PGM-19 Jupiter

PGM-19 Jupiter

The PGM-19 Jupiter was a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force, removed from service by April 1963. It was a liquid-fueled (LOX and RP-1) rocket, with one engine producing 667 kN of thrust. Jupiter was America's second MRBM design, the first being Thor. Jupiter later served as a satellite launch vehicle.

In September 1955, Dr. Wernher von Braun, briefing the Secretary of Defense on long range missiles pointed out that a 1,500 mi (2,400 km) missile was a logical extension of the Redstone.

In December 1955, the U.S. Secretaries of the Army and Navy announced a dual Army and Navy program to create a land and sea based MRBM. Because of naval basing, the Jupiter MRBM was designed as a short squat missile to ease handling aboard ships. The Navy withdrew from the project in November 1956 in favor of the solid fuel Polaris missile. Despite the withdrawal of the Navy from the project, the Jupiter MRBM retained its original dimensions. As a result, the Jupiter was too wide to be carried aboard contemporary cargo aircraft.

Later in November 1956, the Department of Defense assigned all land based long range missiles to the U. S. Air Force. The U. S. Army retained battlefield missiles with a range of 200 miles (320 km) or less. The Jupiter MRBM program was transferred to the U. S. Air Force. The Air Force already had its own MRBM, the Thor. The Air Force always looked on the Jupiter MRBM as "not invented here".

There is some name confusion with another U.S. Army rocket called the Jupiter-C.The Jupiter-C is a modified Redstone missile. Redstone missiles were modified by lengthening the fuel tanks and placing small solid fueled upper stages on them. These Jupiter-C rockets were used to perform reentry nose cone test flights and to launch the Americas' early Explorer 1 and Explorer 3 satellites. Jupiter-C rockets were also called Juno or Juno I rockets. See diagram at lower right showing a Redstone, Jupiter-C, Mercury-Redstone and Jupiter MRBM missile.

The Saturn I and Saturn IB rockets were manufactured by using a single Jupiter MRBM rocket propellant tank, in combination with eight Redstone rocket propellant tanks clustered around it, to form a powerful first stage launch vehicle.

The Jupiter MRBM was also modified by adding upper stages, in the form of clustered Sergeant rockets, to create a satellite/space probe launch vehicle. This modified Jupiter MRBM was called the Juno-II.

Biological flights

Jupiter MRBM missiles were used in a series of suborbital biological test fights. On December 13, 1958, Jupiter MRBM AM-13 was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida with a U.S. Navy trained South American squirrel monkey named "Gordo" onboard. The nose cone recovery parachute failed to operate and "Gordo" did not survive the flight. Telemetry data sent back during the flight showed that the monkey survived the 10 "g" (100 m/s²) of launch, 8 minutes of weightlessness and 40 "g" (390 m/s²) of reentry at 10,000 mph (4.5 km/s). The nose cone sank 1,302 nautical miles (2,411 km) downrange from Cape Canaveral and was not recovered.

Another biological flight was launched on May 28, 1959. Aboard Jupiter MRBM AM-18, were a 7 pound (3.2 kg) American-born rhesus monkey, "Able" and an 11 ounce (310 g) South American squirrel monkey, "Baker". The monkeys rode in the nose cone of the missile to an altitude of 59 miles (96 km) and a distance of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) down the Atlantic Missile Range from Cape Canaveral, Florida. They withstood accelerations 38 times the normal pull of gravity and were weightless for about 9 minutes.Fact|date=July 2007 A top speed of 10,000 mph (4.5 km/s) was reached during their 16 minute flight.Fact|date=July 2007 After splashdown the Jupiter nosecone carrying Able and Baker was recovered by the seagoing tug, USS "Kiowa" (ATF-72).

The monkeys survived the flight in good condition. "Able" died four days after the flight from a reaction to anesthesia while undergoing surgery to remove an infected medical electrode. "Baker" lived for many years after the flight, finally succumbing to kidney failure on November 29, 1984 at the United States Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Gordo, Able and Baker were just three of many monkeys sent into space.

Military deployment

In April, 1958, the U.S. Department of Defense notified the U.S. Air Force it had tentatively planned to deploy the first three Jupiter squadrons (45 missiles) in France. Negotiations between France and the U.S. fell through in June, 1958. Charles De Gaulle, the new French President, refused to accept the basing of any Jupiter MRBM missiles in France. This prompted United States to explore the possibility of deploying the missiles in Italy and Turkey. The U. S. Air Force was already implementing plans to base four squadrons (60 missiles) of PGM-17 Thor MRBMs in Britain around Nottingham.

In April 1959, The Secretary of the Air Force issued implementing instructions to U. S. Air Force to deploy two Jupiter MRBM squadrons to Italy. The two squadrons totaling 30 missiles were deployed at 10 sites in Italy from 1961 to 1963. They were operated by Italian Air Force crews, but U.S. Air Force personnel controlled arming of the nuclear warheads. These missiles were deployed around the Italian countryside and operated by the 36ª Aerobrigata Interdizione Strategica (36th Strategic Interdiction Air Squadron, Italian Air Force), stationed out of the Gioia Del Colle Air Base, Italy. In 1962, a Bulgarian MiG-17 reconnaissance airplane is reported to have crashed into an olive grove near one of the US Jupiter missile launch sites in Italy, after overflying the site.

October 1959, the location of the third and final Jupiter MRBM squadron was settled when the Government to Government agreement was signed with Turkey. United States and Turkey concluded an agreement to deploy one Jupiter squadron on NATO's southern flank.

One squadron totaling 15 missiles was deployed at 5 sites near İzmir, Turkey from 1961 to 1963. They were operated by U.S. Air Force personnel. The first flight of three Jupiter missiles were turned over to the Türk Hava Kuvvetleri (Turkish Air Force) in late October 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis. U.S. Air Force personnel controlled arming of the nuclear warheads. The actual deployment locations of the Jupiter MRBM missiles within Turkey are still secret more than 40 years later. According to some that took part in the Turkish missile deployment in 1961, one of the five sites was in the mountains near Manisa, and another site was in the mountains near Akhisar. The central deployment base was Cigli Air Force Base.

On four occasions between mid-October 1961 and August 1962, Jupiter MRBM mobile missiles carrying 1.4 megaton of TNT (5.9 PJ) nuclear warheads were struck by lightning at their bases in Italy. In each case, thermal batteries were activated, and on two occasions, tritium-deuterium "boost" gas was injected into the warhead pits, partially arming them. After the fourth lightning strike on a Jupiter MRBM, the U.S. Air Force placed protective lightning strike-diversion tower arrays at all of the Italian and Turkish Jupiter MRBM missiles sites.

By the time that the Turkish Jupiters had been installed, the missiles were already largely obsolete and increasingly vulnerable to Soviet attacks. President John F. Kennedy ordered the removal of all Jupiter MRBMs upon taking office in 1961Fact|date=July 2008. The Air Force, however, delayed removal and the President was infuriated to learn that they had not yet been removed more than a year later. All Jupiter MRBM's were removed from service by April 1963, by this point a maneuver useful as a backdoor trade with the Soviets, in exchange for their earlier removal of MRBMs from Cuba.

Jupiter MRBM specifications

*Length: 60 ft (18.3 m)
*Diameter: 8 ft 9 in (2.67 m)
*Total Fueled Weight: 108,804 lb (49,353 kg)
*Empty Weight: 13,715 lb (6,221 kg)
*Oxygen (LOX) Weight: 68,760 lb (31,189 kg)
*RP-1 (kerosene) Weight: 30,415 lb (13,796 kg)
*Thrust: 150,000 lbf (667 kN)
*Engine: Rocketdyne LR70-NA (Model S-3D)
*ISP: 247.5 s (2.43 kN·s/kg)
*Burning time: 2 min. 37 sec.
*Propellant consumption rate: 627.7 lb/s (284.7 kg/s)
*Range: 1,500 mi (2,410 km)
*Flight time: 16 min 56.9 sec
*Cutoff velocity: 8,984 mph (14,458 km/h) - Mach 13.04
*Reentry velocity: 10,645 mph (17,131 km/h) - Mach 15.45
*Acceleration: 13.69 "g" (134 m/s²)
*Peak deceleration: 44.0 "g" (431 m/s²)
*Peak altitude: 390 mi (628 km)
*CEP 4,925 ft (1,500 m)
*Warhead: 1.45 Mt Thermonuclear W-49 - 1,650 lb (750 kg)
*Fusing: Proximity and Impact
*Guidance: Inertial

Juno II launch vehicle specifications

The Juno II was a satellite launch vehicle derived from the Jupiter IRBM. It was used for 10 satellite launches. Six of those launches failed. Juno II was a 4-stage rocket. Launched Pioneer 3, Pioneer 4, Explorer 7, Explorer 8, Explorer 11.

*Juno II Total length: 24.0 m
*Orbit payload to 200 km: 41 kg
*Escape velocity payload: 6 kg
*First launch date: December 6, 1958
*Last launch date: May 24, 1961

Jupiter MRBM and Juno II launches

All test launches were from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

There were 46 test launches in all.

Former Operators

*
* United Kingdom
* Italy
* Turkey

ee also

aircontent
comparable aircraft header=Comparable missiles
similar aircraft=
* PGM-17 Thor
sequence=
* "M-" sequence: CGM-16/HGM-16 - PGM-17 - MGM-18 - PGM-19 - ADM-20 - MGM-21 - AGM-22
* "B-" sequence: SM-75 - TM-76 - GAM-77 - SM-78 - GAM-79 - SM-80 - RM-81
lists=
* List of military aircraft of the United States
* List of missiles
see also=

*Strategic Air Command

References

* [http://www.redstone.army.mil/history/systems/jupiter/chapter1.html Jupiter IRBM History] , U.S. Army - Redstone Arsenal
* [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/jupiter.htm Jupiter IRBM] , Encyclopedia Astronautica


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