Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes


Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes

This Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes includes unmanned spacecraft including technology demonstrators, observatories, lunar probes, and interplanetary probes. First satellites from each country are included. Not inclued are earth science satellites, commercial satellites or manned missions.

__TOC__

Key: Year - Origin - Target - Status - Description

1950s

* 1957 - flag|Soviet Union - Earth - Success - "Sputnik 1" is launched, the first Earth orbiting satellite
* 1957 - flag|Soviet Union - Earth - Partial success - Sputnik 2 is launched, the first Earth orbiting satellite with an animal (Laika)
* 1958 - flag|USA - Earth - Success - Explorer 1
* 1958 - flag|USA - Moon - Failure - Pioneer 1 orbiter
* 1958 - flag|USA - Moon - Failure - Pioneer 3 flyby
* 1959 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 1 flyby launched, it discovered solar wind
* 1959 - flag|USA - Moon - Partial success - Pioneer 4 flyby
* 1959 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 2 impactor launched, it was the first spacecraft to impact onto the surface of the moon
* 1959 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 3 flyby launched, it returned the first image of the Moon's hidden side

1960s

* 1960 - flag|USA - Sun - Pioneer 5 solar monitor
* 1960 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Mars 1960A probe
* 1960 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Mars 1960B probe
* 1961 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Failure - 1VA (proto-Venera) flyby
* 1961 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Failure - Venera 1 flyby
* 1961 - flag|USA - Earth - Success - OSCAR1 First Amateur Satellite
* 1962 - flag|USA - Venus - Success - Mariner 2 launched and became the first satellite to return data about Venus
* 1962 - flag|USA - Earth - Success - Telstar 1 is launched
* 1962 - flag|Canada|1957 - Earth - Success - Alouette 1 is launched, the first Canadian satellite, first satellite launched by a country other than the United States or Soviet Union.
* 1962 - flag|UK - Earth - Success - Ariel 1, launched in US rocket, first UK satellite
* 1962 - flag|USA - Moon - Failure - Ranger 3 photographic mission
* 1962 - flag|USA - Moon - Partial Failure - Ranger 4 photographic mission (impacted lunar surface)
* 1962 - flag|USA - Moon - Partial Failure - Ranger 5 photographic mission (became flyby)
* 1962 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Mars 1962A flyby
* 1962 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Mars 1 flyby
* 1962 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Mars 1962B lander
* 1963 - flag|USA - Earth - Failure - Syncom 1 is launched
* 1963 - flag|USA - Earth - Success - Syncom 2 is launched; the first geosynchronous orbit
* 1963 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Partial Failure - Luna 4 lander (became probe)
* 1964 - flag|USA - Earth - Success - Syncom 3 is launched; the first geostationary orbit
* 1964 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Failure - Zond 1 flyby
* 1964 - flag|USA - Moon - Failure - Ranger 6 photographic mission
* 1964 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Ranger 7 photographic mission
* 1964 - flag|USA - Mars - Failure - Mariner 3 flyby
* 1964 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Mariner 4 flyby, the first successful Mars mission
* 1964 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Zond 2 flyby
* 1965 - flag|USA - Sun - Success - Pioneer 6 solar probe
* 1965 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Failure - Venera 2 flyby
* 1965 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Failure - Venera 3 atmospheric probe
* 1965 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Ranger 8 photographic mission
* 1965 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Ranger 9 photographic mission
* 1965 - flag|Canada - Earth - Success - Alouette 2 is launched aboard a U.S. rocket
* 1965 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Failure - Luna 5 lander
* 1965 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Failure - Luna 6 lander
* 1965 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Zond 3 flyby
* 1965 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Failure - Luna 7 lander
* 1965 - flag|France - Satellite - Success - Astérix satellite, launched in US rocket, first French satellite
* 1965 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Failure - Luna 8 lander
* 1965 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Mariner 4 sends the first clear pictures of Mars
* 1966 - flag|USA - Sun - Success - Pioneer 7 solar probe
* 1966 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 9 lander returned the first photographs from the surface of the Moon
* 1966 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 10 becomes the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon
* 1966 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Surveyor 1 lander
* 1966 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Lunar Orbiter 1 orbiter
* 1966 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 11 orbiter
* 1966 - flag|USA - Moon - Failure - Surveyor 2
* 1966 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 12 orbiter
* 1966 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Lunar Orbiter 2 orbiter
* 1966 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 13 lander
* 1967 - flag|Australia - Earth - Success - WRESAT is launched from Woomera on a U.S. Redstone rocket, the first Australian satellite
* 1967 - flag|USA - Sun - Success - Pioneer 8 solar probe
* 1967 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 4 sends the first data from below the clouds of Venus
* 1967 - flag|USA - Venus - Success - Mariner 5 flyby
* 1967 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Lunar Orbiter 3 orbiter
* 1967 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Surveyor 2 lander
* 1967 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Lunar Orbiter 4 orbiter
* 1967 - flag|USA - Moon - Failure - Surveyor 3 lander
* 1967 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Explorer 35 orbiter
* 1967 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Lunar Orbiter 5 orbiter
* 1967 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Surveyor 5 lander
* 1967 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Surveyor 6 lander, also took off from the Moon's surface
* 1967 - flag|USA - Success - The OSO-3 gamma-ray satellite discovers gamma-ray emission from the plane of the Milky Way
* 1968 - flag|USA - Sun - Success - Pioneer 9 solar probe
* 1968 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Surveyor 7 lander
* 1968 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 14 orbiter
* 1968 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Zond 5 flyby
* 1968 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Zond 6 flyby
* 1969 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 5 atmospheric probe
* 1969 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 6 atmospheric probe
* 1969 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Failure - Luna 15 lander
* 1969 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Zond 7 flyby
* 1969 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Mariner 6 flyby
* 1969 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Mariner 7 flyby

1970s

* 1970 - flag|Japan - Earth - Success - Osumi the first Japanese satellite
* 1970 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 7, the first successful landing of a spacecraft on another planet
* 1970 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 16 lander is the first automated return of samples from the Moon
* 1970 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Zond 8 flyby
* 1970 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 lander/rover is the first automated surface exploration of the Moon
* 1970 - flag|USA - Success - Launch of Uhuru, the first dedicated X-ray satellite
* 1970 - flag|China - Success - Launch of Dong Fang Hong I, the first Chinese satellite
* 1971 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Failure - Luna 18 lander
* 1971 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 19 orbiter
* 1971 - flag|USA - Mars - Failure - Mariner 8 flyby
* 1971 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Cosmos 419 probe
* 1971 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Partial Failure - Mars 2 orbiter and lander, created the first human artifact on Mars
* 1971 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Partial Success - Mars 3 orbiter and lander, first successful landing on Mars
* 1971 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Mariner 9 orbiter, first pictures of Mars' moons (Phobos and Deimos) taken
* 1971 - flag|UK - Earth - Success - Prospero X-3 satellite, first and only satellite launched by Britain using a British rocket
* 1972 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 8 lander
* 1972 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 20 lander
* 1972 - Success - Launch of the Copernicus ultraviolet satellite
* 1972 - flag|USA - Sun - Success - Explorer 49 solar probe
* 1973 - flag|USA - Venus/Mercury - Success - Mariner 10 launched, it passed by and photographed Mercury, also was the first dual planet probe
* 1973 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 lander/rover
* 1973 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Mars 4 orbiter
* 1973 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Success - Mars 5 orbiter
* 1973 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Mars 6 orbiter and lander
* 1973 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Mars 7 orbiter and lander
* 1974 - flag|West Germany - Sun - Success - Helios 1 solar probe
* 1974 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 22 orbiter
* 1974 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Failure - Luna 23 probe
* 1974 - Success - Launch of the Ariel V X-ray satellite
* 1975 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 9 returns the first pictures of the surface of Venus
* 1975 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 10 orbiter and lander
* 1975 - flag|USA - Mars - Partial Success - Viking 1 orbiter and lander; lands on Mars 1976
* 1975 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Viking 2 orbiter and lander; lands on Mars 1976
* 1975 - flag|India - Earth - Success - Aryabhata India, launched by USSR
* 1975 - flag|India - India's first rocket SLV launched
* 1976 - flag|West Germany - Sun - Success - Helios 2 solar probe
* 1976 - flag|Soviet Union - Moon - Success - Luna 24 lander
* 1976 - Earth - Success - Hermes Communications Technology Satellite prototype for testing direct broadcast TV
* 1976 - Success - The Vela and ANS X-ray satellites discover X-ray bursts
* 1976 - Success - The OSO-8 X-ray satellite shows that X-ray bursts have blackbody spectra
* 1977 - Success - Launch of the HEAO-1 X-ray satellite
* 1978 - flag|USA - Venus - Success - Pioneer Venus 1 orbiter
* 1978 - flag|USA - Venus - Success - Pioneer Venus 2 atmospheric probe
* 1978 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Partial Success - Venera 11 flyby and lander
* 1978 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 12 flyby and lander
* 1978 - Success - Launch of the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite
* 1978 - Success - Launch of the Einstein X-ray satellite (HEAO-2) is the first X-ray photographs of astronomical objects
* 1979 - Success - Launch of the Hakucho X-ray satellite
* 1979 - Success - Launch of the Ariel VI cosmic-ray and X-ray satellite
* 1979 - flag|USA - Jupiter - Success - Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 send back images of Jupiter and its system

1980s

* 1980 - flag|USA - Sun - Failure- Solar Maximum Mission solar probe succeeded after being repaired in Earth orbit
* 1981 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 13 launched, it returned the first colour pictures of the surface of Venus
* 1981 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 14 flyby and lander
* 1983 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 15 orbiter
* 1983 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus - Success - Venera 16 orbiter
* 1983 - Success - Launch of the EXOSAT X-ray satellite
* 1983 - Success - Launch of the Tenma X-ray satellite (ASTRO-B)
* 1983 - Success - Launch of the IRAS satellite
* 1984 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus/Halley's Comet - Success - Vega 1 flyby, atmospheric probe and lander
* 1984 - flag|Soviet Union - Venus/Halley's Comet - Success - Vega 2 flyby, atmospheric probe and lander
* 1986 - flag|Europe - Halley's Comet - Success - Giotto flyby
* 1987 - Success - Launch of the Ginga X-ray satellite (ASTRO-C)
* 1988 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Failure - Phobos 1 orbiter and lander
* 1988 - flag|Soviet Union - Mars - Partial Failure - Phobos 2 flyby and lander
* 1989 - Venus - Success - Magellan orbiter launched which mapped 99 percent of the surface of Venus (300 m resolution)
* 1989 - flag|USA - Venus/Earth/Moon/Gaspra/Ida/Jupiter - Success - Galileo flyby, orbiter and atmospheric probe
* 1989 - flag|USA - Neptune - Success - Voyager 2 sends back images of Neptune and its system
* 1989 - Success - Launch of the Granat gamma-ray and X-ray satellite
* 1989 - flag|Europe - Success - Launch of the Hipparcos satellite
* 1989 - Success - Launch of the COBE satellite

1990s

* 1990 - flag|USA - Sun - Success - Ulysses solar flyby
* 1990 - flag|Japan - Moon - - MUSES-A probe, this was the first non-U.S. or USSR probe to reach the Moon
* 1990 - flag|USA/flag|Europe - Success - Launch of the Hubble Space Telescope
* 1990 - flag|Germany - Success - Launch of the ROSAT X-ray satellite is the first imaging X-ray sky survey
* 1991 - flag|Japan - Sun - Success - Yohkoh solar probe
* 1991 - flag|USA - Success - Launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory satellite
* 1992 - flag|USA - Mars - Failure - Mars Observer orbiter
* 1993 - flag|Japan - Success - Launch of the ASCA (ASTRO-D) X-ray satellite
* 1994 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Clementine orbiter mapped the surface of the Moon (resolution 125-150m) and allowed the first accurate relief map of the Moon to be generated
* 1995 - flag|USA - Sun - Success - SOHO solar probe
* 1996 - flag|USA - Mars - Mars Global Surveyor orbiter
* 1996 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner lander/rover, the first automated surface exploration another planet
* 1996 - flag|Russia - Mars - Failure - Mars 96 orbiter and lander
* 1997 - flag|USA/Europe - Success - Saturn and Titan - Cassini-Huygens - arrived in orbit on July 1, 2004, landed on Titan January 14, 2005
* 1998 - flag|North Korea - Unknown - Claimed launch of Kwangmyongsong by North Korea though no independent source was able to verify its existence
* 1998 - flag|USA - Moon - Success - Lunar Prospector orbiter
* 1998 - flag|Japan - Mars - Failure - Nozomi (Planet B) orbiter, the first Japanese spacecraft to reach another planet
* 1998 - flag|USA - Mars - Failure - Mars Climate Orbiter
* 1999 - flag|USA - Mars - Failure - Mars Polar Lander
* 1999 - flag|USA - Mars - Failure - Deep Space 2 (DS2) penetrators

2000s

* 2001 - flag|USA - Sun - Partial Success - Genesis solar wind sample return - crash-landed on return
* 2001 - flag|USA - Success - Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) performs cosmological observations.
* 2001 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Mars Odyssey
* 2003 - flag|Canada - Earth - Success - MOST the smallest space telescope in orbit
* 2003 - flag|USA - Comet Encke - Failure - CONTOUR launched, but lost during early trajectory insertion.
* 2003 - flag|Europe - Moon - Success - Smart 1 orbiter
* 2003 - flag|Europe - Mars - Partial Success - Mars Express orbiter (successfully reached orbit) and failed lander, the Beagle 2
* 2003 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Mars Exploration Rovers - successful launches, Spirit successfully landed, Opportunity successfully landed
* 2004 - flag|Europe - Comet 67P - Rosetta space probe launched - yet to arrive
* 2004 - flag|USA - Mercury - MESSENGER orbiter - launched - yet to arrive
* 2004 - flag|USA - Success - Launch of the Swift Gamma ray burst observatory.
* 2005 - flag|Iran - Earth - Sinah-1 - launched, first Iranian-built satellite
* 2005 - flag|USA - Comet Tempel 1 - Deep Impact - successful comet impact
* 2005 - flag|USA - Mars - Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter - in orbit
* 2005 - flag|Europe - Venus - Venus Express - in orbit
* 2006 - flag|USA - Pluto - New Horizons - launched - yet to arrive
* 2006 - flag|France/ESA - Earth - COROT - launched, telescope to search for extrasolar planets
* 2007 - flag|USA - Mars - Success - Phoenix - launched and successfully landed
* 2007 - flag|Japan - Moon - SELENE orbiter and lander - in lunar orbit since October 3, 2007
* 2007 - flag|USA - Vesta/Ceres- Dawn - launched - yet to arrive
* 2007 - flag|China - Moon - Chang'e-I - in lunar orbit since November 5, 2007

ee also

*Timeline of planetary exploration
*Landings on other planets
*List of space exploration milestones, 1957-1969

External links

*http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/index.cfm
* [http://www.unmannedspaceflight.com Unmanned spaceflight discussion forum]


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