In" was a hit for the Rooftop Singersin the 1960s.
The success of "Walk Right In" brought Cannon himself back into the
Stax Recordsstudios in Memphis for his last recording, in 1963 at age 79. The album, called "Walk Right In", features Cannon on banjo and old friends Will Shade on jug and Milton Roby on washboard. The album consists of a run through of a baker's dozenof his old hits with Cannon interjecting comments and telling stories about the songs.
The children's Christmas special, "
Emmet Otter's Jug-Band Christmas", based on a book written by Lillian Hoban and Russell Hoban, features a jug band composed of woodland-creature Muppetsand a soundtrack composed by Paul Williams. The show first aired in 1977.
Jug bands have continued to exist and evolve to the present day.
John Sebastianstill leads the J-Band, which included not only musicians from the modern folk revivalsuch as the late Fritz Richmondfrom the Kweskin band, but also the late Yank Rachell, mandolinplayer and jug band leader from the original era. Some bands remain faithful to the original roots, while others continually expand the jug band repertoire to include other folk music, popular music, jazz and classical music forms, such as The Juggernaut Jug Band of Louisville Kentucky (formed in the late 1960s and possibly the only full-time jug band in existence at this time), the Cincinnati Dancing Pigs (who also have been together for 40 years), hhe Carolina Chocolate Drops (an African American jug band that also plays old-time African American fiddle tunes), The Hobo Gobbelins, The Kitchen Syncopators and the Inkwell Rhythm Makers. The Connecticut-based [http://jugadelics.com Jugadelics] continue the traditions of the genre as they employ both homemade and traditional instruments while infusing their own original material in the jug band style. The Tennessee-based Jake Leg Stompers continue the traditional Memphis style. The South Austin Jug Band is a young Austin Texas group that plays newer variations on traditional music but does not include a jug player and is not related to the earlier Austin Jug Band which featured vocalists Danny Barton and Galen Barber.
There has been an [http://www.jugbandbattle.net/ Annual Battle of the Jug Bands] in Minneapolis, Minnesota held since 1980. Over 20 jugbands compete for the "Coveted Holliwood Waffle Iron" trophy, including the Jook Savages, a jugband that predates Kweskin's band and is still together. The competition is held the Sunday after the Super Bowl.
The annual [http://www.jugfest.org San Francisco Jug Band Festival] is held in
San Francisco, Californiaeach August and there is a [http://www.jugfest.org JugFest] gathering of jug bands each September in Sutter Creek, California. Both of these free, outdoor, festivals feature a wide variety of jug bands in an all-day format that gives each band plenty of time to stretch out and play a full set. An annual [http://www.jugbandjubilee.org/ Jug Band Jubilee] was launched in Louisville, Kentucky, the probable birthplace of jug band music, in October 2006.
A documentary by Todd Kwait about the history and influence of jug band music, [http://www.chasingusghost.com Chasin' Gus' Ghost] , first screened at the 2007 [http://www.jugfest.org San Francisco Jug Band Festival] . The film features numerous well-known musicians in interviews and performances, including
John Sebastian, Jim Kweskin, Geoff Muldaur, David Grisman, Fritz Richmond, Maria Muldaur, and Bob Weirof the Grateful Dead, as well as Taj Mahal as the voice of Gus Cannon. Many of these musicians performed at a sold-out concert at the San Francisco Jug Band Festival. Chasin' Gus' Chost will have its film festival premiere in October 2007 at the [http://www.woodstockfilmfestival.com Woodstock Film Festival] .
Post-modern jug bands
The 1990s and first decade of the 2000s saw another generation of jug band revival, which might be termed post-modern jug band movement. These bands range from traditionalists (covering 1920s and 1930s jazz and blues) to modernists and post-modernists (creating new music from jug band instrumentation and aesthetics). A scene of this nature has developed in New York City, centering on the Lower East Side and Brooklyn.
The grandpappies of the so-called re-revival was Washboard Jungle, which started out playing a folk repertoire, but eventually included electronic samplers, household appliances, and inane stage antics. Driven by a punk-influenced washboard, they created an original sound in the spirit of jug, while referring to a broad swath of modern pop culture.
Current jug bands include the 12th Street Stompers, Bill Carney's Jug Addicts and The No Good Redwood Ramblers, who enjoy devoted followings with a more traditional approach.
The Vienna Vegetable Orchestra, which makes musical instruments from vegetables, is similar to a jug band. [ [Vienna Vegetable Orchestra http://www.gemueseorchester.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogsection&id=7&Itemid=40] ]
*"American Roots Music", Robert Santelli, 2002, ISBN 978-0810982239.
* [http://www.jugband.org/ Jugband.org]
* [http://www.jugbandjubilee.org/ Jug Band Jubilee]
* [http://www.jugbandbattle.net/ The Annual Battle of the Jug Bands]
* [http://www.jugfest.org/ JugFest]
* [http://www.chasingusghost.com/ Chasin' Gus' Ghost jug band documentary]
* [http://leasebreakers.com/ ...and the Leasebreakers (non-stop jug band)]
* [http://humpnightthumpers.com/ The Hump Night Thumpers]
* [http://fatchancejugband.com/home.html That Fat Chance Jugband]
* [http://www.mrsknox.co.uk/ Mrs Knox and The Good Time Boys]
* [http://www.washboardslim.com/ The Blue Lights]
* [http://jugadelics.com/ The Jugadelics]
* [http://www.juggernautjugband.com/ The Juggernaut Jug Band]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,870616-1,00.html "But Only Use a 10-Cent Comb"] , "Time",
December 27, 1963
* [http://www.mndaily.com/articles/2005/02/10/63169 "Jug Band Hootenanny: Local folkies gather to honor down-home, old-timey music"] , "
Minnesota Daily", February 10, 2005
* [http://www.juggingstones.hu/ Jugging Stones]
* [http://www.myspace.com/thenogoodredwoodramblers The No Good Redwood Ramblers]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Jug Band — Un jug band (littéralement : groupe pichet , le terme jug désignant un pichet en anglais) est un groupe de musique composé de musiciens qui utilisent à la fois des instruments traditionnels et des instruments bricolés. On y trouvait donc… … Wikipédia en Français
jug band — ☆ jug band n. [from the jug used to produce bass notes by blowing across the opening] a kind of small string band or jazz band using simple instruments, as guitars, harmonicas, and kazoos, and makeshift ones, as washtubs or empty jugs … English World dictionary
jug band — musical ensemble in which the bass line is carried or augmented by a player blowing on the open lip of a JUG (Cf. jug) (n.), 1886, American English … Etymology dictionary
jug band — jug′ band n. mad a small band that plays chiefly blues or folk music on very simple instruments, as washboards, harmonicas, kazoos, and empty jugs • Etymology: 1930–35, amer … From formal English to slang
Jug band — Cannon s Jug Stompers … Wikipédia en Français
Jug-Band — Cannon s Jug Stompers Eine Jug Band ist eine Musikgruppe mit einem Jug Spieler. Der Jug ist ein Tonkrug (ersatzweise ein anderes Gefäß), der angeblasen wird und auf diese Weise Bass artige Töne erzeugt. Die übrigen Instrumente einer Jug Band sind … Deutsch Wikipedia
jug band — noun a musical group that uses jugs and washboards and kazoos and other improvised instruments • Hypernyms: ↑ensemble * * * noun : a band using usually crude or improvised instruments (as jugs, washboards, and kazoos) to play blues, jazz, and… … Useful english dictionary
jug band — noun Especially in the U. S., a group of rustic musicians, specializing in bluegrass or folk music, whose instruments include empty jugs, bottles, and similar containers of various sizes which produce musical sounds when the player blows across… … Wiktionary
jug band — /ˈdʒʌg bænd/ (say jug band) noun a band playing music which is a light offshoot of jazz characterised by out of time singing and home made instruments such as washing boards, jugs and other kitchenware … Australian English dictionary
jug band — noun Date: circa 1933 a band that uses primitive or improvised instruments (as jugs, washboards, and kazoos) to play blues, jazz, and folk music … New Collegiate Dictionary