- Margrethe II of Denmark
Margrethe II Queen of Denmark Reign 14 January 1972 – present Predecessor Frederick IX Heir apparent Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark Prime Ministers Spouse Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark (1967–present) Crown Prince Frederik
Full name Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid House House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg  Father Frederik IX of Denmark Mother Ingrid of Sweden Born 16 April 1940
Amalienborg Palace, Denmark
Religion Lutheranism Monarchical styles of
Queen Margrethe II of Denmark
Reference style Her Majesty Spoken style Your Majesty Alternative style Ma'am
Margrethe II (Danish pronunciation: [mɑˈg̊ʁæːˀd̥ə]; Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid) (born 16 April 1940) is the Queen regnant of the Kingdom of Denmark. In 1972 she became the first female monarch of Denmark since Margaret I, ruler of the Scandinavian countries in 1375-1412 during the Kalmar Union.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Heiress presumptive
- 3 Education and marriage
- 4 Reign
- 5 Constitutional role
- 6 Personal life and interests
- 7 Honours and decorations
- 8 Symbols of Margrethe II
- 9 Family
- 10 Ancestry
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
She was baptised on 14 May 1940 in the Church of Holmen. The princess's godparents were King Christian X of Denmark, Prince Knud of Denmark, Prince Axel of Denmark, King Gustaf V of Sweden, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden and Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.
Since her paternal grandfather, the then-reigning King Christian X, was also the King of Iceland at the time, and Margrethe until 1944 was an Icelandic princess, the Princess was as a tribute to the people of Iceland given an Icelandic name, Þórhildur, consisting of "Thor" and the word for "battle" or "fight". The name is spelled with the thorn letter, which is a surviving rune, and is equivalent to "th". It is sometimes anglicized as Thorhildur.
In mid-1960, together with the Princesses of Sweden and Norway, she traveled to the United States, which included a visit to Los Angeles, California, and to the Paramount Studios, where they were met by several celebrities, including Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis and Elvis Presley.
At the time of her birth, only males could ascend the throne of Denmark, owing to the changes in succession laws enacted in the 1850s when the Glücksburg branch was chosen to succeed. As she had no brothers, it was assumed that her uncle Prince Knud would one day assume the throne.
The process of changing the constitution started in 1947, not long after her father ascended the throne as Frederick IX and it became clear that Queen Ingrid would have no more children. The popularity of Frederik and his daughters and the more prominent role of women in Danish life started the complicated process of altering the constitution. That proposal had to be passed by two Parliaments in succession and then by a referendum, which was held on 27 March 1953. The new Act of Succession permitted female succession to the throne of Denmark, according to male-preference primogeniture, where a female can ascend to the throne only if she does not have a brother. Princess Margrethe therefore became the Heiress Presumptive.
On her eighteenth birthday, 16 April 1958, the Heiress Presumptive was given a seat in the Council of State, and the Princess subsequently chaired the meetings of the Council in the absence of the King.
Education and marriage
She studied prehistoric archaeology at Girton College, Cambridge during 1960–61, political science at Aarhus University between 1961–1962, at the Sorbonne in 1963, and at the London School of Economics in 1965, and is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London.
On 10 June 1967, Crown Princess Margrethe of Denmark married a French diplomat, Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, at the Naval Church of Copenhagen. Laborde de Monpezat received the style and title of "His Royal Highness Prince Henrik of Denmark" because of his new position as the spouse of the Heiress Presumptive to the Danish throne.
Queen Margrethe is fluent in her native tongue, Danish; the native tongue of her husband, French; as well as English, Swedish and German.
Her father King Frederik IX died on 14 January 1972. On the occasion of her accession to the throne, Queen Margrethe II became the first female Danish Sovereign under the new Act of Succession. She was proclaimed Queen from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace Square by Prime Minister Jens Otto Krag on 15 January 1972. The Queen chose the motto: God's help, the love of The People, Denmark's strength.
In 2008 the Queen announced that her male-line descendants would bear the additional title of Count of Monpezat, which they inherit from the Queen's husband and consort, Henri-Marie-Jean André Count de Laborde de Monpezat.
After an election where the incumbent Prime Minister does not have a majority behind him, a “Dronningerunde” (Queen's meeting) between the chairmen of each of the Danish political parties attends a meeting with the monarch.
Each party has the choice of selecting a Royal Investigator to lead these negotiations or alternatively, give the incumbent Prime Minister the mandate to continue his government as is.
In theory each party could choose its own leader as Royal Investigator, the globalistic party Det Radikale Venstre did so in 2006, but often only one Royal Investigator is chosen plus the Prime Minister, before each election.
The leader who, at that meeting succeeds in securing a majority of the seats in the Folketing, is by royal decree charged with the task of forming a new government. (It has never happened in more modern history that any party has held a majority on its own.)
Danish Royal Family
HM The Queen
HRH The Prince Consort
- HRH The Crown Prince
HRH The Crown Princess
- HRH Prince Joachim
HRH Princess Marie
Once the government has been formed, it is formally appointed by the Queen. Officially, it is the Queen who is the head of government, and she therefore presides over the Council of State, where the acts of legislation which have been passed by the parliament are signed into law. In practice, however, nearly all of the Queen's formal powers are exercised by the Council of State, and she is required by convention to act on its advice.
The Queen's main tasks are to represent the Kingdom abroad and to be a unifying figurehead at home. The queen performs the latter task by accepting invitations to open exhibitions, attending anniversaries, inaugurating bridges, etc. As an unelected public official, the Queen takes no part in party politics and does not express any political opinions. Although she has the right to vote, she opts not to do so to avoid even the appearance of partisanship.
In addition to her roles in her own country, the queen is also the Colonel-in-Chief of the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment (Queen's and Royal Hampshires), an infantry regiment of the British Army, following a tradition in her family.
Personal life and interests
The official residences of the Queen and the Prince Consort are Amalienborg Palace and Fredensborg Palace in Copenhagen. Their summer residence is Gravenstein Castle near Sønderborg, the former home of the Queen's mother, Queen Ingrid, who died in 2000.
The Queen is an accomplished painter, and has held many art shows over the years . Her illustrations—under the pseudonym Ingahild Grathmer—were used for the Danish edition of The Lord of the Rings published in 1977 and the re-issue in 2002. She is also an accomplished translator and is said to have participated in the Danish translation of The Lord of the Rings. She is also a costume designer and designs some of her own clothes.
Margrethe is a chain smoker, and she is famous for her tobacco habit.. However, on 23 November 2006 the Danish newspaper B.T. reported an announcement from the Royal Court stating that the queen would never again be seen smoking in public. Still, the queen does continue to smoke but in the future she will do so only privately. The announcement is probably due to the fact that the Danish parliament recently has decided on strict rules concerning smoking.
She suffers from arthritis and has had both her knees replaced as a result.
A statement in a 2005 authorized biography about the Queen (entitled Margrethe) focused on her views of Islam: "We are being challenged by Islam these years. Globally as well as locally. There is something impressive about people for whom religion imbues their existence, from dusk to dawn, from cradle to grave. There are also Christians who feel this way. There is something endearing about people who give themselves up completely to their faith. But there is likewise something frightening about such a totality, which also is a feature of Islam. A counterbalance has to be found, and one has to, at times, run the risk of having unflattering labels placed on you. For there are some things for which one should display no tolerance. And when we are tolerant, we must know whether it is because of convenience or conviction."
Honours and decorations
- Order of the Elephant
- Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog
- One hundred anniversary Commemorative Medal of King Frederik IX's birth
- One hundred anniversary Commemorative Medal of King Christian X's birth
- Queen Ingrid's Commemorative Medal
- Commemorative Medal for the 50-year anniversary of Her Majesty Queen Ingrid's arrival in Denmark
- Home Guard fortjensttegn
- Home Guard 25-year mark
- Civil Defense League glory sign
- Danish Reserve Officers Association Medal
- Argentina: Grand Cross of the Order of the Liberator San Martin
- Austria: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (Belgium)
- Brazil: Grand Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross
- Bulgaria: Grand Cross with Cordon of the Order of the Stara Planina
- Chile: Collar of the Order of the Merit of Chile
- Commonwealth realms: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
- Estonia: Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
- United Arab Emirates: Collar of the Order of Al Kamal
- Egypt: Collar of the Order of the Nile
- England: Stranger Lady of the Order of the Garter
- Finland: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the White Rose
- France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
- Germany: Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Greece: Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer
- Greece: Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Olga and Sophia
- Iceland: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Falcon
- Iran: Order of the Pleiades, 2nd Class
- Italy: Dame Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Japan: Order of the Precious Crown, 1st Class
- Japan: Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
- Jordan: Collar of the Order of the Star of Jordan
- Yugoslavia: Grand Cross of the Order of the Yugoslav Star
- Latvia: Commander of the Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Three Stars
- Lithuania: Grand Cross of the Order of Vytautas the Great
- Luxembourg: Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau
- Morocco: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Nepal: Order of Pratap Bhasker, 1st Class
- Norway: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of St. Olav
- Poland: Knight of the Order of the White Eagle
- Poland: Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
- Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry
- Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Saint James of the Sword
- Romania: Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania
- Saudi Arabia: Collar of the Order of Abdulaziz al Saud
- Slovenia: Golden Order of Freedom of the Republic of Slovenia
- Spain: Lady of the Order of the Golden Fleece
- Spain: Dame Collar of the Order of Charles III
- Sweden: Member of the Order of the Seraphim
- South Africa: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Good Hope
- Thailand: Dame of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri
- Thailand: Dame of the Order of the Rajamitrabhorn
Symbols of Margrethe II
The Queen and The Prince Consort have two children and seven grandchildren:
- His Royal Highness Frederik André Henrik Christian, Crown Prince of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, born on 26 May 1968. He was married on 14 May 2004 to Mary Elizabeth Donaldson, who was born on 5 February 1972. They have four children:
- His Royal Highness Prince Christian Valdemar Henri John of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, born on 15 October 2005.
- Her Royal Highness Princess Isabella Henrietta Ingrid Margrethe of Denmark, Countess of Monpezat, born on 21 April 2007.
- His Royal Highness Prince Vincent Frederik Minik Alexander of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, born on 8 January 2011.
- Her Royal Highness Princess Josephine Sophia Ivalo Mathilda of Denmark, Countess of Monpezat, born on 8 January 2011.
- His Royal Highness Prince Joachim Holger Waldemar Christian of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, born on 7 June 1969. He was married on 18 November 1995 to Alexandra Christina Manley, who was born on 30 June 1964. They divorced on 8 April 2005. He was married on 24 May 2008 to Marie Agathe Odile Cavallier, who was born on 6 February 1976. He has three sons:
- His Highness Prince Nikolai William Alexander Frederik of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, born on 28 August 1999.
- His Highness Prince Felix Henrik Valdemar Christian of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, born on 22 July 2002.
- His Highness Prince Henrik Carl Joachim Alain of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, born on 4 May 2009.
Margrethe's patriline is the line from which she is descended father to son. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations—which means that if Margrethe II were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Oldenburg.
- Egilmar I of Lerigau, dates unknown
- Egilmar II of Lerigau, d. 1142
- Christian I of Oldenburg, d. 1167
- Moritz of Oldenburg, d. 1209
- Christian II of Oldenburg, d. 1233
- John I, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1275
- Christian III, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1285
- John II, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1314
- Conrad I, Count of Oldenburg, 1300–1347
- Christian V, Count of Oldenburg, 1340–1423
- Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg, 1398–1440
- Christian I of Denmark, 1426–1481
- Frederick I of Denmark, 1471–1533
- Christian III of Denmark, 1503–1559
- John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, 1545–1622
- Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, 1573–1627
- August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1612–1675
- Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1653–1728
- Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1696–1775
- Prince Karl Anton August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1727–1759
- Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1757–1816
- Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, 1785–1831
- Christian IX of Denmark, 1818–1906
- Frederick VIII of Denmark, 1843–1912
- Christian X of Denmark, 1870–1947
- Frederick IX of Denmark, 1899–1972
- Margrethe II of Denmark, b. 1940
- List of national leaders
- List of current sovereign monarchs
- ^ Maclagan, M & Louda, J., Lines of Succession, London, Orbis Publishing, 1981 Tables 20 and 22
- ^ "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May -- One Day -- Ascend a Throne," New York Times. 14 November 1971.
- ^ "The Danish Monarchy". http://kongehuset.dk/publish.php?dogtag=k_en_fam_oue. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- ^ "The Danish Monarchy". http://kongehuset.dk/publish.php?dogtag=k_en_fam_oue. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Laborde_de_Monpezat#Danish_titles
- ^ Margrethe and Henrik Biography
- ^ The Danish Monarchy Website - Queen's fact page
- ^ Margrethe and Henrik Biography
- ^ BBC News
- ^ bt.dk
- ^ telegraph.co.uk
Margrethe IICadet branch of the House of OldenburgBorn: 16 April 1940
- The Queen's Homepage
- The Official Website of The Danish Monarchy
- The Ancestry of Henri de Laborde de Monpezat
- Margrethe II of Denmark at Genealogics
- Illustrations - Lord of the Rings
Regnal titles Preceded by
Queen of Denmark
British royalty Preceded by
Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg
Line of succession to the British throne Succeeded by
Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark
Monarchs of Denmark Early monarchsc.916–1412(Harthacnut) · Gorm the Old · Harald Bluetooth · Sweyn Forkbeard1 · Harald II · Cnut the Great1 · Harthacanute1 · Magnus the Good · Sweyn II · Harald III · Canute the Saint · Olaf I · Eric Evergood · Niels · Eric the Memorable · Eric Lamb · Sweyn Grathe / Canute V / Valdemar the Great · Canute VI · Valdemar the Victorious / Valdemar the Young · Eric Plough-tax · Abel · Christopher I · Eric Klipping · Eric Menved · Christopher II · Valdemar III · Christopher II · Interregnum · Valdemar Atterdag · Olaf II · Margaret I2 Palatinate-Neumarkt1397–1448 Oldenburg1448–1863 Schleswig-Holstein-
1st generation 2nd generationLouise, Princess Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe · Ingeborg, Duchess of Västergötland · Princess Thyra · Princess Dagmar, Mrs. Jørgen Castenskiold · Alexandra, Grand Duchess Paul Alexandrovich of Russia* · Maria Grand Duchess George Mikhailovich of Russia* · Princess Olga* · Margaret, Princess René of Parma 3rd generationFeodora, Princess Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe · Caroline-Mathilde, Princess Knud of Denmark · Alexandrine-Louise, Countess Luitpold of Castell-Castell · Helen, Queen of Romania* · Irene, Queen of Croatia and Duchess of Aosta* · Lady Katherine Brandram* · Eugénie, Duchess of Castel Duino* · Olga, Princess Paul of Yugoslavia* · Elizabeth, Countess of Toerring-Jettenbach* · Marina, Duchess of Kent* · Margarita, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg* · Theodora, Margravine of Baden* · Cecilie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine* · Sophie, Princess George William of Hanover* 4th generationMargrethe II · Benedikte, Princess of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg · Anne-Marie, Queen of the Hellenes · Princess Elisabeth · Alexandra, Queen of Yugoslavia* · Sofía, Queen of Spain* · Princess Irene* 5th generation 6th generationPrincess Isabella · Princess Josephine · Princess Maria-Olympia** also a princess of Greece Heads of state of the European Union member states
- Fischer (AT)
- Albert II (BE)
- Parvanov (BG)
- Christofias (CY)
- Klaus (CZ)
- Margrethe II (DK)
- Ilves (EE)
- Halonen (FI)
- Sarkozy (FR)
- Wulff (DE)
- Papoulias (GR)
- Schmitt (HU)
- Higgins (IE)
- Napolitano (IT)
- Bērziņš (LV)
- Grybauskaitė (LT)
- Henri (LU)
- Abela (MT)
- Beatrix (NL)
- Komorowski (PL)
- Cavaco Silva (PT)
- Băsescu (RO)
- Gašparovič (SK)
- Türk (SI)
- Juan Carlos I (ES)
- Carl XVI Gustaf (SE)
- Elizabeth II (UK)
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