Anglo-Indian


Anglo-Indian

Anglo-Indians are people who have mixed Indian and British ancestry and the term is sometimes used in the West. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Anglo-Indian Anglo-Indian] , Dictionary.com.]

In general sense, they refer to any tangible or intangible entity with both the British and Indian origin or heritage.

The term, however, was also used in common parlance in Britain during the colonial era to refer to those people (such as the hunter-naturalist Jim Corbett) who were of strictly British descent, but were born and raised in India, usually because their parents were serving in the colonial administration or armed forces; Stark, Herbert Alick. Hostages To India: OR The Life Story of the Anglo Indian Race. Third Edition. London: The Simon Wallenberg Press: Vol 2: Anglo Indian Heritage Books ] "Anglo-Indian" in this sense was synonymous with "domiciled British."

Finally, the term should not be confused with the similar-sounding "Indo-Anglian," an adjective applied to literature in English produced by Indian authors.Anthony, Frank. Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo Indian Community. Second Edition. London:The Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007 Pages 18- 19, 42, 45.] .

The Anglo-Indian community in its modern sense is a distinct yet minority community (0.00018%-0.00036% of the total population in India) originating in India, consisting of people of mixed British and Indian ancestry whose native language is English.Fact|date=July 2008 An Anglo-Indian's British ancestry was usually bequeathed paternally.

"Article 366(2)" of the Indian Constitution defines an Anglo-Indian as "a person whose father or any of whose other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent but who is domiciled within the territory of India and is or was born within such territory of parents habitually resident therein and not established there for temporary purposes only". [ [ http://www.commonlii.org/in/legis/const/2004/24.html "Constitution of India"] [ [http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/a035833a480e4514802565530037bf7e?OpenDocument "Treaty Bodies Database - Document - State Party Report"] United Nations Human Rights Website. April 29, 1996.]

This definition also embraces the descendents of the Luso Indians from the old Portuguese colonies of both the Coromandel and Malabar Coasts, who joined the East India Company as mercenaries and brought their families with them [See Stark, op. cit.] . Similarly the definition includes mestiços (mixed Portuguese and Indian) of Goa and people of Indo-French, and Indo-Dutch descent [Dover, Cedric. Cimmerii or Eurasians and Their Future: An Anglo Indian Heritage Book. London: Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007. Pages 62 - 63 ] .

Anglo-Indians formed a significantly small portion of the minority community in India before independence, but today more live outside India than within it. Their numbers in India have dwindled significantly as most emigrated to the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and, to a lesser extent, Canada and the United StatesFact|date=April 2008.

History

The first use of the term was to describe all British people living in India, regardless of whether they had mixed blood or not. This usage changed to describe Anglo-Indians as people who were of mixed blood descending from the British on the male side and women from the Indian side. Over generations Anglo-Indians intermarried with other Anglo-Indians to form a community that developed a culture of its own. Anglo-Indian cuisine, dress, speech and religion all served to further segregate Anglo-Indians from the native population. They established a school system focused on English language and culture and formed social clubs and associations to run functions like their regular dances at occasions like Christmas and Easter.

Over time Anglo-Indians were specifically recruited into the Customs and Excise, Post and Telegraphs, Forestry Department, The Railways and teaching professions - but they were employed in many other fields as well. A number of factors fostered a strong sense of community among Anglo-Indians. Their English language school system, their Anglocentric culture, and their Christian beliefs in particular helped bind them together. Maher, James, Reginald. (2007). These Are The Anglo Indians . London: Simon Wallenberg Press. (An Anglo Indian Heritage Book) ] .

Originally, under Regulation VIII of 1813, they were excluded from the British legal system and in Bengal became subject to the rule of Mohammedan law outside Calcutta - and yet found themselves without any caste or status amongst those who were to judge them. In 1821, a pamphlet entitled "Thoughts on how to better the condition of Indo-Britons" by a "Practical Reformer," was written to promote the removal of prejudices existing in the minds of young Eurasians against engaging in trades. This was followed up by another pamphlet, entitled "An Appeal on behalf of Indo-Britons." Prominent Eurasians in Calcutta formed the "East Indian Committee" with a view to send a petition to the British Parliament for the redress of their grievances. Mr. John William Ricketts, the first noble pioneer in the Eurasian cause, volunteered to proceed to England. His mission was successful, and on his return to India, by way of Madras, he received quite an ovation from his countrymen in that presidency; and was afterwards warmly welcomed in Calcutta, where a report of his mission was read at a public meeting held in the Calcutta Town Hall. In April 1834, in obedience to an Act of Parliament passed in August 1833, the Indian Government was forced to grant government jobs to Anglo-Indians..

Since the railway was first introduced to India, Anglo-Indians were involved with it.

During the independence movement, many Anglo-Indians identified (or were assumed to identify) with British rule, and, therefore, incurred the distrust and hostility of Indian nationalists.Fact|date=September 2007 Their position at independence was difficult. They felt a loyalty to a British "home" that most had never seen and where they would gain little social acceptance. ("Bhowani Junction" touches on the identity crisis faced by Anglo-Indian community during the independence struggle.) They felt insecure in an India that put a premium on participation in the independence movement as a prerequisite for important government positions.POV-statement|date=December 2007.

Most Anglo-Indians left the country in 1947, hoping to make a new life in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Australia or Canada. The exodus continued through the 1950s and 1960s and by the late 1990s most had left with many of the remaining Anglo-Indians still aspiring to leave. [Anthony, Frank. Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo Indian Community. Second Edition. London: The Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007 Pages 144- 146, 92.]

Like the Parsi community, the Anglo-Indians are essentially urban dwellers. Unlike the Parsis, the mass migrations saw more of the better educated and financially secure Anglo-Indians depart for other Commonwealth nations.

There has been a resurgence in celebrating Anglo-Indian culture in the 21st Century, in the form of International Anglo-Indian Reunions and in publishing books on Anglo-Indians. There have been seven reunions with the latest being held on August 2007 in Toronto. Among the books on Anglo-Indians recently published include "Anglo-Indians Vanishing remnants of a bygone era" (2002). "Haunting India" (2003) and "Voices on the Verandah" (2004) and "The Way We Were" an Anthology of Anglo-Indian culture published in 2006. [ [http://www.blairrw.org/ctr/waywewere_pub.htm The Way We Were: Anglo-Indian Chronicles.] ] . .

The present community

Constitutional guarantees of the rights of communities and religious and linguistic minorities permit Anglo-Indians to maintain their own schools and to use English as the medium of instruction. In order to encourage the integration of the community into the larger society, the government stipulates that a certain percentage of the student body come from other Indian communities.Fact|date=September 2007

There is no evident official discrimination against Anglo-Indians in terms of current government employment but it's widely perceived that their disinclination to master local languages does not help their employment chances in modern India.Fact|date=September 2007

Anglo-Indians distinguished themselves in the military. Air Vice-Marshal Maurice Barker was India's first Anglo-Indian Air Marshal. At least seven other Anglo-Indians subsequently reached that post, a notable achievement for a small community. Countless numbers of others have been decorated for military achievements. Air Marshal M.S.D. Wollen is often considered the man who won India's 1971 war fighting alongside Bangladesh. [ [http://www.sumgenius.com.au/anglo_indians_in_the_air_force.htm Anglo-Indians in the Indian Air Force.] ] Anglo-Indians made similarly significant contributions to the Indian Navy and Army. [Anthony, Frank. Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo Indian Community. Second Edition. London: The Simon Wallenberg Press.]

Another field Anglo-Indians dominated was education. The most respected matriculation qualification in India, the ICSE, was started and built by some of the community's best known educationists including Frank Anthony, who served as its president, and A.E.T. Barrow who served as its secretary for the better part of half a century. Most Anglo-Indians, even those without much formal education, find that gaining employment in schools is fairly easy because of their fluency in English.

Several charities have been set up abroad to help the less fortunate in the community in India. Foremost among these is CTR (Calcutta Tiljallah Relief - based in the USA), which has instituted a senior pension scheme, and, provides monthly pensions to over 300 seniors. CTR also provides education to over 200 needy children. [ [http://www.blairrw.org/ctr Calcutta Tiljallah Relief.] ]

Today, there are an estimated 200,000-400,000 Anglo-Indians living in India, most of whom are based in the cities of Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, and Mumbai. Anglo-Indians also live in Kochi, Goa, Pune, Secunderabad, Visakhapatnam, Daund, Lucknow, Agra, and in some towns of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.Also a significant number of this population resides in Orissa's Khorda town, which is a busy railway junction. Fact|date=September 2007

Most of the Anglo-Indians overseas are concentrated in Britain, Australia, Canada, USA, and New Zealand. Of the nearly million or so and their descendants who have emigrated from IndiaFact|date=September 2007 , some are settled in Asia including Pakistan and Myanmar, and also in European countries like Switzerland, Germany, and France. According to the Anglo-Indians who have settled in Australia, integration for the most part has not been difficult. They have learned to love the best in the Australian way of life and recognise Australia for the opportunities it has given them and their children. [The Anglo-Indian Australian Story: My Experience, Zelma Phillips 2004] The community in Myanmar frequently intermarried with the local Anglo-Burmese community but both communities suffered from adverse discrimination since Burma's military took over the government in the 1962, with most having now left the country to settle overseas.

Originally, Anglo-Indian's British ancestry was usually bequeathed paternally. However, in countries such as the United States, Canada, and England, there has been a large influx of Indian immigrants, beginning in the 1960s-70's. As a result of assimilation, mixed Anglican/Caucasian, and Indian backgrounds are becoming more prevalent with Indian ancestry descending from the paternal side. In the 2001 U.S. Census Bureau’s publication of the 56,497,000 married couples, it shows that Indian males married almost twice as much with Caucasian women (7.1%), as opposed to Indian women marrying with Caucasian men (3.7%) [ [http://multiracial.com/site/content/view/388/27/#census The Multiracial Activist - www.multiracial.com - The Reality of Interracial Marriages ] ] .

Political

The Anglo-Indian community is the only Indian community that has its own representatives nominated to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) in India's Parliament. This right was secured from Nehru by Frank Anthony, the first and long time president of the All India Anglo-Indian Association. The community is represented by two members. This is done because the community has no native state of its own. States like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Karnataka and Kerala also have a nominated member each in their respective State Legislatures.

Notable persons of Anglo-Indian descent

* Chris Besson - Actor.
* Neetu Sharma - Marine Support Office, Lloyds Register of Shipping, London.
* Sir Ben Kingsley - Hollywood Actor.
* Pete Best - Original Drummer For The Beatles.
* Admiral O. S. Dawson - Chief Of The Indian Navy (1982-1984).
* Melanie Sykes - Model & TV Presenter.
* Kendel Turner - International Cyclist (Cycling Career 1987-1993).
* Diana Hayden - Former Miss World.
* Vivien Leigh - Hollywood Legendary Actress.
* Bif Naked - Canadian Rocker.
* Tony Brent - Singer.
* George Orwell - Writer.
* Henry Gidney - Prominent Educationist (1873-1942).
* Francis Fanthome - Member Of Parliament (Head Of The CISCE Board).
* Betty Nuthall - Tennis Player (First Non-American To Win The 1930 U.S Nationals).
* Lyndam Gregory - Actor.
* Anna Leonowens (1834-1915), British governess to the Siamese court
* Louis T. Leonowens (1856-1919), Siamese cavalry officer and trader; son of Anna Leonowens
* Joanna Lumley - Actress
* Diana Rigg - Actress.
* Gabrielle Anwar - Actress.
* Rhona Mitra - Actress.
* Nicollette Sheridan - Actress.
* Engelbert Humperdinck (singer) - Singer.
* Bryan Ferry - Singer.
* Cliff Richard - Singer.
* Frank Anthony, lawyer, Anglo-Indian activist, prominent politician, educationist, Indian representative at the United Nations, author of "Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo-Indian Community, Simon Wallenberg Press London"
* Anand Satyanand - Governor General of New Zealand.
* Roger Binny, former Indian cricketer
* Ruskin Bond, author and journalist
* Leslie Claudius, field hockey player, won 4 Olympic Medals from 1948-1960 (3 gold, 1 silver).
* Patience Cooper, Indian film actress.
* Henry Derozio, 1809-1831, much noted Calcutta poet, author of "Harp of India".
* Noel Jones, British ambassador.
* John Mayer (composer), violinist, composer and teacher. Put together the Indo-Jazz Fusions double quartet in 1967.
* Anthony de Mello, founder of the Board of Control for Cricket in India.
* Merle Oberon, actress, born in India and famous in Hollywood.
* Russell Peters, Anglo-Indian Canadian comedian.
* Peter Sarstedt, Pop singer-songwriter.
* Stephen Hector Taylor-Smith, pioneer of "Rocket Mail" in India, and immortalised by a postage stamp.
* Allan Sealy, Novelist
* Denzil Keelor, IAF hero in 1971 War with Pakistan
* Shanti Sen, Business lady
* Trevor Keelor, IAF hero in 1971 War with Pakistan
* Glen Duncan, author
* Jules Faife, World Music guitarist
* Helen Richardson Khan, Bollywood-actress
* S.L.J Gallyot, Former Assistant Director FERA.
* Roger MaGee, Indian hockey player. Represented India in the Asian Games
* Katrina Kaif, Bollywood Actress
* Nerina Pallot, Platinum selling singer and songwriter. [ [http://www.anglo-indians.com/main.asp Anglo-Indians.com ] ]

ee also

*Indian British, citizens of the United Kingdom who are ethnically Indian
*Burgher people, Sri Lankan people of partly European ancestry
*Eurasian (mixed ancestry)
*The Anglo-Indian Heritage Centre website

Notes

External links

* http://www.anglo-indians.com. A site on Anglo-Indians compiled by Withbert Payne, an Anglo-Indian who attends the routine Anglo-Indian Reunions held worldwide.
* [http://www.angloindians.com/ Anglo-Indian history, Bible study, Brides, Grooms]
* [http://www.geocities.com/deefholt/childrenraj.html Children of the Raj]
* [http://www.anglo-indianrecipes.com. Bridget White-Kumar Anglo-Indian Cuisine]
* [http://www.blairrw.org/ctr/index.php Helping Anglo-Indians in India]
* [http://www.scatteredseeds.co.uk/ Scattered Seeds: The Diaspora of the Anglo-Indians... an exploration through history, identity and photography]
* http;//anglo-indianfood.blogspot.com Authentic Anglo-Indian recipes

Books

*Anthony F "Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story Of The Anglo Indian Community" Simon Wallenberg Press, Amazon Books.
*Dady D S "Scattered Seeds: The Diaspora of the Anglo-Indians" Pagoda Press
*Gabb A "1600-1947 Anglo-Indian Legacy"
*Hawes C "Poor Relations: The Making of a Eurasian Community "
*Moore G J "The Anglo Indian Vision"
*Stark H A "Hostages To India: Or The Life Story of the Anglo Indian Race" Simon Wallenberg Press.
*Maher, Reginald "These Are The Anglo-Indians" - (An Anglo-Indian Heritage Book) Simon Wallenberg Press
*Phillips Z "The Anglo-Indian Australian Story: My Experience. A collection of Anglo-Indian Migration Heritage Stories"Flavours of the Past- Classic Colonial Cuisine - Bridget WhiteThe Best of Anglo-Indian Cuisine - A Legacy - Bridget WhiteAnglo-Indian Delicacies - Bridget WhiteA Collection of Anglo-Indian Roasts, Casseroles and Bakes - Bridget WhiteThe Anglo-Indian Festive Hamper - Bridget White


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